Elberfeld, a city of Rhenish Prussia, on the Wupper, a branch of the Rhine, in the district and 16 m. E. N. E. of the city of Dussel-dorf, with which it is connected by the Ber-gisch-Markische railway; pop. in 1871, 73,394. The town of Barmen adjoins it on the east, and the two towns taken together form one of the most important manufacturing centres of Germany. The number of looms in Elberfeld employed in the cotton manufacture in 1871 was estimated at 6,000, and the value of the products at $13,000,000. There are besides large manufactories of silks, ribbons, carpets, carriage and furniture stuffs, buttons, machinery, etc. The establishments for dyeing are particularly celebrated. The railway has its principal office here, and every year extends its connections. A large amount of business is transacted at the two fairs which are held here annually. The finest public buildings are the council house, the court house, the new post office, the railway station, the casino, the hospital, and the orphan asylum. It is the seat of a mercantile and other courts; has a gymnasium, and numerous schools, including one for teaching the management of the Jacquard loom and pattern drawing. Elberfeld is the centre of the Protestant Bible and missionary societies.

It was originally settled in 1527 by refugees from the Netherlands, and of late years has increased in importance from the adoption of improvements in spinning. Though the town is mainly of recent origin, it is irregularly built, but the number of handsome private residences is increasing. West of the town is a hill called the Haardt, on which stands a round tower commanding a fine view of the valley of the Wupper; it is surrounded by a handsome park.