Erlangen, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Middle Franconia, on the river Regnitz, the railway from Bamberg to Nuremberg, and the Ludwig's canal, 11 m. 1ST. N. W. of Nuremberg; pop. in 1871, 12,511. It has a university, opened in 1743, which is the only Protestant institution of the kind in Bavaria. It was attended in 1873-'4 by 445 students, and has faculties of theology, medicine, etc, a museum of natural history, a botanic garden, and a library of about 120,000 volumes. There are an insane asylum, a Protestant gymnasium, and other schools. Erlangen is renowned among German towns for its pleasant and cheerful appearance. It is divided into an old and a new town. The latter is well built, and owes its origin chiefly to French Huguenots, to whom it was assigned as a residence by Margrave Christian Ernest in 1686, after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. In remembrance of this prince, the new town is frequently called Christian Erlangen. The town has manufactories of hosiery and gloves, and many breweries.
A monument, designed by Schwantha-ler, in honor of Margrave Frederick of Baireuth, adorns the public square.