Euboea (Ital. Negroponte; Turk. Fgripo), an island of Greece, the largest of the archipelago, lying in the AEgean sea, between lat. 37° 57' and 39° 3' N., and Ion. 22° 48' and 24° 35'E.; area, about 1,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 82,541. It is separated from the coasts of Attica, Boeotia, Locris, and Phocis by a channel called Talanti in its northern part, Egripo in its southern, and about midway, where the coasts are only about 200 ft. apart, the strait of Eu-ripus. At this point it is connected with the mainland by a bridge. On the north the channel of Trikeri separates it from the coast of Thessaly, and on the south the channel of Doro from the island of Andros. Eubcea is long and narrow, being about 100 m. in length, and varying from 6 to 30 m. in breadth. The E. coast is rocky, irregular, and destitute of harbors. The rocks, which rise almost precipitously from the water, are seldom interrupted by open places, excepting at the N. end. The W. coast has several good harbors. A range of mountains runs through the entire length of the island, culminating in the peak of Delphi, near the middle of the chain, which is 5,730 ft. high. Mt. Kandili, on the W. coast, is 3,967 ft. high; St. Elias, at the S. E. end, 4,840 ft. These peaks are mostly barren.
In some parts the mountains are clothed with luxuriant woods, chiefly pines, oaks, and ilexes, with an undergrowth of flowering shrubs, among which are the arbutus, cys-tus, and oleander. The slopes, which furnish abundant pasturage, are dotted with magnificent trees, and resemble the most beautiful parks in their scenery. There are no rivers, and no streams large enough to admit a boat, but the soil is exuberantly rich and productive. In the north the vine grows luxuriantly, and a red wine of good quality is made in considerable quantities. In the south corn and oil are the principal crops. Fruits also grow in abundance. A number of English and French proprietors, who have settled in the island, have given a favorable impulse to agriculture and done much for the advancement of the people. The principal exports are grain, wine, oil, honey, cheese, cotton, wool, and hides. - The early history of Euboea is involved in obscurity. In historical times it was inhabited by Ionic Greeks, and was divided between six or seven independent cities, of which Chalcis and Ere-tria were the most important.
They had an extensive commerce, and founded colonies in Macedonia, Italy, Sicily, and the islands of the AEgean. After the Persian war the whole island became subject to the Athenians, who regarded it as the most valuable of their foreign possessions, as it furnished them with corn, timber, and firewood, and with pasture for their horses and cattle. After the battle of Cheronaea (338 B. C.) it formed a part of the Macedonian dominions until after the battle of Cynoscephalae (197), when its cities formed alliances with the Romans and recovered their independence; but the island was soon incorporated with the Roman province of Achaia. On the dismemberment of the Byzantine empire it fell to the Venetians, from whom it was wrested in 1470 by the Turks, who held it until the Greek insurrection of 1821. It now forms, with the islands of Skyro, Scopelo, Skiatho, and some others, the nomarchy of Euboea; area, 1,573 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 82,541.