Eumenes, a general of Alexander the Great, and one of his successors, born at Cardia, in the Thracian Chersonese, about 360 B. C, put to death in Gabiene, Elymais, in 316. He attracted the notice of Philip of Macedon, who made him his private secretary, and he held the same office under Alexander. When Alexander married the daughter of Darius, he gave to Eumenes Artonis, daughter of Arta-banus. He was at enmity with Alexander's friend Hephaestion, yet maintained his influence, and was ultimately appointed a commander of the cavalry. After the death of Alexander, he at first took no part in the discussions of the Macedonian generals, knowing their jealousy of his Greek birth; but subsequently he reconciled the opposing parties, and in the division of the satrapies obtained the government of Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus. These provinces had never been conquered, and Antigonus and Leonnatus were appointed to reduce them for him. Antigonus disdained compliance, and Leonnatus went to Greece to carry out plans of personal ambition, having tried to persuade Eumenes to join with him.
Eumenes, however, exposed the schemes of Leonnatus to Perdiccas, and the latter subdued his provinces for him, and gave him the chief command in Asia. Eumenes now subdued Neoptolemus, who had revolted from him, and defended Asia Minor against Craterus in a decisive battle (321), in which the latter fell. Perdiccas having fallen in a revolt of his own troops, a general assembly of the Macedonian army condemned Eumenes to death. Antigonus marched against him, defeated him in Cappadocia (320), and blockaded him in the fortress of Nora. The death of Antipater changed the aspect of parties, and Antigonus sought the alliance of Eumenes; but the latter, having been allowed to leave his mountain fortress, accepted overtures offering him by royal authority the supreme command in Asia. Eluding Antigonus, he joined the army in Cilicia, and to avoid the jealousy of the generals set up in a tent the throne, crown, and sceptre of Alexander, before which the councils of war were held, as though in the presence of the deceased monarch.
He advanced into Phoenicia, but retired before the combined fleet and army of Antigonus, and took up winter quarters in Babylonia. The armies subsequently met on the confines of Gabiene in two pitched battles, with no decisive result; but Eumenes was sold by his own troops to Antigonus, who slew him.