Friedrich List, a German political economist, born in Reutlingen, Aug. 6,1789, died by his own hand in Kufstein, Nov. 30, 1846. He studied political economy, was for two years professor of this and kindred sciences at Tubingen, and officiated as agent of the German commercial union from 1819 to 1821, when he was elected to the Wurtemberg chamber of deputies; but having attacked the government in a petition, he was prevented from taking his seat, and sentenced to ten months' imprisonment. After fruitless attempts to obtain pardon, and after several years' exile, he was eventually imprisoned in the fortress of Asperg, after which he emigrated to the United States, and settled in Pennsylvania. His " Outlines of a new System of Political Economy " was published in Philadelphia in 1827. He became an extensive holder of land, which he made available for cultivation in concert with other capitalists, and also took an active interest in the establishment of railroads. In 1830 he was appointed United States consul at Hamburg; but after a residence in Paris, he came back to Pennsylvania, and finally returned to Europe in 1832, and in 1833 took up his abode at Leipsic, where for some time he officiated as American consul.
In 1837 he went to Paris, whence he wrote a series of letters to the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung, .subsequently collected in a work, the first volume of which was published under the title of Das nationale System der politischen Oekonomie (Stuttgart, 1841). In 1843 he established at Augsburg the Zolhereinsblatt, in which ho proposed the enlargement of the customs union, and the organization of a national commercial system and of a national fleet. In 1844 he visited Austria and Hungary, and in 1846 England with the view of forming a commercial alliance between that country and Germany. He was not successful, and, having lost his property and his health, shot himself. His works have been published with his biography by Hausser (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1850-'51).