Glascow, the chief commercial and manufacturing city of Scotland, in Lanarkshire. on the river Clyde, 21 m. from its mouth, and 41 m. W. S. W. of Edinburgh; lat. 55° 51' 32" N., Ion. 4 17' 54" W.; pop. in 1660, 12.000; in 1765, 23,046; in 1801, 83,769; in 1851, 347.001; in 1861, 395,503; in 1871, of the parliamentary burgh, 477,144, of the whole town, 547,538. The city is about 3 m. long, and lies on both sides of the river, here about 500 ft. wide, which is crossed by two suspension and three stone bridges, below which are several ferries. The site is mostly level, but in the N. and N. W. parts are considerable elevations. The original burgh, which took its rise from the cathedral and the university, is on the N. bank; but the various suburbs are now so closely connected that they can hardly be considered otherwise than as portions of one compact city. The principal streets are parallel with the river, two of the broadest bordering it on either side. There are three public parks : the Green, of 140 acres, on the X. bank of the Clyde, near the E. end of the city; Kelvingrove, of 40 acres, at the W. end; and Queen's park, of 100 acres, on elevated ground at the south. These parks are all handsomely laid out and ornamented.
The streets mostly cross at right angles, are well paved, lighted, and drained, and are adorned with several tine statues. Many of the houses are of white freestone, constructed in flats. There are two theatres, two museums, two public libraries (of 30.000 and 15,000 volumes), asylums for the blind, insane, aged, and deaf and dumb, a university, and 175 churches and chapels. The last named are divided as follows : Free church, 43; Established church, 40; United Presbyterian, 37; Roman Catholic, 12; Independent, 9; Baptist, 7; Episcopal, 5; Reformed Presbyterian, 4; other denominations, 18. A bishopric was erected in Glasgow about 1115; in 1488 it was made an archbishopric. At present it is the seat of a bishop of the Scotch Episcopal church and of a Roman Catholic vicar apostolic. Five daily and 15 weekly newspapers are published. There is a botanic garden of 40 acres in the 1ST. W. part of the city, which is open to the public in summer. The cathedral, said to be the finest Gothic building in Scotland, overlooks the city from the northeast. It was built by David I. about 1133, but was burned in 1192; the present edifice was immediately begun, and was consecrated in 1197, but was not finished until the present century.
Its most celebrated features are the crypt and the profusion of brilliant stained glass. The university was chartered in 1443 by James II., but it had only a feeble existence until 15G0, when Queen Mary bestowed upon it half of the confiscated church property in the city; this endowment has been greatly increased by additional grants from the corporation and the crown. It has a library of 105,000 volumes, founded in 1473, an observatory, and numerous cabinets and collections. The grounds include 22 acres, and the new buildings, finished in 1870, cost £370,000. The number of matriculated students averages 1,200. The university confers degrees in arts, law, medicine, and divinity. The principal public buildings are the royal exchange, the town hall, and Hutcheson's hospital. The city is supplied with water from Loch Katrine, by an aqueduct 26 m. long. - Glasgow was erected into a burgh about 1190, with the privilege of an annual fair. In 155G it ranked eleventh among the towns of Scotland. It is now the fourth exporting city of Great Britain, and the second in wealth and population. Its immense growth, mainly within the present century, is due to its situation in the midst of a rich coal and iron district, and its seaport facilities.
Large sums have been spent in clearing and deepening the channel of the Clyde, including the removal of several islands, and it is now navigable for vessels of 2,000 tons. The quays are 16,-680 ft. in extent. In the 18th century Glasgow was the centre of the tobacco trade of Great Britain, and its merchants also dealt largely in the sugar and other products of the West Indies. Later it entered extensively into brewing, dyeing, and calico printing, and finally into ship building (especially of iron ships), iron casting, and machine making, and the preparation of chemicals. The St. Rollox chemical works, the largest in the world, N. of the cathedral, cover 16 acres, employ more than 1,000 men, and have a chimney 450 ft. high. A still taller chimney (460 ft.) is that of the artificial manure works. In 1871 the number of spindles was 2,000,000, consuming annually 125,000 bales of cotton, and supplying 27,000 power looms. There are large glass works and paper mills, and the turkey-red dyes produced here are famous.
The value of exports in 1871 was £10,049,987, of which £2,223,221 were to the United States; the value of imports was £6,577,575, of which £2,894,273 were from the United States. Glasgow is governed by a lord provost, 8 bailies, and 39 councillors, with the dean of guild from the merchants' and the deacon convener from the trades' house, and returns three members to the house of commons. - The Romans had a station on the Clyde in the locality of the city, and Antoninus's wall commenced a few miles W. of it. Tradition assigns the foundation of Glasgow to St. Kentigern, whom it makes its first bishop, about 500. In 1300 a battle between the Scots under Wallace and the English under Percy was fought in the High street, when Percy was defeated and slain. In 1350, '80, and '81, Glasgow was visited by the plague. About 1542 the regent Arran besieged the earl of Lennox in the bishop's castle, obtained it on promise of terms, and put the garrison to the sword. The same leaders subsequently fought a battle at the Butts in the E. part of the city, when the regent gained the victory and plundered it. In 1500 reformed superintendents superseded Catholic bishops. In 1038 the famous assembly of the Presbyterian church was held here, when episcopacy was abjured.
For several years thereafter the city was a prey to both parties in the civil wars. Fire, plague, plunder, and famine desolated the place. On June 4, 1690, a charter of William and Mary conferred on the townsmen the right of electing their own magistrates. Glasgow was strongly dissatisfied with the union of Scotland and England, but in 1715 and again in 1745 sided with the house of Hanover and raised a force against the Stuarts, for which the pretender's army on the retreat from Derby levied contributions. On the breaking out of the American revolutionary war, Glasgow raised a regiment of 1,000 men, and fitted out 14 privateers. In 1820 the public peace was disturbed by radical political riots, and in 1848 by the chartists.
Albert Bridge. Glasgow.