Green Bay , a large arm of Lake Michigan, communicating with the W. side of the lake by a broad opening at which lies a group of islands. It partly separates Wisconsin from the upper peninsula of Michigan, and is 100 m. long from N. E. to S. W., and from 15 to 30 m. broad. It receives Menomonee, Fox, and several smaller rivers. The name Green was given it on account of its color, caused by its great depth, which is said to exceed 500 ft.
Green Bay , a city and the capital of Brown co., Wisconsin, on a low peninsula between Fox and East rivers, about 2 m. above the head of Green bay, 100 m. N. of Milwaukee; pop. in 1860, 2,275; in 1870, 4,666. It has a fine harbor, accessible by the largest steamers from Lake Michigan; while, by means of the improvements on Fox river and the canal across the portage, boats of 5 ft. draught have passed, during high water, by way of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi. The Wisconsin division of the Chicago and Northwestern railroad passes through Fort Howard (pop. in 1870, 2,462), a borough on the W. bank of the Fox opposite Green Bay, with which it is connected by a bridge and ferries. Green Bay itself is the terminus of the Milwaukee and Northern and the Green Bay and Lake Pepin railroads. The most important item of trade is lumber, about 79,000,000 feet, besides 200,000,000 shingles and 6,000,000 staves, the product of 40 or 50 mills in the surrounding country, being marketed here annually. The grain and flour trade is also considerable. The receipts in 1871, including Fort Howard, amounted to 539,102 bushels of grain and 110,000 barrels of flour.
To accommodate this traffic, an elevator with a capacity of 225,000 bushels has been erected upon a pier which projects 800 ft. into the river, and along which the railroad tracks have been extended. The entire trade of the city in 1871 amounted to about $3,500,000. It contains a number of noteworthy public buildings, including large warehouses, an elegant court house, and a well arranged opera house, and has many handsome residences. There are three national banks with an aggregate capital of $200,000, 12 public schools, including a high school, a daily and three weekly (one German) newspapers, and 11 churches. - The first permanent settlement at Green Bay was effected by the French in 1745. A portion of the site was laid out about 1830 under the name of Navarino, and another portion in 1835 under that of Astor. They were incorporated as Green Bay in 1839, and in 1854 a city charter was granted. In the early part of this century it was a post of the American fur company.