Greenwich , a town and borough of Fairfield co., Connecticut, on Long Island sound, and on the New York and New Haven railroad, 30 m. N. E. of New York and 42 m. S. W. of New Haven; pop. in 1870, 7,644. The town borders on the state of New York, forming the S. W. extremity of New England, and contains a savings bank, two hotels, 19 public schools, an academy, and 15 churches. The village is beautifully situated near the water, and contains the residences of many people doing business in New York. Putnam's hill, famous as the precipice down which Gen. Putnam galloped in his perilous escape from the British in 1779, is in the S. W. part of the town.
Greenwich , a town and parliamentary borough of Kent, England, on the right bank of the Thames, 5 m. S. E. of St. Paul's cathedral, London; pop. of the town in 1871, 169,361. It stands mostly on low, marshy ground. There are numerous churches, chapels, schools, and charitable institutions. But the great objects of attraction are its hospital for seamen, and its observatory, whence longitude is reckoned by the British and often by other geographers. (See Longitude.) The hospital, first opened in 1705, occupies the site of an ancient royal palace called Greenwich house, Placentia, or "The Pleasaunce," a favorite residence of several sovereigns, and the birthplace of Henry VIII., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. It consists of quadrangular buildings, enclosing a square, each bearing the name of the sovereign in whose reign it was erected. The N. W. quadrangle contains the apartments of the governor and the libraries of the officers and pensioners. The N. E. quadrangle is inhabited by the officers and men. In the S. W. building is the painted hall, adorned with the portraits of British naval heroes and representations of naval victories. In the S. E. division is the chapel, the interior of which is richly decorated.
Previous to 1805 the in-stitution generally supported about 2,700 in-pensioners, and from 5,000 to (5,000 out-pensioners. The in-pensioners were amply supplied with food, uniformly clothed, comfortably lodged, and allowed one shilling a week each for tobacco. The out-pensioners receive each an annual stipend which averages about £12. There is an infirmary connected with the hospital, and a school for the children of decayed non-commissioned officers, seamen, and marines, which is attended by 800 scholars. The governorship of the hospital is usually held by some veteran naval commander. By an act of parliament passed in 1805 the in-pensioners were permitted to reside where they pleased, and were allowed two shillings a day besides their service pension. All but 200 or 300 infirm and bed-ridden pensioners thereupon left the hospital, and it is now kept as a medical hospital for wounded seamen in time of war. The income of the hospital amounts to about £150,000 a year. The observatory was erected by Charles II. for the advancement of navigation and nautical astronomy. Its organization is very complete. It is charged with the transmission of time throughout England by means of electro-magnetic circuits, in addition to its ordinary functions.