Grodno ,.I. A government of European Russia, in Lithuania, formerly a part of Poland, bordering on Wilna, Minsk, Volhynia, and the kingdom of Poland; area, 14,960 sq. m.; pop. in 18(37, 958,852, the large majority of whom are Roman Catholics. The surface is generally level, and a great portion of it is covered with pine forests and swamps. The principal productions are rye, barley, timber, hops, hemp, flax, fruit, honey, and cattle. The most important minerals are iron, chalk, limestone, and nitre. The forests abound with wild boars, wolves, bears, elk, and roebucks. The manufactures consist for the most part of woollen stuffs, hats, and leather. The chief rivers are the Niemen, Bug, Narew, and Pri-petz. The principal towns are Grodno, Novo-grodek, and Slonim. II. A city, capital of the government, on the right bank of the Niemen, 93 m. S. W. of Wilna; pop. in 1867, 24,789, among whom are many Jews. It has several Roman Catholic and Greek churches, a Lutheran church, two synagogues, an academy of medicine, a gymnasium, a military school for young noblemen, several other educational institutions, and manufactories of cloth, silk, and cotton.
After 1673 every third Polish diet was held here, and in 1793 the Polish diet was here forced to assent to the second division of Poland.