Guadalajara , a city of Mexico, the second in importance of the republic, capital of the state of Jalisco, 275 m. N. W. of the city of Mexico; pop. about 70,000. It stands on the left bank of the Rio Santiago, in the midst of a vast barren plain. The streets are wide, and the houses, which are generally but two stories high owing to the frequency of earthquakes, are neat and handsome. There are 14 public squares, the finest of which, the Plaza de Armas, is very spacious. On its north side is the cathedral, completed in 1018. The cupolas of both towers were destroyed by the great earthquake of May 31, 1818. The governor's palace occupies the whole of the east side of the plaza, and the two remaining sides form each an uninterrupted arcade, with brilliant shops and bazaars. Besides the cathedral there are many churches and convents. The Alar-con theatre, of modern construction, is large and elegant. There are two hospitals, a mint, two prisons, a university, a seminary, a school of design, a collegiate and several common schools, and many private schools. There are manufactories of scrapes, a kind of shawl, paper, earthenware, and leather.
The climate is temperate. - The town was founded in 1532 by Cristobal de Onate, under the name of Santo Espiritu. It became the capital of New Galicia in 1543, and an episcopal see in 1549.
Plaza de Armas, Guadalajara.
Guadalajara ,.I. A province of Spain, in New Castile, bordering on the provinces of Segovia, Soria, Saragossa, Teruel, Cuenca, and Madrid; area, 4,809 sq. m.; pop. in 1870 (estimated), 208,638. The surface toward the north and east is mountainous, particularly in the district of Atienza, but in the south and west it expands into large elevated plains. The chief rivers are the Tagus, Tajuna, and Jarama. In the district of Tamajon the soil is well adapted to corn; in that of Alcarria the vine and olive also grow; while the mountain districts are suited to pasturage. The most important minerals are iron, lead, and coal. Mines of iron have been worked from the time of the Romans. II. A city, capita] of the province, on the Henares river, 33 m. X. E. of Madrid; pop. about 8,000. It has a large Roman aqueduct, which supplies the public fountains. There are ten churches, two hospitals, a military school, a palace of the dukes of Infantado, and manufactories of cloth.