Halifax , a city, port of entry, and the capital of Nova Scotia, Canada, and of Halifax co., situated near the middle of the S. E. coast of the province, on the W. side of a deep inlet of the Atlantic called Chebucto bay or Halifax harbor; lat. 44° 39' 42" N., Ion. 63° 35' 30" W.; pop. in 1790, 4,000; in 1828, 14,439; in 1861, 25,026; in 1871, 29,582. The city is built on the declivity of a hill rising 236 ft. above the level of the harbor, and, including its suburbs, is about 2 1/2 m. long and 1 m. wide. Its plan is regular, most of the streets crossing one another at right angles; many of them are spacious and handsome. The lower part of the city is occupied by wharves and warehouses, above which rise the dwelling houses and public buildings, while the summit of the eminence is crowned by an edifice in which is fixed the town clock, and by a citadel strongly built of granite. There is little uniformity in the appearance of the houses, some of them being handsomely built of stone or brick, and others, equally attractive, of wood neatly painted, while many are stuccoed or plastered. The province building, in which are the government offices, the legislative chambers, and the city library, is 140 ft. long by 70 ft. broad, with an Ionic colonnade.
The government house, admiral's residence, Dal-housie college, military hospital, lunatic asylum, workhouse, jail, penitentiary, city market, post office, theatre, assembly rooms, court house, exchange, and some of the public schools, are the other most prominent structures. Halifax is the military headquarters of the Dominion of Canada; the troops occupy extensive and handsome barracks at the N. end overlooking the harbor. It is also the chief naval station for British North America, including the West Indies, and has a government dockyard covering 14 acres, situated in the X. portion of the town, which is thoroughly equipped and said to be inferior to few except those of England. By means of the Intercolonial and the Windsor and Annapolis railways, it has communication with Annapolis, Pictou, and St. John, N. B. The harbor of Halifax is one of the best in the world. It extends about 16 m. inland, is accessible at all times, and opposite the city, where vessels usually anchor, is about 1 m. wide.
Provincial Buildings, Halifax.
A small arm, branching off from the harbor a short distance below the city, extends inland to within 1/2 m. of this basin, forming a peninsula on which the city is built. The harbor contains McNab's and three or four smaller islands, has two lighthouses, and is defended by several fortifications of considerable strength. There are two passages into the harbor, one on each side of McNab's island. The western is commanded by Fort George and several batteries; the eastern, which has sufficient depth of water only for small vessels, lies under the guns of a formidable stone fort called Fort Clarence. Halifax is largely interested in the fisheries, and has an extensive foreign and coasting trade. For the year ending June 30, 1872, the entrances were l,387, with an aggregate tonnage of 303,847; clearances, 1,024, of 290,527 tons. The value of imports was $10,055,579, and of exports $4,078,G84; being about five sixths of the total imports and more than one half of the exports of the province. Of the exports, $2,426,980 represent the product of the fisheries.
There were 55 vessels built, with an aggregate tonnage of 13,-157. The Cunard line of steamers from Liverpool to Boston touches here, and steamers run to various ports of Canada, Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the United States. The manufactures are of considerable importance, embracing iron castings, machinery, agricul-tural implements, nails, gunpowder, cordage, boots and shoes, soap and candles, leather, tobacco, paper, cotton and woollen goods, wooden ware, etc. There are also several breweries and distilleries, a sugar refinery, six banks, ! two branch banks, a savings institution, and several gold-mining and other joint stock companies. The streets are lighted with gas, and water is distributed through the city. The assessed value of property in 1870 was $16,-753,872. Halifax is the seat of an asylum for the blind, a deaf and dumb institution, and a hospital for the insane, and also contains a dispensary, house of refuge, home for the aged, two orphan asylums, the provincial and city hospital, a naval and a military hospital, the provincial poor asylum, St. Paul's almshouse of industry for girls, and two industrial schools.
The educational institutions are numerous, embracing, besides 12 schools, Dalhousie college and university, with 7 professors in the classical and 12 in the medical department; St. Mary's college (Roman Catholic), with 8 professors; and the theological department of the college of the Presbyterian church of the lower provinces of British North America. There are two public libraries, a museum, 4 daily, 5 triweekly, and 9 weekly newspapers, 2 bi-weekly and 4 monthly periodicals, a convent, and a young men's Christian association. Halifax is the seat of an Episcopal bishop and a Roman Catholic archbishop, and contains 24 churches. The city was founded in 1749 under the auspices of the earl of Halifax. In 1859 it was visited by a destructive conflagration.
Halifax , a town and parliamentary borough of England, in the West riding of Yorkshire, on the Hebble near its junction with the Cal-der, which is navigable to this point, 36 m. S. W. of York; pop. of the town in 1871, 37,208; of the borough, 65,510. The town is well built, and contains ten churches of the English establishment, all fine structures, All Souls' church, completed in 1861, being among the finest in England. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, and Friends; assembly rooms, a theatre, baths, and many literary, charitable, and educational institutions. The town hall, opened in 1863, was designed by Sir Charles Barry, and completed by his son. The piece hall covers more than two acres, and contains 315 rooms for the storage and sale of merchandise. The people's park is a fine pleasure ground given to the town by Sir Francis Crossley, who in 1808 gave 6,000 guineas for its maintenance. He and his relatives also founded several benevolent institutions, among which is the Crossley orphanage for 400 children, with an annual income of £3,000. An equestrian statue of Prince Albert was erected in 1864. The town is favorably situated for manufactures and trade, having an abundance of water and coal, and water communication with Hull and Liverpool. The chief manufactures are woollen goods, in which it ranks next after Leeds, Bradford, and Huddersfield, and especially carpets.
There are also extensive manufactories of cotton goods, machinery, and chemicals.
Town Hall, Halifax.