Hardinge ,.I.' Henry, viscount, an English soldier, born in Wrotham, Kent, March 30, 1785, died at Southport, near Tunbridge Wells, Sept. 24, 1856. He entered the army in 1798, became lieutenant in 1802, and captain in 1804. He served throughout the peninsular war, being part of the time on the staff of the commander-in-chief. From 1809 to 1813 he was deputy quartermaster general of the Portuguese army. He took part in several battles in the peninsula, and was twice wounded. On the renewal of hostilities in 1815 he was again on the staff of Wellington. At the battle of Li-gny, where he acted as brigadier general with the Prussian army, he lost his left arm, which prevented his presence at Waterloo. On his return to England he received a pension, and was made a knight commander of the bath. He was returned to parliament for Durham in 1820, and again in 1820. In 1828, when Wellington came into power, he was made secretary at war, which office he exchanged for the chief secretaryship for Ireland two years later.
When Wellington went out Hardinge resigned, but was reinstated in office by Sir Robert Peel during his first term of power (1834-'5), and again in 1841. In April, 1844, he was appointed governor general of India. He originated the policy which ended in the annexation of Oude under his successor Lord Dalhousie. When the Sikhs invaded the British territory from Lahore, he collected a force of 32,000 men and 68 guns, and marched with it toward the threatened portion of the territory. On Dec.
13, 1845, learning that a large Sikh army had crossed the Sutlej, he issued a proclamation, and followed it up by immediately attacking the invaders. The battles of Moodkee, Fero-zeshah, Sobraon, and Aliwal closed this short campaign of about six weeks, during which Hardinge served as a volunteer under Sir Hugh Gough. For his services he received the thanks of parliament and a pension of £3,000 a year, and was raised to the peerage with the title of Viscount Hardinge of Lahore; the East India company also gave him a pension of £5,000. He received 16 medals for service in as many pitched battles. In January, 1848, he was superseded in the Indian government by Lord Dalhousie. In February, 1852, he was appointed master, of ordnance, and on the death of the duke of Wellington, in September of the same year, he became commander-in-chief of the forces. In October, 1855, he was advanced to the rank of field marshal. Having become paralytic, he resigned in July, 1856. II. Charles Stewart, viscount, son of the preceding, born Sept. 12, 1822. He was educated at Eton and Christchurch, Oxford, was his father's secretary in India, and took part in the battles with the Sikhs. From 1851 to 1856 he sat in parliament for Downpatrick. Under Lord Derby's second administration (1858-'9) he was under secretary at war.
He is an artist of much merit, and has published elaborate "Views in India" (imp. fob, 1847).