Henry V., son of the preceding, and second king of the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, born, it is supposed, in Monmouth, Aug. 9, 1388, died at Vincennes, France, Aug. 31, 1422. But little is known of his childhood. On his father's banishment Henry was seized by Richard II., who took him with the expedition to Ireland, and knighted him. When Richard returned to England, to meet the youth's father, he placed him in the castle of Trim. His father caused him to bo liberated and brought to London; and he was created prince of Wales, Oct. 15, 1399. He took part in the proceedings against the insurgent Welsh in 1401, while he was still a boy. He was then appointed to the command of the royal forces in Wales, and was made lieutenant of Wales in 1403. He had a prominent part in the battle of Shrewsbury. On March 11, 1405, he defeated the rebels at Grosmont. The constant rebellion that prevailed in England prevented the king from sending much assistance to his son, and he was thrown upon his own resources, which tended to the development of his character and prowess; and the speaker of the house of commons in 140G bore testimony to his good qualities as a son and as a man.
At the close of 1407 ho commanded an expedition that was sent into Scotland, and after some successes made a truce with the Scotch. The house of commons thanked him for his conduct, at the instance of his father. His immediate connection with Wales is believed to have ceased in 1409. He was made warden of the cinque ports and constable of Dover the same year, and captain of Calais in 1410. The king gave him his house of Coldharbor, in London, which accounts for the prince's connection with the city. Councils were there held, at which the prince presided, as he did when they were held at other places. The stories respecting his irregularities, loose life, and association with highwaymen rest upon very insufficient evidence. The prince seems to have been in theory and action above the average morality of his time. The popular idea of him is taken from Shakespeare, whose "Prince Hal" is not the historical Henry of Monmouth, but almost as ideal a character as Hamlet himself. Henry V. was proclaimed March 21, 1413, the day after his father's death. His accession caused great rejoicings. Parliament voluntarily tendered the oath of fealty and allegiance, an act without precedent.
He behaved with magnanimity toward the enemies and rivals of his house, particularly in the instance of the earl of March, who was the legitimate heir to the crown. His legislation is not open to the same praise. He continued the persecution of the Lollards; he was attached to Catholicism both from conviction and from supposed interest; and he sent representatives to the council of Constance to help to heal the schism in the church. He determined to renew the claim of the English sovereigns to the crown of France, though it was far less strong in his person than it was in that of Edward III.; and his determination is attributed to the advice of the clergy, who wished to draw off the attention of the people from church questions, and to save the church's patrimony, the seizure of which had been called for by the house of commons. He first claimed the entire kingdom of France when negotiating an alliance for a marriage with Catharine, daughter of Charles VI.; and when that claim was scouted, the English envoys, waiving it without prejudice to their principal's rights, "demanded the sovereignty of the duchies of Normandy and Touraine, the earldom of Anjou, the duchy of Brittany, the earldom of Flanders, with all other parts of the duchy of Aquitaine, the territories which had been ceded to Edward III. by the treaty of Bretigny, and the land between the Somme and Gravelines; to be held by Henry and his heirs, without any claim of superiority on the part of Charles or his successors.
To these demands were added the cession of Provence, and payment of the arrears of the ransom of King John, amounting to 1,600,000 crowns. It was also intimated that the marriage with Catharine could not take place unless a firm peace were also established with France, and that 2,000,000 crowns would be expected as her dower." These monstrous terms were rejected by the French, who however offered to make great concessions. The English parliament strongly supported the king, and the guilt of one of the most unjust wars ever waged lies rather upon the nation than upon its sovereign. Parliament commenced the system of loans for the support of this war. French ambassadors were sent to England to labor for peace, but without success. A powerful force was assembled at Southampton; and a conspiracy was there detected, which was the first act in the contest between the houses of York and Lancaster. The earl of Cambridge, a grandson of Edward III., and the husband of the sister of the earl of March, was at the head of the plot, which had for its object the restoration of the crown to the legitimate line of Clarence. Cambridge and others suffered for their conduct. The expedition sailed from Southampton, Aug. 11, 1415, and reached France in two days.
Harfleur was taken, Sept. 22, after a siege of five weeks. Henry challenged the dauphin to a personal conflict, to decide the issue of the war, but his proposition was not accepted. Resolving to return to England by the way of Calais, Henry left Harfleur with a small army, his forces having suffered from sickness, and on Oct. 25 encountered a great French army at Agincourt, which he totally defeated. In a moment of panic, he caused his prisoners to be massacred. He returned to England Nov. 17. The English rejoiced much over the victory, but they found the war very burdensome, and it was not vigorously prosecuted. Sigismund, emperor of Germany, sought to mediate, and visited both France and England; but failing, he joined the latter. Little was done in 1416. In 1417 Henry invaded France again, and met with considerable success. The French vainly sought peace. The Scots invaded England, and were beaten. Lord Cobham was captured in Wales, and executed as a traitor and a heretic. Rouen was besieged, and, after a long and terrible defence, was taken Jan. 19, 1419. The duke of Brittany, following the example of the duke of Burgundy, joined Henry. An interview between the French and English authorities having produced no effect, the war was renewed, victory remaining with Henry. The murder of the duke of Burgundy by partisans of the dauphin caused the French king to denounce his own son, and to resolve that Henry should be made regent of France. At the end of November, 1419, an arrangement was made that Charles VI. should remain king while he lived, but that, because of his insanity, Henry should become regent, and, marrying the princess Catharine, should succeed him on his death.
An armistice was concluded, from which the dauphin and his party were excluded. The two kingdoms were to be united, and a treaty was made at Troyes, May 21, 1420. The same day Henry and Catharine were affianced, and their marriage took place June 2. A large part of France continued faithful to the dauphin, and he was aided by the Scots, but the successes of the English continued. Henry returned to England, where Catharine was crowned, Feb. 24, 1421. He made a journey to the north, during which he received news of the battle of Beauge, in which the French and Scots defeated and killed his brother Clarence. Making his brother Bedford regent, he returned to Franco in the summer, where his usual good fortune in war awaited him; but nothing could overcome the stubborn resistance of the loyal portion of the French nation. Henry had planned a crusade when he was seized with a fatal illness, the exact nature of which is unknown. " Memorials of Henry the Fifth, King of England," edited by Charles Augustus Cole, of the public record office, were published in London in 1858 by the au-thority of the lords commissioners of the treasury, under the direction of the master of the rolls. "A History of Henry V.," by G. M. Towle, was published in New York in 1866.
Henry V., emperor of Germany, surnamed the Young, second son of the preceding, born in 1081, died in Utrecht, May 23, 1125. His filial ingratitude and treachery are noticed in the account of Henry IV., whom he succeeded in 1100. Notwithstanding his revolt against his father, he acted from the outset of his reign according to the principles of the late emperor, and in defiance of the pope he claimed the right of investiture. He espoused Matilda, daughter of Henry I. of England, and was enabled by her dowry to go to Italy with great magnificence and a strong military force, to be crowned by the pope. The pontiff, Paschal II., had made propositions of compromise in regard to the dispute concerning investitures, and the subject was to be adjusted in solemn assembly in the church of St. Peter; where, however, an angry discussion among the bishops was followed by the seizure and imprisonment of the pope and cardinals. Henry's army, encamped around the church, was attacked by the enraged Romans, and in a furious battle the emperor's life was with difficulty saved by Count Otho of Milan, at the expense of his own.
The Romans were driven into the city, and after Henry had ravaged the surrounding country, the pope purchased his own liberty and the safety of the city by consenting solemnly to the imperial right of investiture, declaring at the same time that Henry should not be excommunicated. The latter clause was incorporated in the treaty, and the emperor was crowned in St. Peter's, April 13, 1111. But scarcely had he taken his departure, when Paschal denounced the treaty as having been extorted by force. The dispute, thus renewed, was protracted with great animosity for ten years. Henry was excommunicated by the successors of Paschal, and defeated in northern Germany, where the princes refused obedience. In Saxony also the emperor lost all authority. In 1116 he led a second expedition against Rome, created an antipope, Gregory VIII., but at length saw the necessity of abandoning his claim, and subscribed the famous concordat of Worms (1122), by which he surrendered the investiture with ring and crosier as tokens of spiritual jurisdiction, and agreed to permit the free choice of the German bishops, whose election, however, was to take place in presence of the emperor or of his plenipotentiary.
It was also agreed that in doubtful elections, or in electoral disagreements, the decision should lie with the emperor, whose imperial authority, in connection with the temporal possessions of the churchmen, was at the same time solemnly acknowledged. The concordat, virtually a compromise, was received throughout Europe with great joy, and the remainder of Henry's reign was passed in peace with the church; but dissensions prevailed throughout his dominions. He formed plans for strengthening the imperial power, and began a war with France, but was cut off suddenly by a contagious disease. With him ended the race of Salian or Franconian princes. His hereditary possessions fell to the sons of his sister Agnes, Frederick and Conrad of Hohen-staufen; and the imperial crown was conferred upon Lothaire of Saxony.