Herefordshire , an inland county of England, on the E. border of Wales, almost circular in shape; area, 835 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 125,364. Its surface is diversified by hill and dale. It belongs wholly to the basin of the Severn, and has a gentle slope S. to that river, into which flow its streams the Leddon, Lugg, Teme, Dore, Monnow, Arrow, Frome, and Wye, the last traversing the whole width of the county and famous for its beautiful scenery. Canals connect the towns of Hereford and Leominster with the Severn, and railways connect Hereford with Shrewsbury, Worcester, Abergavenny, and Brecon. The geological formation is old red sandstone, excepting in detached localities, where it is limestone. Iron ore, red and yellow ochres, pipe clay, and fullers' earth are found. Some medicinal and petrifying springs exist. This county is entirely agricultural, and formerly bore the name of "the garden of England." The soil is a deep, heavy, red loam, resting on clay or gravel, and very fertile. Wheat, barley, fruit, hops, and oak bark are the principal productions.
The Hereford breed of cattle is famous for gentleness, beauty of appearance, and aptitude to fatten.