Hillel , a rabbi and president (nasi) of the sanhedrim of Jerusalem, who flourished in the latter half of the 1st century B. C. He is distinguished from other rabbis of the same name by the surname of Hazzaken (the Elder). He is also called the Babylonian from his native country. Admired for his humanity, mildness, and love of peace, he is also celebrated as the reformer and great propagator of the study of the traditional law, the results of which were afterward collected under the title of Mishnah by one of his descendants and successors in the presidency of the sanhedrim, Rabbi Judah the Holy. Killers school flourished especially during the reign of Herod the Great, the rival school being that of the austere Shammai. Besides the legal decisions of Hillel, various sayings of his are preserved in the Mishnah, as well as numerous anecdotes in the Gemara, all of which express his love of men as well as of study. It is he who, being applied to by a pagan for instruction in the Mosaic law, replied : " ' Do not to others what you do not like others to do to you,' is the essence; everything else is but comment." - Another Hillel, who flourished about the middle of the 4th century, was the author of the existing Jewish calendar.