Hog , (sus, Linn.), a well known pachydermatous animal, found throughout the world, and sufficiently characterized in the article Boar. Besides the common sus scrofa (Linn.), the hogs as a family have been made to include the peccary (dicotyIes, Cuv.) and wart hog (phacochoerus, F. Cuv.); and the name of hog or pig has been erroneously applied to some of the cavies, the armadillo, the porpoise, and other animals with porcine appearance and habits. The dentition is as follows: incisors 4/6 or 6/6, canines 1/1-1/1, and molars 7/7-7/7, 42 or 44 in all; the lower incisors project forward, and the canines, even the upper, curve upward. The feet are four-toed, the two anterior or intermediate toes being the largest, and the two lateral or posterior scarcely if at all touching the ground. The utility of the hog as an article of food is in great measure owing to the remarkable fecundity of the animal; it being capable of reproduction at about a year old, and producing from 8 to 12 and even more at a birth twice every year, the supply will always be equal to the demand. Vauban has estimated the product of a single sow, with only six young at a time, in 10 generations to be about 6,500,000, of which 500,000 may be deducted on account of accidental death.

The hog was highly esteemed by the ancients, and was the animal sacrificed to Ceres, the goddess of the harvest. In hot climates, as in Egypt, pork is not considered wholesome, and accordingly the ancient legislators and priests of that country for sanitary reasons forbade its consumption; the Hebrew and Moslem lawgivers also prohibited it, and these sects abstain from its flesh even in cold climates, where it might be used with safety. The filthy habits of the hog are in great measure due to its domestication; the wild hog is cleanly, and selects its food chiefly from vegetable substances. The hog has the propensity to wallow in the mire common to all pachyderms, and generally for the purpose of ridding itself of vermin, or of protecting its thinly covered skin from the attacks of insects; the wild boar in this respect is no more dirty than the elephant, the rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus. - The hog occupies so prominent a place in domestic economy, commerce, and the arts, that it may be well to mention those generally considered the best varieties. If this animal, whose flesh, fat, hair, and bones are so valuable, can be improved even to the amount of $1 for every animal, an immense sum will be realized to the farmer.

Different breeds are prized in different districts, according to the fancy of producers, the facility of raising them, and the particular object of the farmer. The Chinese hogs, both the white and black varieties, are easily fattened, and have small bones; indeed they are generally too fat to be esteemed as pork, and are considered to make poor bacon; bred carefully, and mixed with other stocks, they are valuable animals. The Neapolitan is the most celebrated of the Italian breeds, and the stock of most of the English breeds; though not very hardy, the flesh is of superior quality; it is small, black, with few bristles, short snout, erect ears, and small bones; crossed with the Berkshire breed, the form is improved and the constitution hardened, with a remarkable tendency to fatten easily. The Berkshire, an English breed, black or white, is larger than the Neapolitan, with more bristles, and less fat to the meat, which is well suited for bacon and hams; this was formerly preferred above all others in many parts of New England, but its cross with the Chinese is more profitable, as the weight is heavier with light feeding, and the disposition milder.

The Essex, crossed with the Neapolitan, is one of the most valuable, and has taken more prizes in England than any other breed; it is black, of good size and symmetry, mild disposition, easily fattened, the meat of excellent quality, and the dressed weight at 12 and 18 months 250 to 400 lbs.; it is not subject to cutaneous diseases. The Irish grazier is slow in coming to maturity, but crossed with the Berkshire is an excellent variety. The Woburn or Bedford breed was originally sent by the duke of Bedford to Gen. Washington, and was produced at Woburn, England, by a cross of the Chinese boar and a large English hog; when pure they are white, with dark ash-colored spots; they are of large size, with deep round bodies, short legs, and thin hair, easily kept and maturing early. The Middlesex is a popular breed in England, and has been considerably imported into the United States; it is derived from a mixture of the Chinese with some larger stock; the color is usually white, and the size larger than the Suffolk, weighing at 18 months 800 to 900 lbs.; the bones are smaller than in the Essex. But the favorite of all breeds seems now to be the Suffolk, so named from that county in England, whence the London market has long been supplied; the present breed is believed to have originated from the old Suffolk crossed with the Chinese and Berkshire; the pure breed is remarkably symmetrical, small and compact, short-legged and small-headed, the exact opposite of the long, lank, and lean hogs of the western prairies; their early maturity, small consumption of food, and tendency to fat compensate for their want of size; the color is white.

These are the most esteemed varieties; there are many others, imported and domestic, which thrive well in peculiar districts. While hogs are kept in New England and the middle states mostly in pens, in the west they are allowed to range in the woods and fields till within three months of the time of killing them, feeding upon clover, corn, acorns, and mast. - No animal displays the changes arising from domestication more than the hog, as may be seen by contrasting the large, savage, long-legged wild boar, leading dogs and horses a weary chase, with the small, docile, plump, short-legged Suffolk, with difficulty getting from one side of his pen to the other. It is not probable that all the varieties of the hog are derived from the wild boar of Europe and Asia; the Polynesian species, the African, and perhaps the babyroussa, have become crossed with introduced breeds, causing the same variety and confusion observed in all domesticated animals. The hog is not a stupid animal; like other pachyderms it is susceptible of education, and the stories of learned pigs and hunting hogs do no discredit to the order which contains the elephant. - Several species of fossil hogs, of the genus sus, are found in the tertiary and diluvial deposits of central Europe; the fossil hogs seem to have been, like the present animal, charged with fat; the teeth are the portions generally met with, as the bones from their spongy character would soon decay.

Allied species are also found in the same formations in India. - According to the census of 1870, the total number of swine on farms in the United States was 25,134,569. The states containing the most were Illinois, which had 2,703,343; Missouri, 2,306,430; Iowa, 1,872,230; Kentucky, 1,838,227; Tennessee, 1,828,690; and Ohio, 1,728,968. In many of the western states the slaughtering of hogs and the packing of pork form an important industry. A great majority of the hogs are slaughtered and packed between the 1st of November and the 1st of March; but recently summer packing has been found profitable, and now large quantities of pork are packed during that season. The greatest centres for this industry in the United States are Chicago and Cincinnati. Formerly Cincinnati ranked first, but the supremacy is now held by Chicago. The extent of the operations at these two points is indicated by the statement that of the 5,383,810 hogs packed in the southern and western states between Nov. 1, 1873, and March 1, 1874, 1,520,024 were packed in Chicago and 581,253 in Cincinnati. The states ranking highest in the magnitude of this industry are Illinois, in which the number of hogs packed during this period was 1,870,855; Ohio, 897,627; Missouri, 735,868, of which 463,793 were packed in St. Louis; and Indiana, 699,-223. The total value of all the hogs packed in the southern and western states during the winter season of 1873-'4 was $63,370,339; aggregate gross weight, 1,444,311,304 lbs.; average gross weight, 268.27 lbs.; total product of lard, 191,139,000 lbs.

Chinese Hog.

Chinese Hog.

Original Old English Hog.

Original Old English Hog.

Improved Berkshire Hog.

Improved Berkshire Hog.

Improved Essex Hog.

Improved Essex Hog.