Honeysuckle , the name of several kinds of twining and erect shrubs of the genus Lonicera, in the order capirifoliaceoe. They have tubular flowers, many of them possess fragrance, and most of them are ornamental and among the shrubs generally cultivated. The genus Loni-cera was named in honor of Lonitzer, a German herbalist of the 16th century. The trumpet honeysuckle (L. sempervirens, Aiton) is found occasionally on rocky places in Massachusetts, more abundantly near New York, and thence to Virginia and southward. Under cultivation its foliage falls off toward winter. The flowers are numerous, with scentless corollas, of a scarlet or deep red color outside, and yellowish within. The plant is a strong and vigorous climber, continuing to bloom from spring until autumn; there is a variety with pale yellow blossoms. The American woodbine honeysuckle (L. grata, Ait.) is also cultivated and prized for its fragrant flowers, of a white color fading into yellowish, borne in whorls in the axils of the uppermost leaves. The yellow honeysuckle (L. flava, Sims), found in New York, Wisconsin, and southward, has long been cultivated. Its flowers are in closely approximate whorls, with corollas of a light yellow, deeply bilabiate, the tube hairy within, with a delicious fragrance.
The small-flowered honeysuckle (Z. parviflora, Lamarck) has little beauty to recommend it, it being a straggling bush 2 to 4 ft. high. It is found mostly in northern localities. A variety (Douglasii), with greener leaves and dull purple or crimson-colored corolla, occurs in the western states. The hairy honeysuckle (L. liirsuta, Eaton) has large, coarse, hairy leaves, and bright, orange-colored corollas, and is found from Maine to Wisconsin and northward. The English honeysuckle (L. periclymenum, Linn.) has its leaves all separate, deciduous, ovate, obtuse, attenuate at the base. Its flowers are in terminal heads, and are deep red externally; its berries are nearly globular, deep red, bitter, and nauseous. The Dutch honeysuckle is a variety of the English (L. p. Belgica), with smooth purplish branches, and flowers reddish on the outside and yellowish within, of a very agreeable odor. It is sometimes called the monthly honeysuckle. The common honeysuckle is a native of England, and is there likewise called the woodbine, a corruption of woodbind, from its habit of winding itself around any tree or shrub within reach. It is a favorite plant with the poets, and often enters into their descriptions.
The perfoliate honeysuckle (L. caprifolium, Linn.) has deciduous, obovate, acutish, glaucous leaves, the uppermost broader and connate, the flowers highly fragrant, 2 in. long, with a blush-colored tube. It ranges from the middle and south of Europe to Siberia, and is naturalized in England. L. brachypoda, a Japanese and Chinese species, also called L. Japonica and L. Sinensis, is now in very general cultivation; its oval or oblong leaves are nearly evergreen in the climate of New York, and quite so in milder localities; its flowers are neither very large nor showy, but very fragrant. The recently introduced L. Hallii, from Japan, is probably a form of this. A variety of it, called the golden Japanese honeysuckle (var. aureo-reticulata), has the leaves beautifully veined and variegated with yellow; being quite hardy, it is one of the most valuable ornamental climbers. The climbing honeysuckles are of easy cultivation, and are much used for covering porches, verandas, etc.; they are readily propagated by cuttings and by layers. - The fly honeysuckles, the upright or bush honeysuckles of the nurserymen, belong to a distinct section of Lonicera, and were formerly placed as a separate genus (xylosteon); they are distinguished by their bushy, non-climbing habit, single, axillary, two-flowered peduncles, with the two berries sometimes united into one.
L. coerulea, ciliata, and oblongifolia are the native species in the northern states. L. involucrata, with its flowers surrounded by conspicuous leafy bracts, is a Californian species, which extends eastward to Lake Superior; it is sometimes seen in gardens, more as a curious than an elegant species. L. Tartarica, the Tartarian, is the most common bush honeysuckle of the gardens, and is ornamental whether for its abundant pink or white flowers or its red berries. The fragrant honeysuckle (L. fragrantissima), a native of China, puts forth in early spring, before the leaves, a profusion of pure white, highly odoriferous flowers. It is such an early bloomer that in the climate of New York its flowers are often caught by the frost; but it is worth cultivating even if the season is only now and then favorable to it. The name bush honeysuckle is also given to our native species of Diervilla; the shrub commonly called Weigela properly belongs to that genus also, and this and the native species will be treated under Weigela. Our native azaleas are frequently called honeysuckles. (See Azalea.)
Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens).