Howard, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A central county of Maryland, bounded N. E. by the Patapsco river, and S. W. by the Patuxent; area, 225 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,150, of whom 3,474 were colored. It has an uneven surface, rising in some places into hills. The valleys are generally fertile. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad and the Washington branch pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 128,-376 bushels of wheat, 415,719 of Indian corn, 204,877 of oats, 97,929 of potatoes, 182,980 lbs. of tobacco, 189,646 of butter, and 7,445 tons of hay. There were 2,958 horses, 3,100 milch cows, 3,056 other cattle, 2,516 sheep, and 8,441 swine; 3 cotton mills, 1 woollen mill, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Ellicott City. II. A S. W. county of Arkansas, formed in 1873 from portions of Hempstead, Pike, Polk, and Sevier cos. It is well watered by affluents of Little river and of the Little Missouri. The surface is irregular, consisting of hills, valleys, and river bottoms. The valleys and bottoms produce corn and cotton; the hills are better adapted to the smaller grains and fruit. Timber is abundant, and lead, silver, and marl are found.

Capita], Centre Point. III. A central county of Indiana, traversed by Wildcat creek, an affluent of the Wabash; area, 279 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,847. It has a level surface and an excellent soil. The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, and the Indianapolis, Peru, and Chicago railroads intersect at the county seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 287,875 bushels of wheat, 356,401 of Indian corn, 34,031 of oats, 37,668 of potatoes, 46,429 lbs. of wool, 121,777 of butter, and 4,250 tons of hay. There were 3,803 horses, 2,687 milch cows, 4,424 other cattle, 14,393 sheep, and 14,656 swine; 5 flour mills, 3 planing mills, 36 saw mills, and 3 woollen factories. Capital, Kokomo. IV. A N. E. county of Iowa, bordering on Minnesota, and watered by the Wapsipinicon, Turkey, and Upper Iowa rivers; area, about 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,282. It is well timbered, and has tracts of prairie. The Iowa and Minnesota division of the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad crosses the N. E. corner. The chief productions in 1870 were 321,514 bushels of wheat, 120,234 of Indian corn, 263,258 of oats, 30,713 of potatoes, 408,351 lbs. of butter, and 14,880 tons of hay. There were 2,175 horses, 2,734 milch cows, 3,922 other cattle, 1,648 sheep, and 2,640 swine.

Capital, New Oregon. V. A central county of Missouri, bounded S. and W. by the Missouri river, and drained by some of its small tributaries; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,233, of whom 5,193 were colored. It abounds in anthracite coal, and has quarries of limestone and sandstone. The surface is rolling, and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 400,410 bushels of wheat, 917,335 of Indian corn, 152,490 of oats, 42,422 of potatoes, 788,132 lbs. of tobacco, 66,554 of wool, 126,216 of butter, and 3,856 tons of hay. There were 5,799 horses, 2,425 mules and asses, 4,103 milch cows, 7,326 other cattle, 19,156 sheep, and 35,094 swine; 2 manufactories of carriages, 4 of saddlery and harness, and 4 flour mills. Capital, Fayette. VI. A S. E. county of Kansas, bordering on the Indian territory, and drained by Suicide creek and other branches of the Arkansas, and by Fall river; area, 1,271 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,794. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 4,766 bushels of wheat, 26,795 of Indian corn, 2,710 of oats, 2,304 of potatoes, and 150 tons of hay. There were 243 horses, 502 milch cows, 1,348 other cattle, 592 sheep, and 435 swine.

Capital, Elk Falls. VII. An E. central county of Nebraska, intersected by Loup fork of the Platte river and its branches; area, 576 sq. m.; not included in the census of 1870. VIII. A N. W. county of Dakota, bordering on Montana, recently formed and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 3,500 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the Missouri, intersected by the Little Missouri, and watered by other streams.