I. Pal, a Hungarian philologist, born at Nagy-Szalok, March 12, 1810. He became in 1842 professor of jurisprudence at Kasmark, was a member of the Hungarian diet of 1848-9, and has since lived in Pesth. He has written and edited a number of philological and ethnological publications, including Chrestomathia Fennica (Pesth, 1861), and "The Land of the Voguls" (3 vols., 1863), after the accounts of the Hungarian traveller Reguly. II. Janos, a Hungarian geographer, brother of the preceding, born at Gross-Schla-gendorf, June 8, 1820. He became in 1846 professor of statistics and history at Kasmark, took part in the revolutionary movement of 1848-'9, and was imprisoned, but in 1850 resumed his duties at Kasmark, and was subsequently suspended for advocating the independence of Protestant education. He removed to Pesth in 1853, and became professor of statistics, geography, and history at the polytechnic institute of Buda. His works include a " Universal History " (3 vols., Pesth, 2d ed., 1862), "Physical Geography of Hungary " (3 vols., 1863-'6), the text to the pictorial work "Hungary and Transylvania" (3 vols., Darmstadt, 1859-'64), and a Hungarian edition of the " Travels " of Ladislas Magyar (Pesth, 1859).