India, Or Hindustan (Hindu, and stan or sthan, settled habitation), a country of Asia, consisting in the widest sense of the great southern peninsula of that continent, and the adjacent territories S. of the Himalaya mountains and W. of Burmah and Siam, and forming the richest and most populous foreign dependency of Great Britain. It is situated between lat. 8° and 35° N. (or 36° 30' if Cashmere is included), and Ion. 66° 30' and 99° E., and is bounded N. by Chinese Turkistan and Thibet, from which it is separated by the Himalaya range, E. by Burmah and Siam, and W. by Beloochistan and Afghanistan. The entire coast of the country E. of Cape Comorin, the southern extremity of the peninsula, is washed by the bay of Bengal, while the S. W. coast extends along the Indian ocean and the Arabian sea. The extent of coast line is upward of 4,000 m. in all, of which more than half is on the bay of Bengal. The extreme length of India from N. to S. is about 1,900 m., and its extreme breadth from E. to W., exclusive of British Burmah, about 1,700 m.
According to Dr. W. W. Hunter, director general of statistics to the government of India, the empire and its feudatory states embrace a territory of 1,556,836 sq. m., with a population of not less than 200,000,000. The country is naturally divided into several great regions. In the north are the extensive depressed river basins of the Indus and the Ganges. The central portion is occupied by a diamond-shaped table land having its greatest length from N. to S. An elevated wedge-like district forms the termination of the peninsula, sloping from its centre to the E. and W. coasts, and southward to Cape Comorin. The Vindhya mountains stretch across the central plateau from near the W. coast, in lat. 22° 10', to the Ganges valley near lat. 25°. N. of this range is the northern portion of the diamond-shaped table land. Its apex is in the vicinity of Delhi; the Aravulli mountains, an offshoot of the Vindhya, bound it on the west, and its N. E. margin is parallel with the Ganges. The Vindhya range and its continuations to the Rajmahal hills, where the Ganges turns southward toward the delta, form the northern boundary of the southern part of the central table land.
It is fringed on the west by the Western Ghauts and on the east by the lower Eastern Ghauts, the two ranges converging at the south in the Neil-gherry hills, long supposed to be the highest mountain mass S. of the Himalaya. A peak in the Animalley hills, further S., is now known to be 8,837 ft. above the level of the sea, higher than Mt. Dodabetta, the loftiest summit of the Neilgherries. The Western Ghauts rise from 3,000 to upward of 5,000 ft. (in some parts to 7,000 ft.), but the Eastern Ghauts rarely exceed 3,000 ft. A more detailed examination of the physical configuration of India presents the following clearly defined geographical divisions: 1. The Himalaya mountains, fully treated under their own title. 2. The plain of the Indus, which comprises the Punjaub, or fan-shaped "country of the five rivers," Indus, Jhy-lum, Chenaub, Ravee, and Sutlej; the great Indian desert; and the valley of Sinde. The Suleiman and Hala mountains separate this region from Afghanistan and Beloochistan. The general surface of the Punjaub slopes southward from the Himalaya range.
In the north is a narrow but well watered agricultural belt of great fertility; to this succeeds a region where rain is less plentiful, and where cultivation is confined to the valleys, from 4 to 10 m. in width, which the rivers have worn down below the level of the adjacent sterile country, to depths of from 10 to 50 ft. The alluvial plain of Sinde is arid, rainless, and absolutely unproductive without artificial irrigation. It is bordered on the east by the great desert, frequently termed the Thurr, a formation of hard clay overspread with shifting sand, which extends to the basin of the Ganges, being itself bounded S. E. by the Aravulli mountains. The principal countries of the plain of the Indus are: the province of the Punjaub, which includes the former kingdom of Lahore; the native state of Bhawal-poor; the western portion of Rajpootana; and the commissionership of Sinde, under the Bombay government. 3. The plain of the Ganges, which, together with all central India nearly as far S. as the Nerbudda river, constitutes Hindostan proper, the name not having been applied originally to the whole country. This region is densely populated, teems with fertility, and is especially rich in historical interest.
On the east the basin of the Ganges unites with that of the Brahmapootra, beyond which rise the Cossyah and Garrow hills and the Burmese mountains. The slope of the Gangetic plain from the base of the Himalayas to the bay of Bengal is very gentle, not greatly exceeding 1,000 ft. of descent. The British administrative divisions of this part of India are: the Northwest Provinces, in which is the territory known as Rohilcund; Oude; and Bengal, of which the garden-like state of Behar forms the western portion. 4. The highlands of central India. In the most extensive sense these comprehend the whole of the interior plateau not included in the Deccan. On the northern slope is the table land of Malwa, with an elevation of from 1,300 to 2,000 ft. above the sea. It is occupied by a number of principalities ruled by native chiefs, under the supervision of the British government. On the W. side are Guzerat and Cutch. A part of Rajpootana falls within this geographical division. The territory, which owes its name to the former rule of Rajpoot princes over most of it, consists of 18 separate subject-allied states of various dimensions, with a collective area estimated at 80,000 sq. m., and about 8,500,000 inhabitants.
Strictly speaking, the Nerbudda valley is the northern limit of the Deccan; but the region comprising the Satpoora hills, S. of the river, and lying between Ion. 76° and 82° E. along the 22d parallel, is generally regarded as belonging to the highlands of central India. Here culminates the elevated ridge which has been referred to as crossing the peninsula, in peaks nearly 5,000 ft. high, rising above numerous lower plateaus and Bat-topped hills, below which lies the general surface of the plain, which has an elevation of about 1,000 ft. above the sea. In this section are the head waters of the Sone, which flows into the Ganges, of the Mahanuddy, running directly into the bay of Bengal, and of the parallel westward-flowing Nerbudda and Taptee. There is also a southern drainage into the Godavery. The country was anciently called Gondwana, from the Gonds, its aboriginal inhabitants. It is now incorporated politically within 11 of the 19 administrative districts of the Central Provinces. 5. The Deccan, a term originally applied to the whole peninsula of India S. of the Nerbudda river, but now restricted to the country extending from the Nerbudda on the north to the Kistnah on the south, or from near lat. 23° to 16° N. It consists chiefly of an elevated table land, enclosed by low plains extending to the seashore, the E. and W. Ghauts forming its buttresses.
This table land extends beyond the Kistnah to the Neilgherries, and gradually increases in height, as it trends southward, from 1,500 to 2,000 ft. in Hyderabad to 4,000 ft. in Mysore. Its principal rivers are the Godavery, draining an area of 92,800 sq. m., the Kistnah, with a drainage basin of 81,000 sq. m., and the Mahanuddy. These, as well as the Cavery, which waters Mysore, flow to the S. E. coast. The centre of the N. portion of the Deccan is occupied by the territories of the nizam or rajah of Hyderabad, a Mohammedan prince whose dominions were formerly called the kingdom of Golconda, from the city of that name, famous for its traffic in diamonds. The rest of the Deccan, with inconsiderable exceptions, is subject directly to British rule, under the governments of Madras and Bombay; while Mysore is now administered as a British province. The narrow strip of land which lies between the Western Ghauts and the Indian ocean is called the Malabar coast, but the name properly belongs only to the portion S. of Canara. The opposite coast of the peninsula, on the bay of Bengal, is called Coroman-del. All the eastern part of the peninsula between the Kistnah and the southern boundary of Mysore is called the Carnatic. 6. The triangular block in which India terminates at the south.
Here the Palnai hills confront the Neilgherries, and like them overlook the gap of Coimbatore, which separates the two ranges. Extensions of the Eastern and Western Ghauts stretch southward nearly to Cape Comorin. Cochin and Travancore are subject-allied territories in the west; the rest of the region is a part of the Madras presidency. The entire tract is fertile, well wooded, and abundantly supplied with water. 7. British Burmah, described under its own title, is a province geographically distinct from the rest of India. - For purposes of political administration under British rule, India was long divided into the three presidencies of Fort William in Bengal, Madras, and Bombay; but this mode of division has been abandoned. The following table shows the existing arrangement of provinces, and the area and population of each, according to the official statement furnished to parliament by the secretary of state for India in 1873. In the case of Bengal, the area is exclusive of waste and forest lands and great rivers; and the Bannu district is not included in the area of the Punjaub:
Date of census.
Area in sq.
Total British India.
The statistics as to British Burmah are merely estimates from the administration report of that province for 187l-'2. A census was taken there in 1872, but its results have not yet been published. Bengal proper, Behar, Orissa, Assam, and Chota Nagpore make up the present province of Bengal, and together with the Northwest Provinces formerly constituted the presidency of Fort William in Bengal. Mysore and Coorg are under one provincial administration. The chief executive authority of the Indian government is the governor general, or viceroy, who is appointed by the crown, and receives a salary of £25,000 per annum, besides allowances. He acts under the direction of the secretary of state for India, a member of the British ministry, who is assisted by a council of 15 persons, 9 of whom must have had at least 10 years' experience in India. Originally 7 of these councillors were appointed by the East India company, but the secretary of state for India has the power to fill future vacancies. Their term of office is 10 years. The lawmaking power is vested in the governor general in council.
The seat of government is at Calcutta. The governors of Madras and Bombay are appointed directly by the crown, but the lieutenant governors and commissioners of the other provinces are appointed by the viceroy subject to the approval of the crown. The governor general's council consists of five ordinary members, and the commander-in-chief of the army as an extraordinary member. The military force maintained by the British government in India in 1872 numbered 190,264 men, of whom, exclusive of officers, 60,632 were English, stationed chiefly in the Punjaub and along the valley of the Ganges. All appointments to the civil service are made upon competitive examination. The district is the unit of the general civil administration of the British in India. The districts vary greatly in area and population, as, for example, from 1,200 to 12,000 sq. m., and from 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants. The chief government official in each district is the collector and magistrate. He receives the revenue, is intrusted with magisterial powers and certain judicial functions, and is generally responsible for the public welfare. He is usually aided by several deputies and assistants.
The highest judicial authority in the district is vested in the district judge, who exercises original jurisdiction in criminal cases, reviews the judicial determinations of the collector and magistrate, and hears appeals from the numerous civil courts held by native judges. There are high courts at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, with general appellate jurisdiction, special powers concerning cases affecting Europeans, and original local jurisdiction. A code of criminal procedure regulates the administration of the laws relating to offences. - With the exception of Nepaul and Bootan in the north, the native states of India are all more or less subject to British control or interference. Estimates of the area and population of these states appear in the following table:
NATIVE STATES UNDER
Area in sq. m.
Government of India.......
" N'hwest provinces.
" Central Provinces.
Total native states................
In the north, British supremacy is acknowledged in Cashmere, although that country is not included in the above estimates. Bhawalpoor is the next in importance of the states supervised by the Punjaub government, which also superintends the Sikh districts lying between the Sutlej and the Jumna. Further S. is Rajpoot-ana, the agent for which resides at Ajmeer, in the small British district of that name, in the centre of the country. The native states of central India form what is called the Indore agency. Among them are Gwalior, Bhopal, and the Mahratta country. Guzerat, Catty-war, and Cutch are under the Bombay administration. In the Deccan, the chief dependency is Hyderabad. The Madras government presides over Cochin and Travancore in the extreme south. The French possess Pondi-cherry and Carical on the Coromandel coast, and Mahe on the Malabar coast, as well as the town of Chandernagore, 17 m. N. of Calcutta; but the aggregate area of the French colonial possessions in India is estimated at only 196 sq. m., and the population at about 260,000. The territory of Goa, on the Bombay coast, Damaun, a seaport of North Concan, and Diu island off the southern coast of Catty war, are colonies of Portugal. Goa has an area of about 1,000 sq. m. and contains about 418,000 inhabitants. - The principal mountains and rivers of India have been referred to in the general description of the country.
The respective lengths of the chief rivers are: the Indus, 1,960 m.; the Ganges and Brahmapootra each over 1,500 m., if the latter be regarded as including the Sanpo; Jumna, a tributary of the Ganges, 800; Sutlej, a branch of the Indus, 900; Che-naub, a tributary of the Indus, 750; Gunduck, a branch of the Ganges, 400; Godavery, 900; Kistnah, 800; Nerbudda, 800; Mahanuddy, 550; Cavery, 470; and Taptee, 450. India, considering its great extent, is singularly deficient in lakes. In the province of Orissa is the Chilka lake, 44 m. long and from 5 to 20 m. broad; and on the Coromandel coast is the Pulicat lake, 33 m. long and 11m. broad. These, however, are salt, and are in fact little more than lagoons formed by the sea breaking over the low sandy shore. There are a few other lakes, but none of much size. - The climate of India varies from that of the temperate zone in the Himalaya to the tropical heat of the lowlands. On the central and southern table lands the climate is comparatively mild, the thermometer falling as low as the freezing point in winter; but on the great plains which contain the principal cities and the bulk of the population the heat during the greater part of the year is excessive, the thermometer frequently rising to 100° and 110° F. A marked influence is exercised on the climate and seasons of Hindostan by the winds called monsoons, which blow half the year from the S. W. and the other half from the N. E. The S. W. monsoon begins in the south of Hindostan early in June, and in the north somewhat later.
It brings with it from the Indian ocean floods of rain, which continues to fall at intervals until the end of September. During this rainy season the fall of rain is in Bengal from 50 to 80 in. The N. E. monsoon begins about the middle of October, and brings rain from the bay of Bengal, which falls in torrents on the Coromandel coast until the middle or end of December, during which period the opposite coast of the peninsula enjoys fair weather and northerly breezes. From December to June is the dry season, during which little rain falls. - The great plain of the Ganges is a rich, black, diluvial mould. In some parts of Bengal extensive tracts of clayey soil are found. In the Punjaub a black fertile soil prevails, which to the southwest in Sinde and Guzerat becomes sandy. On the table land of Malwa the soil is a deep, rich, black mould. On the great northern table land it is generally a fertile loam on a substratum of rock. On the Malabar coast a red clay soil is found. On the Coromandel coast the soil is mostly sandy from the sea to the foot of the Ghauts. A complete geological survey of India was commenced 22 years ago, and is still in progress. Coal, iron, and salt are the most important and abundant mineral products.
The principal coal fields are in the valley of the river Dammooda, N. W. of Calcutta, where they occupy an area of 1,500 sq. m. Of 497,000 tons of coal mined in India in 1868, 493,000 tons were obtained from the Raniganj bed in this district. Other coal-bearing localities are Chota Nagpore, South Rewah, and the upper Sone valley, where seams are known to exist, although they have never been thoroughly explored; the Nerbudda valley and the Satpoora hills in central India; and the sandstone region which forms the basin of the Godavery and its affluents the Pranhita and Wurdah. Coal of good quality is also found in the Cossyah hills, and in the wild and densely timbered tracts of eastern Assam. The average proportion of fixed carbon in Indian coal is 52 per cent., and there is from 10 to 30 per cent. of ash. Iron is widely distributed throughout the country, the sources of supply being red hematite, magnetic, specular, and clay ores, and surface deposits. It has been manufactured in India for centuries. Salt is procured, in immense quantities and of remarkable purity, from the salt range of the Punjaub. In India the amount of salt consumed bears a greater proportion to other articles of food than in any other country in the world.
Gold is found in the gravel of streams, but only in small quantities. It occurs in the northwestern Himalaya districts, where silver associated with lead is also found, and in Chota Nagpore, Assam, the valley of the Godavery, and many other parts. Lead is obtained from the same portion of the Himalaya, and there is a considerable yield of copper in Gurwhal, Nepaul, and Sikkim, and near Sing-bhoom in Bengal. Antimony occurs abundantly in northern India, and cobalt in small quantities near Jeypoor in Rajpootana. There are valuable tin mines in British Burmah, and petroleum has been discovered in the Pegu district of that province, as well as in some parts of the Punjaub. Among the gems found in India are the diamond, ruby, topaz, beryl, car-nelian, and garnet. The yield of Indian diamonds has largely diminished, but some are still obtained in the Central Provinces and in southern India. Beautiful agates are exported from Guzerat. - The characteristics of Indian vegetation vary with the zones of elevation. The flora of the mountain region of the north corresponds closely with that of Europe. This section is the home of the pine and other conifers.
No species of pine is native to the peninsula, but on the mountains of British Burmah grow forests of the pinus Khasiana. Along the foot of the Himalaya range from Sikkim to Assam is found the ficus elastica, which yields caoutchouc. Below the coniferous forests are tracts of bamboo, whence millions of bamboos are annually exported down the Ganges. Here also grows the saul (shorea robiista), second in value only to the teak among the timber trees of India. There are extensive teak forests on the trap formations of the highlands of central India. In Sinde and the Punjaub, the babul (acacia Arabica) and a leafless caper shrub (capparis aphylla) cover broad belts of country. A large proportion of the timber growth of the Northwest Provinces consists of the deodar tree, from which railway sleepers are made. The sissu is another important Indian timber tree. There are plantations of sandalwood in Mysore, and the valuable ironwood tree occurs in the Burmese com-missionership of Aracan. The Indian government maintains a thorough system of forest conservancy. Among the characteristic forms of vegetation are the celebrated banian tree and the sacred peepul (ficus religiosa). The palm family is represented by the cocoanut and betelnut.
Rice is the staple cereal production of the plains, which also yield cotton, sugar cane, indigo, jute, and opium. Maize, millet, peas, beans, and many varieties of grain peculiar to the country are also raised. "Wheat and barley are cultivated on the higher grounds. There are extensive tea gardens in Assam and the mountainous districts of the north, and the cultivation of coffee is carried on among the hills of southern India. The cinchona plant was introduced into India from South America in 1860, and has been grown with great success among the Neilgherries, and in other sections. Pepper is produced in Malabar. The fruits of the temperate zone are found in the elevated regions, while those of the tropics, prominent among which is the mango, grow in the lower and warmer parts of the country. - In the geographical distribution of animals, the fauna of India belongs to the zoological province including southern Asia and the western portion of the Indian archipelago. Ten species of felides are found S. of the Himalaya, including the lion, tiger, leopard, cheetah, and the true cats (F. catus). The Indian lion is characterized by a very short mane. Of all mammals, the so-called royal or Bengal tiger is the most destructive to human life.
The Asiatic elephant (E. Indicus) is captured for purposes of domestication; the tame animals will not breed, so that the supply has to be kept up from the forests. There are two species of rhinoceros whose range includes India, both single-horned. Of these the larger (R. Indi-cus) is met with at the foot of the Himalaya and in Assam; the smaller (R. Sondaicus) was formerly called the Javan rhinoceros, but is now known to frequent the mainland, extending into western Bengal. The dromedary is enumerated by Blyth in his catalogue of Indian mammals; the Bactrian camel has been introduced. Two genera of four-horned antelopes occur in the Sivalik hills. Several species of deer are met with. Most of the Indian monkeys belong to the genus semnopithecus, having a long tail, which, however, is not prehensile. The sacred monkey of the Hindoos (S. entellus) is the species best known. Bears, wild boars, foxes, and squirrels are numerous, and hares and porcupines abound. The Indian hyaena is the striped species, and, like the jackal, is very common. The buffalo is found wild throughout the peninsula, and is also domesticated; other domestic animals are the horse, the ass, the yak, and the goat.
Frugivorous, insectivorous, and leaf-nosed bats are all denizens of India. Many of the birds of the country are distinguished by the most gorgeous plumage; such are the various species of cuckoos and parrots, the kingfishers, and the pigeons. Among the birds of prey we find eagles, falcons, hawks, and vultures; and among the waders are cranes, herons, and storks. Crows and owls are numerous in many districts. The gallinaceous birds are represented by partridges, pheasants, quails, wild peacocks, and the common domestic fowls of Europe and America, which originally were derived from southern Asia. India abounds in dangerous reptiles. Nearly 150 species of snakes inhabit the peninsula, many of which are fatally venomous. Those most dreaded are the celebrated cobra de capello; the hamadryad (ophiophagus elaps), a hooded tree snake; the krait (bunga-rus coeruleus); and the daboia (vipera Russel-lii), known in Ceylon as the tic polonga. In 1869, 14,520 persons lost their lives in India in consequence of snake bites; and in 1871 the total number of deaths known to have been caused by dangerous animals of all kinds was 18,078. Crocodiles haunt the rivers in great numbers, and in many districts tortoises and turtles are plentiful.
The rivers swarm with fish, which form a large part of the food of the people in Orissa and other portions of Bengal, British Burmah, the Northwest Provinces, the Pun-jaub, and Canara. The varieties of insects are innumerable. - The most remarkable feature in the social life of India is the Hindoo institution of caste, for an account of which see India, Religions and Religious Literature of. The condition of the people is as various as are the different regions they inhabit. For the most part they are comfortably housed. The system of townships or villages has prevailed for ages, and has survived through innumerable revolutions and conquests. Each township manages its own internal affairs, levies upon its members the taxes demanded by the state, organizes its own police, and is responsible for all property taken by thieves within its limits. It administers justice to its own members, punishing small offences and deciding petty lawsuits. It also keeps in repair the roads and public edifices, and provides for the maintenance of public worship and the support of the poor. For all these duties it provides the proper officers, who are paid by fees, sometimes in money, but more often in produce.
Cultivation is laboriously though not very skilfully pursued by the natives, whose implements are usually of a rude kind. Manure is little employed, as the bulk of the people use little or no animal food and keep scarcely any stock. The religious prejudices of the people also prevent them from using as manure the dung of cattle, which is considered holy and devoted to religious purposes. The climate and sanitary condition of India make the country peculiarly subject to pestilence and famine; bad water and bad drainage give rise to disease, and the ravages of the periodical epidemics are aggravated by the immense congregations of people on long pilgrimages. Medical dispensaries and hospitals have been established by the government in most of the provinces. Civil order is maintained by a police force of about 190,000 constables, in addition to the watchmen of the village communities. The inhabitants of India are the most litigious people in the world; 1,088,153 civil suits were pending in the country in 1871-'2. - In none of the fine arts except architecture have the Hindoos attained much eminence.
Their paintings are of very little merit, though the walls of temples, of palaces, and of the better class of private dwellings are often ornamented at great cost with pictures illustrating the characters and events of their mythology. More attention has been paid to sculpture than to painting, and in the temples cut from the living rock great numbers of statues are contained, some single figures and others large groups. Many of these are bold and spirited in design, though the human form is not exhibited in good proportion or with its parts well developed. In many districts of India splendid monuments of architecture abound, mostly the work of past ages, and many of remote antiquity. Such are the Jain temples at Ajmeer and elsewhere, some of which were built long before the Christian era, and are distinguished not only for size and splendor of ornamentation, but for symmetry, beauty of proportion, and refinement of taste. The mosques, palaces, and tombs erected by the Mohammedan emperors are the finest specimens in the world of the Saracenic style of architecture. Those at Agra, Delhi, and Lucknow are especially remarkable for their delicacy, beauty, and taste.
The most wonderful structures in the country are perhaps the great rock temples in the western part of the Deccan, and those near Bombay. (See Elephanta, and Ellora.) - Among the most important cities of India are Calcutta, the capital, on the Hoogly, in Bengal; Bombay, the chief seaport on the "W. coast; Madras, on the Coromandel coast; Benares, the holy city of the Hindoos, in the Northwest Provinces, on the banks of the Ganges; Patna, an important centre of the opium trade in Be-har; Allahabad, at the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna; Lucknow, the capital of Oude; Delhi, the metropolis of the Mohammedan empire in India; Lahore and Amritsir, in the Punjaub; Baroda, in Guzerat; Poonah, in the territory of Bombay; Nagpore, in the heart of central India; and Hyderabad, the capital of the Nizam's Dominions. Almost all of these cities contain upward of 100,000 inhabitants, as do also Agra, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, and several others. - A vast net-, work of railways, constructed by the British, is rapidly overspreading the entire land.
Lines are already completed running up the Gangetic valley from Calcutta to Allahabad and Delhi, with a continuation to Lahore, and a branch to Lucknow; from Bombay to Allahabad, thus connecting the former city with Calcutta; also from Bombay northward to Baroda, and southward across the peninsula to Madras. Many other lines are in progress of construction. In 1873, 5,478 3/4 m. of railway were in operation. Telegraph lines, with an aggregate length of 15,102 m. in 1871, connect all the important places in India. There are three routes of telegraphic communication with England: one consisting of land lines from Constantinople to Bagtlad, and thence to Fao at the head of the Persian gulf, whence a submarine cable leads to the port of Kurrachee near the mouths of the Indus; a second, by means of the same cable to Bushire, which is one of its repeating stations, and thence to the European system by way of Teheran, Tiflis, and Kertch; and the third being the submarine cable between Suez and Bombay. A submarine cable also extends from Madras to Singapore, and the latter port is similarly connected with Hong Kong. The chief public works of native construction are reservoirs or tanks for purposes of irrigation, which exist in immense numbers and frequently of great size and cost, being often magnificently built of stone.
There are also a number of canals constructed by the native princes in former ages, but these have mostly fallen into neglect and disuse. The British government has conducted an extensive and systematic course of internal improvement. Immense canals, inferior to none in the world, have been constructed, the chief of which are those of the Jumna and the Ganges, to facilitate not only irrigation but the navigation of those rivers. These great systems of irrigation comprehend not only the upper portion of the Ganges basin, but the valley of the Indus, and districts in Orissa, Madras, Bombay, and other parts of the country. - Silk, cotton, and woollen goods are the leading manufactures of India. Sericulture is extensively carried on in Bengal and Mysore, and both these provinces are the seats of silk manufacture. Delhi is celebrated for its silk embroideries, and Benares and Ahmedabad for their gold brocades. The manufactures of the Punjaub comprise silks, woollens, and white and colored cotton goods, the estimated value of the annual production being £4,850,000. Cotton is also manufactured in Oude, the Central Provinces, and Mysore. In the latter country there are cutlery works and manufactories of gold and silver lace.
As the great bulk of the products is consumed in the country itself, the internal trade is very large, but there are only meagre statistics concerning it. Silver is the standard of value, and the monetary unit is the rupee, which is worth about two shillings sterling. The foreign trade of India has for centuries been famous for its lucrative nature. There were said to be 1,230 square-rigged vessels, 948 steamers, and over 50,000 native craft engaged in its carriage in 187l-12. In that year the values of some of the principal exports were as follows: coffee, £1,380,409; cotton, £21,272,-430; grains, including rice, £4,865,748; indigo, £3,705,475; jute, £4,117,308; opium, £13,-365,228; seeds, £2,728,127; tea, £1,482,185; and wool, £906,699. The chief articles imported in the same year were: cotton twist and yarn, £2,473,353; cotton piece goods, £15,009,-981; machinery, £405,835; manufactured metals, £925,839; raw metals, £1,464,936; railway materials and stores, £516,996; salt, £918,-915; raw silk, £651,595; silk goods, £480,948; wines and liquors, £1,381,961. Of gold and silver £11,573,813 were imported in 1871-'2, and £1,476,093 exported, leaving a balance of £10,097,720 remaining in India. This flow of the precious metals into India has for ages been a remarkable feature of the commerce of that country.
A considerable foreign traffic, amounting to more than £1,000,000 in value annually, is carried on over the Himalayan passes, with Afghanistan, Turkistan, and Thibet. - The main sources of government revenue are the land tax, opium sales, salt duties, customs, and excise and stamp tax. More than two fifths of the receipts are derived from the land settlements. The terms of these vary in different provinces, but the principle generally sought to be applied is that the government is entitled to receive a certain proportion of the net produce of the land. Three modes of settlement are in vogue: the zemindary, in which proprietors known as zemindars are responsible for the assessments of given districts, thus standing in the position of landlords themselves; the village system, in which the villagers hold the land collectively as toward the government; and the ryotwar system, in which the individual cultivators, known as ryots, pay assessments directly to the government. Bengal is for the most part subject to a permanent settlement made on a fixed basis for ever with the zemindars in 1793; so that the land revenue of Bengal proper, Behar, and Orissa yields but little more now than it did then.
Generally throughout the rest of the country, however, the government demand is a certain percentage of an assumed rental, which rental is fixed for a term of years, quite commonly 30. In northern India the tenure by village communities prevails, but Madras and Bombay are subject to the ryotwar system. The government has a monopoly of the opium grown in Bengal, which it buys of the cultivator at a fixed price, and sells in the following year. A heavy duty is levied on Malwa opium, which can be legally exported only through the port of Bombay. There is a duty on imported salt in Bengal, a government salt monopoly in Madras, and an excise on the salt works in Bombay. In the year ending March 31, 1872, the revenue included £20,520,337 from land, £9,253,859 from opium, £5,966,595 from salt, £2,575,990 from customs, £2,369,109 from excise on spirits and drugs, and £2,476,-333 from stamps. The total ordinary revenue of the Indian government for that year was £50,110,215, and the total ordinary expenditure £46,986,038. For 1872-'3 the revenue was £50,220,360, and the total expenditure was £50,641,052, of which £2,184,570 was extraordinary expenditure for public works.
Excluding the latter item, there was a surplus of £1,763,878; including it, the deficit for the year amounted to £420,692. The regular estimates for 1873-4 were as follows: Revenue, £49,476,000; ordinary expenditure, £51,577,-300, which included £3,920,000 for the relief of the famine in Bengal; extraordinary expenditure upon public works, £3,541,000; total expenditure, £55,118,300; surplus, excluding expenditures on account of the famine and for public works, £1,818,700; deficit, excluding expenditure for public works, £2,101,300; deficit, including it, £5,642,300. The preliminary estimates of the governor general for the fiscal year 1874-'5 show a revenue of £48,984,-000 and a total expenditure of £54,935,000, thus leaving a deficit of £5,951,000. The expenditure comprises £2,580,000 for famine relief, and £4,563,000 for public works; if these items were excluded, there would be a surplus of £1,192,000. The deficit would be reduced to £1,388,000 if the amount laid out on public works were excluded from the total expenditure. - A well graded system of education, providing instruction for all classes, has been in process of organization and development in India since 1854. There are three universities, at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay respectively.
With each of these is affiliated a certain number of colleges, which fit the university undergraduates for the higher examinations; and next below in the scale are the high schools where students are prepared to enter the university. These institutions complete the scheme for the education of the wealthier classes. After them come the middle schools, where the course of instruction is intermediate between that of the primary and the high schools. Elementary education is afforded by the primary or village schools, of which the several provinces contain 37,544, there being 9,701 in receipt of government aid. Of colleges there are 28 in Bengal, 7 in the Northwest Provinces, 1 in Oude, 3 in the Punjaub, 13 in Madras, and 8 in Bombay. The total number of high schools is 349, of middle schools 3,096, of female schools 2,011, and of normal schools 132. The professional schools comprise civil engineering colleges at Roorkee, Calcutta, Madras, and Poonah; medical colleges at Bombay, Madras, Lahore, and Calcutta (the attendance of students at the last in 1871-'2 numbering 1,046 persons); and schools of design and decorative art at Calcutta and Madras. There are museums in many of the principal cities.
From the outset it has been the object of the Indian educational system, while encouraging the cultivation of the English language, to diffuse a knowledge of European science, art, and philosophy by means of the native languages. There is an influential native press, and several hundreds of books in various tongues are published annually. Scientific and literary societies, including both Europeans and natives in their membership, flourish in many of the cities. Prominent among them is the Bengal Asiatic society at Calcutta, founded in 1784 by Sir William Jones. - Of the earliest period of the history of India little is known with certainty. The sacred writings of the Hindoos give to their ancient history an incredible chronology, extending over millions of years, and treat of heroes, kings, and dynasties, in most instances probably merely mythical or fabulous. It is the general opinion of the best authorities that the Hindoos were not the first inhabitants of the country, but were an invading race who subdued and enslaved the aborigines, who are still represented by rude tribes in the central and southern parts of India, such as the Bheels, the Kolees, the Gonds, and the Shanars. The distinction of castes did not exist among these people, and their religion seems to have consisted of the worship of a variety of spiritual deities.
The Aryan Hindoos are supposed to have entered the country from the northwest, probably from regions between the Hindoo Koosh and the Caspian sea. They brought with them the Brahmanical religion, and formed the institution of caste by dividing themselves into the three higher castes of Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, while the conquered people constituted the Sudras or servile caste. It is not known at what period this invasion took place, but it was undoubtedly prior to the 14th century B. C. The language of the conquerors was probably the Sanskrit, in which their sacred books were written. The Vedas, supposed to have been compiled about the 14th century B. 0., are esteemed the holiest. Two great dynasties, the kings of the race of the sun, who reigned in Ayodha, the modern Oude, and the race of the moon, who reigned in Pruyag, the modern Allahabad, figure in the legends of their early history, and their contests are recorded in the poem known as the Mahabharata. The most celebrated of these sovereigns was Rama or Ramchunder, who is supposed to have lived in the 12th or 13th century B. C. His deeds are the subject of the great epic poem the Ramayana. Subsequently long civil wars raged among the princes of the lunar race, which culminated in a great battle where the armies of 56 kings fought for 18 days.
But the first event in the history of India of which we have an authentic account was the invasion by the Persians under King Darius, about 518-521 B. 0. The Persian monarch conquered and annexed to his empire provinces on the Indus so rich and extensive that, according to the Grecian historians, their tribute furnished one third of the revenues of the Persian crown. In 327 B. C. Alexander the Great, having overthrown the Persian empire, invaded India, defeated Porus, one of the kings of the country now called the Punjaub, and penetrated with his army as far as the Hyphasis (the Sutlej or its upper branch, the Beas). The historians of his expedition describe the manners, customs, and pursuits of the Hindoos in a way that shows they have changed but little since. In the division of the Macedonian empire after the death of Alexander, Seleucus, one of his generals, obtained the eastern part, and founded the Bactrian kingdom, which included the provinces on the Indus. He attempted conquests beyond that river, and was involved in war with Chandragupta, king of Maghada, whom the Greeks called Sandracottus. With this monarch Seleucus made a treaty by which the Greeks relinquished all claim to any possessions east of the Indus. The kingdom of Maghada comprised the greater part of northern and central India, and lasted till about 195 B. C. Its capital, Palibothra, was on the Ganges, but its precise site is unknown.
After its downfall India was divided into a number of kingdoms, of whose history little is known, and that little has been gathered principally from inscriptions and coins. India's relations with the external world were again renewed about A. D. 715, when the Mohammedan governor of Bassorah sent by sea an army not exceeding 8,000 in number, commanded by Mohammed Kasim, to obtain restitution of an Arab vessel which had been taken near the mouths of the Indus not long previously. Kasim landed near the mouth of the Indus, and succeeded in conquering Sinde and the southern part of the Punjaub, where the Mohammedans retained power for about forty years, when they were expelled by the Rajpoots. India remained unmolested from that time till 977, when Subooktugeen, the Afghan sultan of Ghuzni, invaded a portion of the Punjaub and took possession of Peshawur, but did not long retain his conquests. His son Mahmoud made his first expedition into India in 1001, at the head of an army of 42,000 men, and conquered a portion of the north. In the course of his reign of 33 years, which ended in 1030, he made 10 expeditions into India for conquest and plunder. He left extensive possessions in western India to his successors, one of whom, Masaoud III., greatly extended the Mohammedan rule.
He carried his conquests beyond the Ganges, and transferred his court from Ghuzni to Lahore. He was the first Mohammedan sovereign whose capital was within the limits of Hindostan. In the early part of the 12th century a civil war among the Mohammedan conquerors resulted in placing the house of Ghore on the throne of Lahore. One of the monarchs of this dynasty, Shahab ud-Din, better known as Mohammed Ghore, overthrew the kings of Delhi and Ajmeer, conquered Benares, Gwalior, Guzerat, and many other cities and provinces, and at the time of his death in 1205 was master of nearly all the country north of the Nerbudda, including Bengal, Sinde, and "Guzerat. Under his successor, Kuttub ud-Din, a Turkish slave who had been educated by Shahab ud-Din, the Mohammedan dominions in India were separated from the Afghan empire and formed an independent kingdom, the capital of which was Delhi. Kuttub ud-Din was the founder of a dynasty known as the slave kings, ten in number, five of whom were violently deposed, and the last, Kei Kobad, was murdered in 1288. The most eminent of these sovereigns, Altmish, extended his dominions by conquests southward, and at the end of his reign all India N. of a line running from Surat to the mouth of the Ganges acknowledged the authority of the court of Delhi. Kei Kobad was succeeded by Jelal ud-Din, the founder of the dynasty known as the house of Khilji. During his reign, his nephew Alla ud-Din, an able and ambitious general, invaded and conquered a large part of the Deccan, and on his return from this expedition caused his uncle the emperor to be assassinated, and usurped the throne in 1296. He was one of the most eminent of the Mohammedan rulers of Hindostan, and in his reign of 20 years considerably enlarged the empire, maintained a brilliant court, patronized learning and the arts, and successfully repelled several great invasions of the Moguls or Tartars who had established themselves in the countries west of the Indus. He died in 1316, poisoned, it was generally thought, by his vizier.
His three successors died by violence, and in 1321 the house of Khilji became extinct. Five emperors of that dynasty had reigned 33 years, and all had perished by poison or the sword. Togluk Shah, the founder of the house of Togluk, ascended the vacant throne in 1321. He was one of the best of the Mohammedan sovereigns, but his reign lasted only four years, when he was killed by the fall of a pavilion which is supposed to have been intentionally caused by his son, who succeeded him under the name of Mohammed Togluk, and after a reign of about 27 years died in 1351, leaving, says a historian, "the reputation of one of the most accomplished princes and most furious tyrants that ever adorned or disgraced human nature." During this disorderly reign Bengal and several of the provinces of southern India became independent. Mohammed Togluk was succeeded after a short civil war by his cousin Feroze Togluk, the founder of Ferozabad, near Delhi, who reigned for 36 years, and was distinguished for humanity and for the vast number of public works which he constructed and endowed with revenues.
In the reign of his grandson Mahmoud Togluk, in 1398, India was invaded by the famous Tartar conqueror Tamerlane, who captured Delhi, plundered and slaughtered the inhabitants with frightful barbarity, and caused himself to be proclaimed emperor of India. At the end of 15 days, however, he abruptly quitted Delhi and returned to his own country, "marking his way with fire and sword, and leaving anarchy, famine, and pestilence behind him." The governors of the various provinces of the empire proclaimed their independence of Delhi, and assumed royal titles, so that only a small district remained subject to the authority of the imperial capital. Half a century of anarchy succeeded, during which there were five titular emperors in Delhi, who however had no real authority beyond the walls of the city. The Togluk dynasty ceased with the death of Mohammed Togluk in 1414. At length in 1450 Beylol Lodi, an Afghan military chief of talent and energy, made himself the actual sovereign, though nominally acting as vizier to one of the titular monarchs, whom he finally succeeded in 1478. Before his death in 1488, he succeeded in recovering many of the provinces which had formerly belonged to the empire.
His son Sikunder still further enlarged his dominions in a reign of 2D years, during the latter part of which he made Agra his capital. Sikunder was succeeded by his son Ibrahim, in whose reign India was again invaded by the Moguls, led by a descendant of Tamerlane, the celebrated Baber, sultan of Cabool. Ibrahim Avas defeated and slain in a battle on the plains of Paniput in 1526, and Baber ascended the throne with little further opposition, the imperial cities of Delhi and Agra surrendering without resistance. In the course of his reign of five years, Baber, who had remained in India, made himself master of all the provinces which had belonged to his predecessor. He died in December, 1530, and was succeeded by his son Humayun, who allowed one of his brothers to hold Cabool and the rest of Afghanistan as an independent kingdom, and contented himself with his Indian dominions. These he was deprived of at the end of nine years by Shere Khan, the governor of Bengal, a man of great military talents, who rebelled, defeated the emperor in several battles, and finally compelled him to fly for refuge to Persia. Shere Khan was then proclaimed emperor of Delhi, with the title of Shere Shah. He reigned with wisdom and success for about five years, when he was killed by the explosion of a magazine while directing the siege of a rebellious fortress.
He was succeeded by his son Selim Shah Soor, and by his grandson Feroze Khan, the latter of whom after a few days' reign was murdered by his uncle Mubari, who usurped the throne and took the name of Mohammed Shah. In the mean time the exiled Humayun, by the aid of the king of Persia, had made himself master of Cabool, and now resolved on attempting the recovery of the throne of Delhi. This he successfully accomplished by the aid of his heroic son Akbar, and he reentered the city of Delhi, whence he had been driven 15 years before, in July, 1555. He did not survive his restoration to power more than a few months, being killed by an accidental fall from the terrace of his palace at Delhi. Akbar, who succeeded his father in 1556, reigned for 51 years. He is reputed the ablest, most liberal, and most powerful of the Mogul emperors of India. He restored the empire to its former bounds, reorganized the army and the finances in a statesmanlike manner, so that his revenues were largely increased while the burdens of the people were diminished, and treated all religions with respect and impartiality, freely admitting the Hindoos to a share in the administration of public affairs, from which they had hitherto been jealously excluded by their. Mohammedan masters.
Akbar was succeeded in 1605 by his son Selim, who took the title of Jehanghir, or " conqueror of the world." In the early part of his reign he was intemperate, capricious, and cruel; but his habits and conduct greatly improved after his marriage with the celebrated Nourmahal, "the light of the harem," one of the most extraordinary and accomplished women known to history, whose influence over the emperor was so great that it is said he took no step without consulting her, and that in every affair in which she took an interest her will was law. The last years of Jehanghir were embittered by the quarrels of his four sons, each of whom aimed at the succession, and who were at times in open rebellion against their father. He died in 1627, in the 22d year of his reign. He was succeeded by his favorite son Shah Jehan, in whose reign the Deccan was completely subdued and rendered tributary, and a long and eventually unsuccessful war was waged with the Persians and the Afghans. In 1657 he fell very ill, and being thought to be dying, his son Dara, the heir apparent, assumed the reins of government. The other sons, Shuja, Murad, and Aurungzebe, who had each been appointed viceroys over important provinces, immediately revolted and prepared by force of arms to assert their pretensions to the succession.
Shuja was defeated, but Aurungzebe by stratagem obtained possession of his father's person, and kept him in seclusion till he died, seven years afterward. Murad was also soon seized and imprisoned by Aurungzebe, who caused himself to be proclaimed emperor. Dara continued the contest for some time longer, but was finally captured and put to death. Shuja was driven with his family into exile, where they all perished. The reign of Aurungzebe, though it began with civil war and confusion, was more peaceful and orderly than that of any of his successors. The Mogul empire in India attained under him its greatest extent, including nearly all that is now known as Hindostan. He died in 1707 in the 89th year of his age, after a reign of 49 years. He was an ambitious and unscrupulous monarch, possessed of great talents, and eminent both as a statesman and a soldier. The Mohammedan historians regard him as the greatest of all the Mogul emperors. During his reign the foundation of the Mahratta empire was laid in the Deccan by an adventurer named Shevajee. (See Mahrattas.) Aurungzebe's eldest son, who succeeded him under the title of Bahadoor Shah, was involved at the beginning of his reign in civil war with two of his brothers, both of whom were killed in battle, and toward the end in a contest with the Sikhs, who were just beginning to acquire importance in the northwest of India. He died in 1712, and was succeeded by his eldest son Jehandar Shah, a weak and profligate ruler, who in the second year of his reign was defeated in battle and afterward strangled to death by his rebellious nephew Ferokshere. The reign of the latter lasted six years, and was remarkable only for conspiracies, insurrections, and general disorders in the capital and the provinces.
He was at length put to death by his vizier and commander-in-chief, who in the course of the next eight months successively placed on the throne three infant descendants of Aurungzebe, the last of whom, Mohammed Shah, a youth of 17, soon became impatient of their control, of which he got rid by causing one to be assassinated and the other deprived of office. The emperor, however, was fickle and dissolute, and his dominions were invaded on one side by the Mahrattas, now rapidly becoming formidable, and on the other by the Persians, whose warlike monarch, Nadir Shah, passed the Indus with a great army, and, overthrowing the imperial forces, took possession of Delhi in 1739. He remained several weeks in the Mogul capital, which he plundered of treasure amounting, according to the lowest estimate, to $100,000,000, after massacring a great part of the inhabitants. He then returned to his own country, leaving Mohammed Shah in possession of his throne, and depriving him only of the provinces west of the Indus. Mohammed Shah died in 1748, and was succeeded by his son Ahmed Shah, who after a reign of six years was deposed, and Alumghir raised to the throne, in the third year of whose reign Hindostan was invaded by the Afghans and again plundered.
The Mahrattas, who were now at the height of their power, took advantage of the distress of the empire, and carried their arms into the northern provinces. The Afghans, under their sovereign Ahmed Shah Abdalli, met them at Paniput in January, 1761, and a great battle was fought, the forces on both sides amounting to 400,000 men. The Mahrattas were defeated with great slaughter, and it is said that 200,000 of them perished in the battle and the pursuit. The Afghans returned to their own country after this great victory, and left the government of Delhi to take care of itself. From this time, however, the Mogul empire was practically at an end. The English had now become the most important power in India. (See East India Companies.) - The first of the nations of modern Europe who obtained territorial possessions in Hindostan were the Portuguese, who early in the 16th century seized some ports on the western coast, and in the course of the century made themselves masters of Diu, Damaun, Bassein, Salsette, Bombay, Choul, Dabul, Goa, Mangalore, Cananore, Cran-ganore, Calicut, Cochin, and Quilon. Their capital was Goa, where they maintained a viceroy and an archbishop.
During the union of Portugal with Spain, from 1580 to 1640, these distant possessions were neglected, and many of them were taken by the Dutch or regained by the native powers. Goa and a few small places of no political or commercial importance are all that now remain of the Portuguese empire in India. The English East India company, which was chartered at London in 1600, obtained permission of the Mogul emperor Jehangir in 1613 to erect a factory at Su-rat. In 1628 they established a trading post at Armegoor, 70 m. north of Madras, and erected the first English fortifications in India there. They were allowed to build a factory at the mouth of the Hoogly, by a firman from the emperor Shah Jehan granted in 1634. In 1669 the island of Bombay was ceded to them by Charles II., who had acquired it as part of the dowry of his wife, the infanta of Portugal. It was in Bengal, however, that the company first began to acquire military and political power. They moved the factories on the Hoogly to Calcutta in 1698. They took into their pay bodies of native soldiers who were called sepoys, and were armed and trained in the European manner, and with the aid of these mercenaries they soon acquired a considerable degree of influence in the country.
In 1744, France and England being at war in Europe, hostilities broke out between the English and French in India. The capital of the French possessions was Pondicherry, which had dependent on it three factories, one at Mahe on the Malabar coast, one at Karikal on the Coromandel coast, and one at Chander-nagore in Bengal. The contest in India, though conducted with great energy and ability by Dupleix and Bussy on the part of the French, and by Laurence and Clive on the part of the English, led at that time to no important results, but was renewed in 1756. In that year Surajah Dowlah became subahdar or viceroy of Bengal, and, having always disliked the English, soon found a pretext for making war upon them. Commencing hostilities suddenly, while the English were yet unprepared, he captured Calcutta; and the English portion of the garrison of Fort William, amounting to 146 persons, of whom Mr. Holwell was the chief, were shut up in the "Black Hole," where all but 23 of them perished in a single night by suffocation. (See Black Hole.) Clive soon retook Calcutta with a force from Madras, captured Chandernagore and its French garrison, and after various other successes defeated the subahdar's army in the decisive battle of Plassey, June 23, 1757. In the Carnatic the French were completely defeated by the English on Jan. 22, 1760, in the battle of Wan-diwash. After Plassey Surajah'Dowlah was dethroned and put to death, and his vizier Meer Jaffier raised to the vacant throne.
The new sovereign granted to the English, as the price of their support, an immense sum of money, a large accession of territory, and permission to keep such of the French posts and factories as they could conquer. These transactions involved the English in a war with the emperor of Delhi, and with his vassal the na-waub of Oude.. Both the emperor and the na-waub succumbed after a brief contest, and by the treaty of peace the emperor ceded to the British the provinces of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, together with the maritime districts known as the Northern Circars. The real sovereign of the Northern Circars was a potentate called the nizam of the Deccan, who gave to the emperor of Delhi only a nominal allegiance. At first the nizam declined to acquiesce in the cession, but subsequently he consented to it on condition that the English should aid him with troops against Hyder Ali, the warlike and politic sovereign of Mysore. In the war that ensued the English, notwithstanding some successes, were so hard pressed that they sought to stop the progress of Hyder by negotiation, and at last concluded, in April, 1769, a treaty with him which resulted in a mutual restitution of conquests.
In 1772 Warren Hastings assumed the administration of the East India company's affairs in Bengal, and in 1774 received the title of governor general, being the first officer so designated. In return for the cession of Benares, he furnished troops to aid the nawaub of Oude in the subjugation of Ro-hilcund. The first war with the Mahrattas soon broke out, and considerable conquests were made, which were nearly all given up by a peace hastily concluded with them in consequence of the breaking out in 1780 of a war with Hyder Ali, who died Dec. 7, 1782, while the war yet raged, leaving his kingdom to his son Tippoo Sahib, who in 1784 agreed to a treaty of peace. In 1781 Hastings aided the nawaub vizier of Oude, then deeply in debt to the Bengal government, in exacting from the begums or princesses of that state at least £760,-000 of the apanages which had been allotted to them for their maintenance on the nawaub vizier's accession in 1756. Having resigned, he was succeeded as governor general by Sir J. McPherson in 1785; but before he embarked for England he caused the nawaub to restore most of the amount extorted from the begums. In December, 1789, Tippoo again became involved in war with the English by an attack upon the kingdom of Travancore, which was under their protection.
Lord Cornwallis, conspicuous in the history of the American revolution, became governor general of India in 1786, and conducted the contest with such energy, that in 1792 Tippoo was compelled to agree to a treaty by which he ceded to the English about half of his dominions, and paid them £3,300,000 in money. Sir John Shore, afterward Lord Teignmouth, became governor general in 1793, and in 1798 was succeeded by the earl of Mornington. In the latter year Tippoo was incited by emissaries of the French republic, then engaged in hostilities with Great Britain, again to make war on the British, which resulted in the storming of his capital, Serin-gapatam, and his own death in the conflict, May 3, 1799. His dominions were divided between the English and their ally the nizam, and the earl of Mornington was created Marquis Wel-lesley in recognition of his successful administration. In 1803 a war broke out between the English and the Mahrattas, which proved to be the most serious ever waged by them in India. It was conducted by Gen. Lake and by Sir Arthur Wellesley, afterward the duke of Wellington, and by the brilliant success of these great commanders was terminated in December with the destruction of the Mahratta power and a vast acquisition of territory by the East India company.
In consequence of border forays and outrages, war was declared against the Gorka state of Nepaul in 1814, which resulted in a further augmentation of British territory. The same result followed the war of 1817-18 with Holkar, the peishwa, and other powerful chiefs, in which the Mahratta power was finally subdued. Much trouble at this period was experienced in central and southern India from a formidable force of mounted marauders called Pindarries, who acted as allies of the hostile Mahratta chiefs, and were defeated with them. A war with the Burmese in 1824-'5 led to large accessions of territory on the eastern frontier, comprising Assam, Aracan, and Tenasserim. The Afghan war, which began in 1839, after great disasters to the English arms, amply redeemed by subsequent successes, terminated in the withdrawal of the British from Afghanistan. The annexation of Sinde in 1843 was followed by the wars with the Sikhs, who had been organized into a powerful military state by their great sovereign Runjeet Singh. Hostilities began in 1845, six years after his death, and finally resulted in the annexation of the Punjaub by the English in 1849. A second war with the Burmese terminated after a short contest, in December, 1852, with the acquisition of the extensive province of Pegu. In 1856 the kingdom of Oude, which had for some years been in a state of confusion, was annexed to the British dominions on account of its extreme and scandalous misgovernment.
From 1805 to 1855 the governors general of India, with the respective dates of their accession, were as follows: Marquis Cornwallis, 1805; Sir G. Barlow, 1805; earl of Minto, 1807; Earl Moira (marquis of Hastings), 1813; Earl Amherst, 1823; Lord W. Bentinck, 1828; Lord Auckland, 1835; Lord Ellenborough, 1841; Sir H. (Lord) Hardinge, 1844; Earl (marquis of) Dalhousie, 1848; and Lord Canning, 1855. The next important event was one which attracted the attention of mankind in all quarters of the globe, and forms unquestionably the most impressive incident in the annals of British India. This was the great sepoy revolt. The year 1857-'8 was the Hindoo Sumbut 1914, in which fell the centenary of the battle of Plassey; and Hindoo astrologers had long predicted that in this year the power of the East India company would terminate for ever. In the early part of 1857 it became apparent that a mutinous spirit had crept into the Bengal army. The military authorities had resolved to arm the sepoys with Enfield rifles, and a new kind of cartridge, greased in order to adapt it to the rifle bore, was introduced into many of the schools of musketry instruction.
A report spread among the native troops that, as the cartridges in loading had to be torn with the teeth, the government was about to compel them to bite the fat of pigs and of cows, the former of which would be defilement to a Mussulman, and the latter would be sacrilege in the eyes of a Hindoo. The wildest excitement prevailed for a time, but the substitution of the old for the new cartridges temporarily prevented an outbreak. Meanwhile, though the greased cartridges had not been used elsewhere, the cry of danger to caste and creed was raised in many other stations. Disturbances occurred on Feb. 19 at Burram-poor; March 29 at Barrackpoor, where the first blood of the revolt was shed, the leader in the revolt being a private sepoy in the 34th native regiment, named Mungul Pandy; and April 24 at Meerut. On May 10 a formidable rising took place at the latter station. The Europeans were massacred, and the mutineers marched to Delhi, where the garrison fraternized with them and a second butchery was committed. The rebels proclaimed the restoration of the Mogul dynasty, and thenceforth acted in the name of the king of Delhi, though without much deference to his orders.
The king thenceforward took an active part in the revolt, and Delhi became a rallying point for the mutineers from other quarters. In the Northwest Provinces risings took place almost simultaneously at Al-lyghur, Boolundshahur, Minporee, Shahjehan-poor, Etawah, and Bareilly. The sacred city of Benares on the Ganges was in revolt on June 4, and on the next day at the military station of Cawnpore several thousand sepoys revolted and placed themselves under the command of the Nana Sahib, rajah of Bithoor, and on June 27 the terrible massacre at Cawnpore took place. (See Bithoor, and Cawnpore.) About the same time the ferocious ranee (princess) of Jhansi in Bundelcund took the field at the head of two regiments which mutinied at Jhansi June 4. In the course of June and July Jounpoor, Allahabad, Futtehpoor, Nowgong, Bandah, Mozuffernugger, Agra, Jhylum, Saugor, Sealkote, Segowlie, Dinapoor, and Ramgurh became the theatres of commotion, and in many instances of massacre. In the recently annexed kingdom of Oude, from which a large proportion of the sepoys in the Bengal army had been recruited, the rising, which elsewhere was purely military, partook of the character of a popular insurrection, the people generally favoring and assisting the rebels.
The native troops at Lucknow, the capital, mutinied May 30 and 31, and nearly every sepoy regiment in Oude soon followed their example. The troops proclaimed allegiance to the ex-king of Oude, and gradually closed around Lucknow, where they began to besiege the Europeans about July 1. The Punjaub was saved by the administrative capacity of Sir John Lawrence; a few risings took place, but the rebels were nearly all cut to pieces, and the suspected regiments seasonably disarmed. The presidency of Bombay was but little disturbed, and that of Madras was tranquil with scarcely an exception. Lower Bengal was also comparatively quiet, the insurrection assuming the most serious aspect in Behar, Rohilcund, Bundelcund, the Doab, Malwa, Rajpootana, and Oude. The two principal Mahratta chiefs, Sindia at Gwalior and Holkar at Indore, remained faithful, but the revolt of their respective contingents was one of the most serious disasters to the British during the war. In May, 1857, the Bengal army comprised 22,698 Europeans (including the officers of native regiments) and 118,663 natives. The native force was disposed in 167 regiments and irregular corps, of which by the end of December 76 had mutinied and 27 had been disarmed or disbanded.
As soon as the revolt broke out the British made strong efforts to suppress it; but the resources of treachery, the paucity of European troops, and the absence of means of transport gave the rebels an immense advantage. In a number of instances, mutineers detected or captured by the British garrisons were executed by being blown away from the mouths of cannon. Gen. the Hon. George Anson, the commander-in-chief, died May 27, 1857, soon after taking the field, and was succeeded provisionally by Sir Henry Barnard. The first movements were against Delhi, which was stormed Sept. 14, after a siege of three months, which was conducted successively by Gens. Barnard, Reed, and Wilson. The troops entered the city, and occupied a part of it on the first day, but did not subdue the last stronghold until Sept. 20. The king was captured and ultimately sentenced to perpetual exile, but most of the rebels escaped. Two sons and a grandson of the king were made prisoners a short distance outside the city by Capt. Hodson, who shot them all with his own hand. Meanwhile Gen. Havelock, having collected a small force at Allahabad, moved toward Cawnpore, where more than 200 women and children, who had escaped the previous massacre, were cruelly put to death, July 16, shortly before he entered the city.
He followed the Nana Sahib to Bithoor, defeated him, and, having been joined by Gens. Outram and Neill, crossed into Oude to relieve Luck-now, where Sir Henry Lawrence, the chief commissioner of Oude, had died of a wound on July 4, and the garrison under Col. Inglis was now reduced to extremities. He fought his way into the city Sept. 25, Gen. Neill being killed in the action; but beyond an accession of numbers his arrival did not benefit the besieged. Sir James Outram assumed command, and their condition remained unchanged until Sir Colin Campbell, who had arrived in India Aug. 14, with the rank of commander-in-chief, relieved them, Nov. 14-19, and enabled them to withdraw to Cawnpore. Gen. Havelock died Nov. 24. On Dec. 6 Sir Colin Campbell defeated the Nana Sahib with 25,-000 rebels at Cawnpore, and, making that city a centre of operations, proceeded to attack the rebels of the Northwest Provinces in several quarters at once, with a view of driving them into Oude, where a combined movement could subsequently crush them all together. The brigades of Lugard, Hope Grant, Sir Hugh Rose, Roberts, Steuart, Showers, Stuart, and others, did good service in the disturbed districts, and Gen. Outram continued to hold the Alumbagh fort near Lucknow, which had not been evacuated with the city.
By Jan. 1,1858, 23 European regiments had arrived at Calcutta, besides those which landed at Madras and Bombay; the Nepaulese chieftain Jung Ba-hadoor furnished a valuable subsidiary force of Gorkhas, the Sikhs were enlisted, and Lawrence was able to supply troops from the Pun-jaub. Lucknow was gradually retaken by Campbell and Jung Bahadoor (March 2-21), and the army which had been concentrated for this purpose was then broken up into detachments for service in Rohilcund and other districts. Sir Hugh Rose, with a detachment from the Bombay army, stormed Jhansi, April 2, and pursued the ranee or chieftainess and the noted rebel leader Tantia Topee to Calpee, where he defeated them, and thence to Gwalior, which had now become the stronghold of the mutiny, as Delhi and Lucknow had been before it. Gwalior was taken, June 20, after the ranee had been killed. This was the last great battle of the campaign, although the rebels, headed by the Nana Sahib, the begum of Oude, Tantia Topee, Maun Singh, and Fe-roze Shah, a prince of the house of Delhi, maintained an obstinate resistance throughout 1858-'9. Though repeatedly beaten in the field, they always escaped destruction to reappear in another quarter.
Oude was gradually pacified, however, in the autumn, and about Feb. 1, 1859, Sir Colin Campbell, whose services had been recognized by the bestowal upon him of a peerage, under the title of Lord Clyde, declared the campaign there at an end. The whole population was disarmed in the course of the spring and summer, 1,327 forts being destroyed and 1,367,406 arms of all kinds surrendered. Tantia Topee was captured, tried by court martial, and hanged. Of the number of Europeans massacred or killed in battle during this mutiny no accurate estimate can be formed. Hundreds of English women and children were put to death after horrible outrages, many stories of which were perhaps fictions or exaggerations, though unhappily the substantial truth of the accounts of these atrocities cannot be doubted. The rigor evinced by the English in punishing the rebels was in many cases almost equally shocking. One very important result of the mutiny was the transfer of the government of India from the East India company to the direct authority of the British crown. This was accomplished by an act of parliament, providing substantially for the system of administration which now exists.
Lord Canning, who had continued in office during the whole mutiny, resigned in 1862, and Lord Elgin succeeded him; but the hew viceroy died in the following year, and Sir John (subsequently Lord) Lawrence was appointed. A badly conducted war with Bootan, growing out of territorial disputes, was the most important event of 1864 and 1865; its result was not very satisfactory to the British. Owing to the deficient rainfall of the previous year, a terrible famine broke out in Orissa in 1866, and is believed to have caused the death of 2,000,000 persons. Sir John Lawrence was succeeded in 1868 by the earl of Mayo, who was assassinated by a prisoner at Port Blair, in the Andaman islands, while on a visit to the penal colony there, Feb. 8, 1872. No political significance appeared to attach to the crime. His successor, Lord Northbrook, is the present governor general (1874). The resources of his administration have been severely taxed to avert the famine with which Bengal was threatened in consequence of the lack of rain in 1873. - The annual " Statement exhibiting the Moral and Material Progress and Condition of India," which has been furnished to parliament by the authority of the secretary of state for India since 1864-'5, and the various official publications of the Indian government itself, are the principal sources of recent statistics concerning the country.
A complete general account of a single province, such as the statistical survey is designed to obtain of every part of India, is contained in " Orissa," by Dr. "W. W. Hunter (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1872). The following are noteworthy among the numerous historical and political works relating to India: "History of British India,1' by James Mill, with continuation by Wilson (9 vols. 8vo, London, 1858); " History of India," by Mount-stuart Elphinstone (5th ed., 1866); "History of the British Empire in India," by Edward Thornton (6 vols., 1842-'5); Wilkes's "History of Mysore" (3 vols. 4to, 1810-'17); "History of the Mahrattas," by James Grant Duff (3 vols. 8vo, 1826); " Memoir of Central India," by Sir John Malcolm (2 vols., 1832); "Life of Lord Clive," by the same (3 vols., 1836); "History of the British Empire in India, from the Appointment of Lord Hardinge to the Death of Lord Canning," by Lionel J. Trotter (2 vols., 1866); " The Administration of the East India Company," by J. W. Kaye (1853); "The Sepoy War in India," by the same (2 vols., 1869-'70); "Lives of Indian Officers," by the same (2 vols., 1867); "Indian Polity," by Major George Chesney (1868); "Annals of Rural Bengal," by W. W. Hunter (5th ed., 1872); "Life of Sir Henry Lawrence," by Sir Herbert Edwardes and Herman Merivale (2 vols., 1872); " The Administration of India from 1859 to 1868," by J. T. Prich-ard (2 vols., 1869); and "History of the Administration of Lord Ellenborough," by Lord Colchester (1874). A concise account of Indian history is contained in "A Student's Manual of the History of India," by Meadows Taylor (12mo, London, 1870). In Alexander Cunningham's work on the ancient geography of India (vol. i., London, 1870) is an elaborate description of the earlier divisions of the country.
For an account of the botany of India, see the " First Book of Indian Botany" by Prof. Daniel Oliver (16mo, London, 1869), where it is stated that there is no good work on the general botany of India. A list of the mammalia of India S. of the Himalaya can be found in Blyth's "Catalogue of Mammals in the Museum of the Asiatic Society " (1863), extracted into Andrew Murray's " Geographical Distribution of Mammals " (4to, London, 1866). As to Indian natural history, see also "Wanderings of a Naturalist in India," by A. Leith Adams (Edinburgh, 1867), and "The Highlands of Central India," by Capt. J. Forsyth (London, 1871).