Innocent, the name of 13 popes, of whom the following are the most important. I. Saint, born in Albano, died March 12, or, according to Baronius, July 28, 417. He succeeded Anas-tasius L, April 27, 402. On his accession he interceded without avail in behalf of the exiled John Chrysostom, and excommunicated Theophilus of Alexandria and other persecutors of the saint. The Donatists having been condemned by the council of Carthage (405), he persuaded the emperor Honorius to enact severe laws against them. On the invasion of Italy by Alaric at the head of the Visigoths, he tried to save Rome from these barbarians, and went to Ravenna to solicit the interference of the emperor; but during his absence the city was taken in August, 410, and plundered. After the departure of the Goths, Innocent returned to Rome and exerted himself to relieve the ruined metropolis. His zeal and charity endeared him to the Romans, heathen as well as Christian. He condemned the doctrines of Pelagius, who was supported by some Christians in the East, and evinced great severity against the Novatians, who were numerous in Italy. His feast is celebrated on July 28. Thirty letters attributed to him have been printed in Labbe's Concilia, vol. ii.; and Gen-nadio, in his De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, has given also as his a Decretum Occidentalium et Orientalium Ecclesiis adversus Pelagianos datum, which was published by his successor, Zosimus I. II. Gregorio de' Papi, or Papareschi, born in Rome about 1090, died there in September, 1143. He was first a monk and afterward abbot of the convent of St. Nicholas, was made cardinal by Urban II., and appointed in 1124 legate to France by Calixtus II. His virtues, eloquence, and sweetness of temper secured him the affections of his colleagues; and on the death of Honorius II., before the event could be generally known, he was somewhat hastily proclaimed pope by 17 cardinals; but some of them who were dissatisfied met in the evening of the same day and gave their vote in behalf of Pietro di Leone, who assumed the appellation of Anacletus II. Pietro was possessed of immense wealth, which he lavished to make himself popular among the Romans. He was soon acknowledged all over Italy, while Innocent was obliged to take refuge in France. In an assembly of bishops at Liege, March 29, 1131, at which Lothaire II. of Germany was present, he declined the offer made by the latter to restore his authority in Rome, on condition of the pope's granting himself and his successors the right of investiture.
Returning to France, Innocent secured the cooperation of St. Bernard, who accompanied him to Italy. There he was joined by Lothaire at the head of an army, whose services were rewarded by the temporary cession to that monarch of the provinces formerly belonging to the countess Matilda. After holding a council at Piacenza, Innocent reentered Rome with Lothaire May 1, 1133, and crowned him emperor in the church of St. John Lateran. Anacletus, however, still held possession of the castle of Sant' Angelo and several fortresses; he was also supported by Roger, king of Sicily; and Innocent was again driven from Rome, to which he did not return until the death of his opponent in 1138. He had now to negotiate for the abdication of Victor IV., another antipope who had succeeded Anacletus, and to secure the submission of the rebellious cardinals. He was then enabled to hold the second general council of Lateran, which was opened April 8, 1139, and attended by more than 1,000 bishops. But he was attacked by King Roger, and being taken prisoner could regain his liberty only by confirming this prince in the possession of Sicily and the title of king, which had been bestowed upon him in 1130 by Anacletus. Yielding to the entreaties of St. Bernard, he condemned in 1140 the opinions of Abelard; but soon becoming embroiled in a quarrel with Louis VII. of France, he put his kingdom under an interdict.
This difficulty was not yet settled when the Romans, discontented with some of the pope's measures, and excited by the preaching of Arnold of Brescia, rose in arms against Innocent, and reestablished the senate and the tribunes of ancient Rome. The pope died soon after. Forty-three letters of Innocent II. are printed in Labbe's Concilia, Giovanni Lotario Conti, born at Ana-gni about 1161, died in Perugia, July 16, 1216. Being from his childhood destined for the church, he was sent to Paris to study theology, and then to the university of Bologna, where he mastered the science of law. He returned to Rome in 1181, and in 1190 was made cardinal deacon by his uncle, Pope Clement III. Being coldly treated by Celestine III., Clement's successor, he retired to Anagni, where he composed his treatise De Contemptu Mundi, sive de Miseriis Humance Conditionis. On the day that Celestine died, Jan. 8, 1198, although but 37 years old, he was unanimously chosen his successor by the college of cardinals. He reluctantly accepted the tiara; but as soon as he was firmly seated on his throne, he showed himself a worthy successor of Gregory VII. Aiming to establish the supremacy of papal power, he soon made his influence felt in nearly every part of Christendom. His first care was to restore order in the administration of the city of Rome, by forcing into submission such civil officers as had hitherto sworn allegiance to the emperor; he then extended his authority over the cities of central Italy which had been usurped by vassals of the empire, and, while vindicating his political rights, appeared as the champion of justice, humanity, and morality.
Philip Augustus of France having repudiated his wife Ingeburga of Denmark to marry Agnes of Meran, Innocent excommunicated him in 1199, and put his kingdom under an interdict. After resisting for eight months, the king yielded to the pontifical authority, dismissed his new queen, and took back the Danish princess. Innocent had previously been instrumental in bringing about a five years' truce between Philip Augustus and Richard I. of England. About the same time he was appointed guardian of young Frederick of Hohenstaufen, the son of the late emperor Henry VI., and of Constanza, queen of Naples and Sicily; but he refused Frederick the investiture of his kingdom of Sicily until he had set at liberty Queen Sibyl, her daughter, and her son William, who had been imprisoned by Henry VI. He was soon called to interfere in the political affairs of Germany. Philip of Swabia and Otho of Brunswick were now contending for the imperial crown. Innocent, after trying in vain to bring about a pacification between the rivals, took the part of the latter, who nevertheless was unable to stand his ground, and was obliged to take refuge in England. Meanwhile the pope had increased his power in Italy, and concluded with the cities of Lombardy an alliance against Philip of Swabia, by which he was enabled to reappear as a mediator; he proposed a compromise, leaving Philip in undisputed right to the imperial crown, and declaring Otho his successor.
This agreement had scarcely been entered into when the emperor was murdered by one of his followers. Otho was immediately acknowledged by most of the German princes, and in 1209 proceeded to Rome, where he received the imperial crown at the hands of the pope. But the new emperor soon showed signs of determined hostility to the power of the pope, seized upon several cities of Central Italy, and claimed Naples and Sicily as fiefs of the empire. Innocent at once excommunicated him, called for the assistance of France, and sum-oned the electors to choose another emperor. They deposed Otho in 1212, and elected Frederick, king of Naples and Sicily. Innocent acted also a conspicuous part in the events which marked the latter part of King John's reign in England. The election of Stephen Langton to the archbishopric of Canterbury, supported by the pope and opposed by the king, was the cause of a protracted dispute, in the course of which John, resorting to violent and even cruel measures, saw his kingdom placed under an interdict, and himself excommunicated, and finally deposed by the pope, Philip Augustus being directed to put the sentence into execution.
John, frightened into submission, complied with the humiliating terms which were dictated to him by the pope's legate, and put his dominions under the protection of the Roman see (1213). Innocent immediately commanded the king of France to desist from the attack upon England, which belonged to the church; thenceforth taking up the cause of his vassal, he supported him in his contest against his revolted subjects and the attacks of Louis of France, the son of Philip Augustus, but could not prevent his being driven out of England. His zeal in maintaining the sanctity of marriage was also displayed in the case of Alfonso IX., king of Leon and Castile, who had taken to wife his own niece, a daughter of Sancho I. of Portugal. As both princes resisted the repeated remonstrances of the pope, he laid their kingdoms under an interdict and themselves under the ban of excommunication, until the scandal ceased. Afterward he united these sovereigns and the kings of Aragon and Navarre in a crusade against the Moors, which resulted in the victory of Navas de Tolosa, July 16, 1212. Pedro II. of Aragon was crowned in Rome by Innocent, to whom he did homage for his dominions; and the title of king was conferred on Leo of Armenia, Premislas of Bohemia, and Joannicus prince of the Bulgarians. In Norway Sverrer the Great had baffled all the efforts made by the legates of Celestine III. to check his tyranny.
Innocent, being appealed to by the king and his nobles, after hearing both parties, excommunicated Sverrer, and released his subjects from their allegiance. One of his first undertakings after his election had been to preach and organize the fourth crusade. Its failure arose from the violation of the oath imposed by him on its chiefs not to make war on any Christian power. He displayed the most uncompromising severity against heresy, the extirpation of which was with him a matter at once of duty and policy; this led him to sanction the crusade against the Albigenses, which was carried on by his legates and Simon de Montfort with such rigor and cruelty as finally to draw his censure upon them. After being for 18 years the ruling spirit of his age, he was carried off by a violent fever which terminated in paralysis. Innocent's works (Cologne, 1552 and 1575; Yen-ice, 1578) consist of theological discourses, homilies, a commentary on the seven penitential psalms, and a number of letters. His letters, which are the most important in a historical point of view, were printed by Baluze in 2 vols. fol. (Paris, 1682), to which Breguigny and Du Theil in 1791 added 2 vols, containing new letters collected from the Vatican archives.
Innocent is the author of a celebrated hymn, Veni Sancte Spiritus. The Stabat Mater, which is also attributed to him, is claimed as the work of a Franciscan. The German historian F. Hurter has published a remarkable history of this pope: Geschichte Papst Inno-cenz III. und seiner Zeitgenossen (4 vols. 8vo, Hamburg and Gotha, 1834-'42). See also his life by A. E. de Gasparin (Paris, 1873). IV. Innocent XI., Benedetto Odescalchi, born in Como. May 16, 1611, died in Rome, Aug. 12, 1689! Historians have confounded him with a namesake and relative, who was a soldier in his youth, but embraced the ecclesiastical profession. Benedetto was descended from a wealthy family, began his studies in the Jesuit college of Como, and graduated in theology and canon law at Rome, where he received holy orders. He was made cardinal by Innocent X. His virtues and talents secured him general esteem; and on his accession to the papal throne, he applied himself to revive the ancient discipline of the church. He attempted to curtail the right of asylum, which, being possessed by foreign ambassadors, had extended to the entire districts where their residence was situated.
His good intentions were partly baffled by the opposition of Marshal d'Estrees, the French ambassador; but he was prudent enough to avoid at the time an open rupture with Louis XIV. The domineering spirit of the king soon gave rise to a quarrel. In 1673 a decree of Louis ordered the regale, that is, the royal privilege of receiving the revenues and granting at pleasure the benefices of vacant bishoprics, to be extended over the provinces of France in which it had not yet been in existence; this was opposed by the bishops of Alet and Pamiers, whom the pope earnestly supported. The king then summoned a general assembly of the bishops of his kingdom, who not only supported his policy concerning the regale, but issued the celebrated propositions of March, 1682, declaring the power of the pope inferior to that of a general council, and maintaining the special rights and privileges of the Gallican church. In answer to this Innocent held a solemn consistory, severely censured the bishops who had taken part in the proceedings, which a bull declared null and void, ordered the four propositions to be burned, and refused to grant canonical confirmation to such bishops as had been newly appointed by the king. This contest was embittered by the renewal of the quarrel about the right of asylum.
By a brief of May 12,1687, Innocent formally abolished that right, and excommunicated all who should maintain it. Louis XIV. at once gave orders to his new ambassador, the marquis de Lavar-din, to uphold the disputed privilege, even by force; and the marquis accordingly made a solemn and threatening entrance into Rome at the head of about 800 armed men. The pope, considering him excommunicated de facto, declined to receive him, and ordered worship to be discontinued wherever he should present himself. The king, exasperated at the pope's firmness, caused his parliament and a number of French bishops to appeal to a general council against Innocent's measures, had his nuncio arrested at Paris, and seized upon Avignon. The pope continued inflexible to the last. It was during his pontificate that Michael Moli-nos, a Spanish priest, advanced in his "Spiritual Guide" the mystical doctrine known as quietism. The book was condemned by the inquisition, Sept. 3, 1687; the author abjured his doctrine publicly; and the proceedings were approved by the pope. In 1688 he received an embassy from the king of Siam, who had been converted by Jesuit missionaries.
Some historians have affirmed that the Jesuits accused Innocent XI. of Jansenism; this the Jesuits deny, and there exists no evidence of the accusation. His repeated entreaties induced John Sobieski to relieve Vienna in September, 1683, when besieged by the Turks; the pope and the cardinals contributing a subsidy of 400,000 crowns for the expenses of the war.