Innspruck (Ger. Innsbruck), a city of Austria, capital of Tyrol, on both sides of the Inn, near its junction with the Sill, 245 m. W. S. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1869, 16,810. The name, meaning Inn bridge, is the equivalent of that given to the locality by the Romans, CEni-pontum; there are now several bridges. The town is surrounded by steep mountains 6,000 to 9,000 ft high, and is well built, especially on the right bank of the Inn. The finest street is the Neustatterstrasse, in which are the buildings where the Tyrolese estates hold their sittings, the post office, and a triumphal arch erected by Maria Theresa. The Franciscan church (Hofkirche) contains one of the most splendid monuments of Europe, that of Maximilian I. (who ordered its construction, with a sepulchre for his own remains, but. is buried in Neustadt, near Vienna). On each side of the aisle stands a row of tall figures, 28 in number, representing principally the most distinguished members of the house of Austria. The sarcophagus is ornamented with 24 representations of the principal political and domestic events in the life of Maximilian, sculptured in alto rilievo by Alexander Colin of Mechlin. In the same church is the Silver Lady chapel, so called after a silver statue of the Virgin, containing the mausoleums of the archduke Ferdinand and of his wife Philippine, which are also attributed to the genius of Colin, whose own tomb, said to be the work of his own hands, is in the cemetery of Innspruck. The tomb of Andreas Hofer is in this chapel.
In this church Christina of Sweden made her public renunciation of Lutheranism. There are altogether 11 churches, among which are the Capuchin church with the penitential cell of Maximilian II., and the St. James church, noticeable for its rich decorations. Among the other public buildings are the palace built for Maria Theresa, with an equestrian statue of Archduke Leopold V. in the courtyard, and a large edifice in the city square (Stadtplatz), once the residence of the counts of Tyrol, now a private dwelling, with a famous oriel window, covered with a golden roof (das goldene Dachl), built in the loth century, at a cost of 30,000 ducats. The chief educational establishment is the Roman Catholic university, which was founded in 1672 by the emperor Leopold I. In 1873 it had 46 professors and 663 students, fully one third of whom are under the theological faculty, the professors of which are Jesuits. In consequence of the remonstrance of the liberal party in Austria and of a majority of the professors of the university against the privileged position of the Jesuits, the minister of public instruction in July, 1872, deprived the theological faculty of the right of electing a member of the academic senate, and, alternately with the other faculties, the rector of the university.
In 1873 the right was restored to the Jesuits, provided the professors should individually qualify for their office like the professors of the other faculties. The library of the university has about 50,000 volumes. There are also a gymnasium, a commercial school, and a national museum founded in 1823, with rich collections of antiquities and works of art. The principal manufactures of the town are silks, ribbons, gloves, calico, and glass. - In 1234 Innspruck was clothed with the privileges of a town by Otho I., duke of Meran. It subsequently became the residence of the Austrian archdukes, and its most prosperous period was in the early part of the 17th century, when Ferdinand II. held his brilliant court there. It was taken by the Bavarians in 1703, but was soon recovered by the Austrians. In 1809 it suffered much during the war in Tyrol. After the second revolutionary outbreak in Vienna in 1848, the emperor Ferdinand fled to Innspruck, and resided there for several months.