Inverness (formerly Innerness), a borough and seaport of Scotland, capital of Inverness-shire, situated on both sides of the river Ness, a mile from its estuary and 9 m. above the junction of the latter with the Moray frith, at the N. entrance of the Caledonian canal, and 115 m. N. N. W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 14,463. The principal part of the town is on the right bank of the river, and the two sides were formerly connected by a stone bridge, built in 1685, carried away by a flood in 1849, and replaced by an iron suspension bridge. The town has five principal streets, with houses generally well built of stone, and many fine churches, banks, hotels, and public buildings. It has a coasting and foreign trade through the Moray frith and Caledonian canal, and exports grain, potatoes, wool, woollen cloth, ropes, sail cloth, leather, ale, whiskey, and dairy produce. The imports in 1871 were valued at £27,714,012 (from the United States, £3,026,867), the exports at £6,339,701 (to the
United States £359,348). - Inverness is a town of great antiquity. On an eminence S. E. of the town anciently stood a castle, in which it is supposed that Duncan was murdered by Macbeth. The castle was destroyed by Malcolm Canmore, who erected a new one, which was for several centuries used as a royal fortress, within whose walls a parliament was held during the reign of James I. On the site of this castle, which was blown up in 1746 by the troops of Prince Charles Stuart, stand now the court house and the county buildings. Cromwell erected a fort on the N. side of the town near the mouth of the Ness, which was demolished at the restoration, but part of the rampart still remains. Culloden moor is 3 m. from the town.
Inverness, a county of Nova Scotia, Canada, occupying the W. portion of Cape Breton; area, 1,221 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 23,415, of whom 18,197 were of Scotch, 2,682 of French, 1,307 of Irish, and 1,030 of English descent. It is well watered, and contains excellent farming land. Coal and petroleum are found. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture and fishing. Capital, Port Hood.