Ireland, a European island, forming part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, situated between lat. 51° 26' and 55° 21' N., and Ion. 5° 20' and 10° 26' W. It is bounded N., W., and S. by the Atlantic ocean, and E. by St. George's channel, the Irish sea, and the Northern channel, which separate it from England and Scotland. In shape it is a rhomboid, the greater diagonal of which is 300 m. and the smaller 210 across; greatest meridional length 230 m., greatest and smallest breadth 180 and 110 m.; area, 32,531 sq. m. It is divided into four provinces, Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Connaught, and 32 counties, which, with their population and chief towns, are as follows:
PROVINCES AND COUNTIES.
In 1821, when the first complete census was taken, the population amounted to 6,801,827; in 1831, to 7,767,401; in 1841, to 8,199,853; in 1851, to 6,514,473. The great decrease from 1841 to 1851, amounting to about 1,600,-000, was due to the intervening famine and the increasing emigration. The number of inhabited houses was 995,156 in 1861, 960,352 in 1871. - The coast line is about 750 m. long. From Malin head in the extreme north to Cape Clear in the south, it is comparatively but little broken, and is low and flat, except in the northeast, where the shore is rugged and precipitous; and navigation in the east is much obstructed by sunken rocks, bars, and sand banks. Between the two points named the chief openings in the coast are the loughs of Foyle, Belfast, Strangford, and Carlingford; the bays of Dundrum, Dundalk, and Drogheda; that of Dublin with the artificial harbor of Kingstown, those of Wexford, Waterford, Dungarvan, and Youghal; the magnificent harbor of Cork, including Queenstown; and Kinsale, Courtmac-sherry, Clonakilty, Rosscarbery, Baltimore, and Skibbereen harbors. On the southwest, west, and north the coast presents the aspect of the southern and western coasts of Norway, being broken into narrow strips and ragged fragments by firths and arms of the sea.
These form numerous bays and harbors, among which are: on the southwest and west, the bays of Dunmanus, Bantry, Kenmare, and Ballinskel-ligs, Valentia harbor, the bays of Dingle and Tralee, the estuary of the Shannon, navigable for large vessels to Limerick, Liscanor and Galway bays and the Killaries, Clew bay with the harbors of Westport and Newport, Black-sod bay, and Broad Haven; further north, Kil-lala, Sligo, and Donegal bays, with Sheep Haven and Lough Swilly. The shores on this side of the island are composed of lofty cliffs; on the coast of Donegal they form in some places a perpendicular wall of 760 ft. On the northern coast are the celebrated colonnades of the Giant's Causeway, near Coleraine, and of the promontories of Bengore and Fairhead, where the basalt rests on chalk-white limestone, beneath which appear the greensands of the lias. Scattered along the coast are 196 islands, the principal of which are: on the E. coast, Lambay; on the S. E., the Saltees and Tuscar rock; on the S., Clear island; on the W., the Skelligs, Valentia, the Blaskets, the South Arran isles, Inishbofin, Inishturk, Clare in Clew bay, the Achill islands, and the Inish-kea islets; and on the N., the North Arran isles, the Tory isles, and Rathlin. The total number of harbors is 90, of which 14 receive ships of any draught, 17 admit frigates, upward of 30 are deep enough for coasting vessels, and 25 for good summer roadsteads.
There are also numerous inlets which afford a shelter to the largest fishing craft. There are 62 lighthouses, of which 26 are first-class lights. - The surface is divided into a central basin and mountain masses fringing the coast, with two great openings on the east and west. Between these openings the central plain extends from Dublin to Galway and Clew bay, reaching northward as far as Lough Neagh and southward to the borders of Waterford and Cork. It is diversified by rich and rolling uplands rising to 200 and 320 ft. above the sea, and by fiat tracts of sterile bog lying like huge black patches amid the universal green. The high hills and mountains are covered to their summits with heather. As compared with England, the country has but few trees and patches of forest, although in former times it bore the name of Island of Woods. Strictly speaking, there are no mountain ranges, if we except the Slieve Bloom and Devil's Bit mountains, which stretch in an irregular curve of about 30 m. through N. E. Mun-ster and W. Leinster. Elsewhere the mountains form isolated masses near the coast, subsiding rapidly as they recede from it.
The principal groups are: in the northwest, the Donegal mounts, highest point Errigal, about 2,500 ft.; in the northeast, those of Down, highest point Slieve Donard, 2,800 ft.; in the west, Trusk-more in Sligo (2,100 ft.), Nephin and Muilrea in Mayo (about 2,700 ft.), and Twelve Pins in Galway (2,400 ft.). Kerry boasts the loftiest peaks in Ireland: Brandon, 3,120 ft., and Carn Tual, 3,414 ft. Of the Waterford mountains, Mona Vullagh is 2,600 ft.; of the Wicklow, Lugnaquilla is 3,000 ft.; of the Dublin, Kippure is 2,470 ft. In Antrim the hills form an elevated plateau intervening between Lough Neagh and the North channel; Mt. Divis near Belfast is 1,560 ft., and Trostan further north 1,800 ft. - The great interior basin is chiefly covered with mountain limestone, through which protrude the Slieve Bloom and Slieve Baughta mountains, both consisting of clay slates between red and yellow sandstone. This clay-slate formation is the second in extension. It flanks the limestone plain to the east, abutting on the Wicklow granite mountains, extending thence westward into Kildare and eastward through Wicklow and Wexford to the sea, and from the western side of the Wicklow mountains reaching in a series of elevations southward and westward through Kilkenny and Tipperary to Limerick, Cork, and Kerry. They compose the mountain masses of Slievenamon, Knockmeledown, and Galtee, together with those which cover Kerry, terminating at Brandon head.
Clay slates appear on the S. W. border of the Antrim trap bed, covering Down, Armagh, Monaghan, and Louth, with parts of Cavan, Meath, Longford, and Roscommon. Through this clay-slate tract in the north protrude the granite ridges of Mourne and Slieve Gullion. The granitic rocks form the Wicklow and Mt. Leinster groups, and appear to the north of Galway bay mixed with greenstone and quartz, Muilrea being the culminating point. From Muilrea northward to Killala lie a series of primitive rocks, principally mica slate and protruded quartz, forming the barrier between the ocean and the great central plain. This barrier is broken only by the limestone plain of Mayo, extending to the shore of Clew bay. Mica slate and granitic ridges extend northward and eastward through Sligo to Donegal, forming almost the entire surface of the latter county and a great portion of Londonderry and Tyrone. In the N. W. part of this district the granite and quartz are intermixed with veins of primitive limestone, which also mingles with the mica slate constituting the remainder. East of this granite and mica slate district lies the great trap field of Antrim, the erupted rock over an extent of 800 sq. m. capping a stratum of indurated chalk, which rests on lias.
Patches of the same metamorphic rocks also appear on the coast of Kerry, and on that of Antrim, where they terminate in Fair head. The ancient Irish annals contain many accounts of land eruptions proceeding from volcanic action; and in more modern times two are noticeable: one in 1490 at the Ox mountains, Sligo, by which 100 persons and numbers of cattle were destroyed; and a volcanic eruption in May, 1788, on the hill of Knocklade, Antrim, which poured a stream of lava 60 yards wide for 39 hours, and destroyed the village of Ballyowen and all the inhabitants save a man, his wife, and two children. The immense extent of bog is a great obstacle to a perfect knowledge of Irish geology. The coal fields, with the exception of a small field of bituminous coal in the west and a few patches in the north, are south of the centre of the island. The quality of the coal is inferior. The most valuable bed is in Kilkenny, and is made up of seven workable seams of anthracite, the coal containing from 94 to 96 per cent. of pure carbon. The largest field covers a considerable tract in the southwest; but the coal is not well adapted for domestic use, and is chiefly employed in malting and lime burning.
In Tyrone, the district of Coal Island produces coal of good quality used in the neighborhood; the beds seldom exceed a few inches in thickness. In 1772, at Ballycastle, Antrim, a colliery was discovered, with gallery and branches, which, from the stalactite pillars and the sparry incrustations on the sides and supports, is believed to have been worked before the Norman invasion. Lignite, the only tertiary deposit, is found on the S. shore of Lough Neagh. The clay-slate formation contains copper ore, the chief mineral wealth of Ireland, the principal mines of which are in the counties of Wicklow, Waterford, Cork, and Tipperary. Lead is more abundant than copper; but in Ireland the mountain limestone is much less liberally supplied with it than in England. The coal measures are rich in iron; and silver is found in connection with lead ore in proportions varying from 7 to 120 oz. per ton. Native gold associated with magnetic ironstone was found toward the end of the last century in Wicklow, but all the efforts of the government to discover an available vein proved fruitless. Tinstone also exists in the same locality, but no working deposits have been discovered. Recent explorers have found in the new red sandstone beds of salt promising an inexhaustible supply.
The other minerals known to- exist are antimony, zinc, nickel, iron pyrites, alum, clays of various kinds, gypsum, ochre, building stone, marble, and paving and roofing slates. Mineral springs occur at Mallow, where the water is 20 warmer than the atmosphere, and at Castle Connell, near Limerick, where the waters are chalybeate; and sulphur springs at Swanlinbar in Cavan, and at Lucan near Dublin. - Of the two kinds of bogs, the red or fibrous consists chiefly of bog moss (sphagnum palustre); it is reddish brown, approaching to olive when dry. Its surface is generally covered with heath. The black bog varies from dark brown to perfect black; in the latter case it becomes very hard and close-grained, and breaks into angular fragments. The deepest layers are still denser and darker, and very compact, resembling pitch or coal, and emitting when lighted an offensive odor. The average depth of these bogs is 25 ft.; in some places they attain a depth of 40 ft. They are always above the sea level, their greatest height being 488 ft. and lowest 25 ft. The peat is found to rest on a blue clay, and ultimately on gravel. The area of bog available for peat fuel is about 2,830,000 acres.
This physical disposition accounts for the hydro-graphic features of Ireland. From any part of the country navigable water can be reached within a distance of 50 m. Few countries are so well supplied with rivers and lakes. The principal river is the Shannon, the largest in the United Kingdom, which has its source in the county Cavan at the foot of Mt. Gulcagh, and in a course of 250 m. forms Loughs Allen, Rea, and Derg. The other principal streams are the Blackwater, which has its estuary near Youghal; the Suir, the Nore, and the Barrow, which have their estuary near the city of Waterford; the Slaney, emptying into St. George's channel at Wexford; the Boyne, flowing N. E. from the elevated plain of Leinster into the Irish sea at Drogheda; the Bann, rising in the Mourne mountains, and flowing northward through Lough Neagh till it empties into the Atlantic at Coleraine; the Foyle, emptying into the lough of that name, and formed by the union of four streams from the interior of Ulster; the Erne, falling into Donegal bay; and the Liffey, flowing into Dublin bay.
The principal of the numerous lakes are Lough Neagh in Ulster, the largest lake in the United Kingdom, covering 98,255 acres, and exceeded in extent on the continent of Europe by only a few lakes outside of Russia and Sweden; Lough Erne in Fermanagh, consisting of two lakes 5 m. apart, connected by the fine river of that name; Lough Corrib and Lough Mask in the west of Con-naught, separated by an isthmus 3 m. broad; Lake Conn in the north of the same province; and the lakes of Killarney in Kerry, renowned for their beauty. - Giraldus Cambrensis praises the mild and equable climate of Ireland. At Dublin the mean annual temperature is a little lower than 50° F.; the mean winter temperature is 40°, spring and autumn 50°, and summer 60°. There is a difference of 3° between the average temperatures of the extreme north and south. The average temperature of any month in each season varies but slightly from the above figures. There is perpetual moisture, which fosters vegetation and maintains unfailing pasturage; this is due to the prevalence of westerly winds which bring with them the tepid vapor-laden atmosphere of the Gulf stream. Hence the climate of the W. coast of Ireland is milder than that of the W. coast of England in the same latitude.
The average spring temperature of Queenstown is 50°, the highest in the British isles. The average annual rainfall is estimated at 36 in., but in some elevated regions, as in Kerry, it is much higher. In the west the rainfall is much greater in winter than in the other seasons. Prolonged frosts and snows are rare, and thunder storms are neither frequent nor violent. The prevalent winds are from the west and south, the S. E. wind predominating in the early part of the year. Easterly winds are dry and keen and much dreaded by invalids. The climate on the whole is very salubrious. The frequency among the poorer classes of fevers and dysentery is attributed less to the humidity of the atmosphere and the exhalations from marsh and bog, than to unwholesome and insufficient diet, imperfect clothing, damp and close dwellings, and want of cleanliness. - One fourth of the entire surface is covered with sterile rock, water, marsh, and bog; arable soil of a mediocre quality composes another fourth; and the remainder is a deep rich loam generally covering a calcareous subsoil. This rich loam, with a subsoil of inferior depth, and producing a luxuriant herbage, is found throughout Roscommon, in some parts of Gal-way, in Clare, and in other districts.
Both the loam and the subsoil attain their greatest depth in Meath, Longford, Tipperary, and Limerick; the Golden Vale district, belonging to the last two counties, is celebrated for its fertility. On the banks of the Fergus and Shannon the soil is different, though equally productive, and very marshy in appearance. These districts are called "caucasses;" the substratum is a blue silt deposited by the sea and partaking of the quality of the upper stratum, thus allowing the whole to be advantageously ploughed to any depth. In Limerick and Tipperary is another kind of rich soil, consisting of a dark, friable, sandy loam, which if kept clean will yield grain for several generations; it is equally well adapted for tillage and pasture, and seldom -suffers either from extreme drought or excessive rain. The subsoil, being calcareous, needs no manuring. In the north the quantity of rich soil is not very considerable; but valleys of uncommon fertility are found in every county, even amid the bleak mountains of Donegal. In some parts, as in Galway, the rock protrudes above the surface in wave-like projections, and the interstices are filled with a mould producing a thick sward very grateful to sheep.
The only large tract exclusively devoted to sheep grazing is the Curragh of Kildare. The mountains are capable of cultivation to a considerable height, and their summits with few exceptions are fit for pasturage in summer. Indeed, both from soil and climate, Ireland is naturally a pastoral country; nor was it till 1727 that any systematic effort was made at large culture, when Primate Boulter, as one of the lords justices, urged on the English government the necessity of enforcing a tillage system. In the northern counties the farms are generally small, cultivated with the spade, and yield potatoes, oats, and flax. In the northern part of Fermanagh the farms are larger, the tillage better, and wheat is largely grown, oats however being the chief crop. In the five counties forming the northwest of Ireland, oats is the principal crop, and barley is raised near the sea; and since the famine of 1846 much of the land formerly under tillage has been converted into pasturage. In the southwestern counties grazing is more resorted to, tillage backward, and the farms small. In Tipperary and King's and Queen's counties the best farming is to be seen, wheat forming the staple crop.
In Meath, Westmeath, Louth, and Kildare the tillage is inferior, the farms larger and treated after the English manner, and the chief crop is wheat. As the mean summer heat is 56°, the finer sorts of grain ripen in the island; while the open winters, by lengthening the period of grazing, favor the rearing of cattle. The country is very deficient in wood, although it is said to have been formerly covered with forests. The timber found in the bogs is oak, fir, yew, holly, and birch. The progress of agricultural improvement, and the timber act, which secures to the tenant at the expiration of his lease a pecuniary interest in the trees he has planted, promise a large supply of wood in future. Ireland is rich in cattle, horses, especially hunters, and sheep (with less wool than the English). There are many rabbits, but little game excepting deer. Fish abound, especially the salmon, pike, eel, and trout. The sunfish frequents the W. coast, which is occasionally visited also by whales. Seals are met with about the exposed headlands. There are frogs, but no toads or serpents. Bones of the elk or moose deer have been found in several places. Wolves were once numerous, and the Irish wolf dog was kept for hunting them. Of poultry the product is extensive.
The flora of Ireland includes the arbutus unedo along the lakes of Killarney; new species of saxifrage and ferns have been discovered on the Kerry mountains; rare alpine plants are met with in Oon-nemara (Galway), Benbulben mountain (Sligo), and in the county Antrim, and peculiar kinds of algae on various parts of the coast. - The majority of Irishmen resemble in temperament the southern rather than the northern races of Europe. This is most apparent in those parts of Ireland where English and Scotch settlers do not preponderate. They are more impulsive and warm-hearted than the people of England and Scotland. As settlers in other parts of the world, especially in the United States, the Irish have proved very useful and industrious in various kinds of manual occupation, but at home they are principally tillers of the soil. A marked improvement in the condition of the country has taken place within the last 30 years. The work of bringing waste lands into cultivation reduced the uncultivated land from 6,295,735 acres in 1841 to 5,023,984 in 1851, and to 4,357,338 in 1871. Emigration, which had been powerfully stimulated by the potato disease of 1846-7, showed a steady decrease for several years after 1852. In that year it was 190,322; 1853,173,148; 1854,140,-555; 1855, 91,914; 1856, 71,724; 1858, 64,337; 1865, 101,497; 1866, 99,467; 1867, 80,624; 1868, 61,028; 1872, 72,763; whole number from 1851 to 1872, 2,157,257. The total number of paupers relieved was, in 1848, 2,043,505; 1850, 1,174,267; 1851, 755,347; 1852, 519,775; 1853,409,668; 1854,319,616; 1857, 190,851; 1861,217,430; 1863,317,624; 1866,270,173; 1868,339,728; 1871,282,492. The following statement shows the progress of the agricultural wealth of the country: land under cultivation in 1854, 5,570,610 acres; 1858, 5,882,-052; 1868, 5,498,278; 1872, 5,486,522. Of the last number, 2,090,673 were under cereal crops, 991,802 under potatoes, 346,464 under turnips, 135,650 under other green crops, 122,-003 under flax, and 1,799,930 were meadow and clover.
The produce in 1871 was as follows: wheat, 705,939 quarters; oats, 7,410,-814; barley, here, and rye, 965,709; beans and peas, 49,690; potatoes, 2,793,641 tons; turnips, 4,246,332; mangel and cabbage, 761,863; flax, 12,929. The live stock in 1872 consisted of 560,500 horses and mules, 180,036 asses, 4,057,-153 cattle, 4,262,117 sheep, 242,310 goats, 1,385,386 pigs, and 11,612,207 poultry. The aggregate value of the live stock was estimated in 1841 at £21,105,808; in 1851, £27,737,395; 1861, £33,434,385; 1871, £37,515,111. - The linen manufacture is the most important branch of Irish industry. The spinning wheel of the Ulster cottier gave place to the spindle in the early part of this century, when the first flax-spinning machinery was erected. The number of flax factories has increased from about 70 in 1849 to 154 in 1870, with 916,660 spindles and 14,834 power looms, employing 55,039 persons. One of the chief seats of this manufacture is Belfast. Of cotton factories there were 14 in 1870, woollen factories 61, and worsted factories 3. The silk manufacture, which was introduced into Dublin by French emigrants at the end of the 17th century, proved unprofitable; almost the only branch now flourishing is a fabric of mixed worsted and silk, known as Irish poplin or tabbinet.
Lace is manufactured to some extent in Limerick. Great progress has been made within the last few years in the manufacture of embroidered muslin. The chief seat of this industry is in Glasgow; but while the initiatory and concluding manipulations connected with it are almost wholly performed in that city and its neighborhood, the needlework, although partly wrought in Scotland, is chiefly executed by the peasantry of Ireland. About 300,000 persons, principally females, are employed in this work in all the counties of Ulster and some localities of the other provinces, and the gross value of the manufactured goods amounts to about £1,400,000. Spirit distilleries were established in Ireland at an early period. The number of distilleries and rectifying establishments in 1871 was 65, against 93 in 1835; the number of gallons entered for home consumption 5,212,746, against 12,296,342 in 1838; the rate of duty is 10s. per proof gallon. - Among the fisheries of Ireland, those of salmon and herring are flourishing.
The number of vessels and boats employed in fisheries in 1871 was 8,999, and the number of men and boys employed 38,629, against 19,883 vessels and boats and 113,073 persons in 1846. In the coasting trade of Ireland the entrances in 1871 were 18,676 sailing vessels, tonnage 1,598,343, and 5,947 steam vessels, tonnage 2,619,891; the clearances were 5,947 sailing vessels, tonnage 439,001, and 8,500 steam vessels, tonnage 2,660,027. The registered shipping in 1871 numbered 651 sailing vessels under 50 tons, tonnage 19,919; 923 sailing vessels above 50 tons, tonnage 148,555; 60 steam vessels under 50 tons, tonnage 1,555; and 142 steam vessels above 50 tons, tonnage 48,133. The commerce of Ireland consists of the provision trade and of the trade in the produce of the country with Great Britain and foreign nations. The exports are mainly sent to Liverpool, Bristol, and Glasgow, from Belfast, Dun-dalk, Drogheda, Newry, Waterford, and Limerick, and particularly from Cork and Dublin. The entrances of vessels engaged in the foreign trade in 1871 comprised 802 British and Irish, tonnage 282,752, and 920 foreign, tonnage 343,721; the entrances of vessels engaged in the colonial trade numbered 289 British and Irish, tonnage 125,679, and 34 foreign, tonnage 15,571. The principal ports of entry were Cork, Dublin, Belfast, Waterford, Limerick, Londonderry, and Newry. The importation of grain into Ireland in 1870 comprised 6,716,-534 cwt. of wheat, 215,279 of barley, 9,670 of oats, 5,738,138 of Indian corn, and 193,707 of wheat meal or flour.
By far the most extensive market for Irish products is Great Britain; but the abolition of duties on this cross-channel trade, which took place in 1825, has taken away the means of estimating the imports and exports. The total value of Irish and British products exported direct to foreign countries from Ireland in 1871 was estimated at £462,-486. The direct trade between Ireland and the United States has of late decreased. The number of American vessels entering Irish ports in 1871 was only 38, tonnage 24,701. Marble, porter, ale, whiskey, and manufactured goods from Dublin and Belfast are among the Irish exports to the United States, and tobacco, wheat, and corn among American imports into Ireland. In 1871 there were 17 lines of railway open in Ireland, of which the following were the most important: Belfast and Northern Counties; Dublin and Belfast junction; Dublin and Drogheda; Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford; Great Southern and Western; Irish Northwestern; Midland Great Western Ulster; Waterford and Limerick. The aggregate capital of the main lines (excluding that of lines leased or worked) is £27,028,580. In 1871 the number of miles open was 1,988 (in 1872, 2,091); of passengers carried, 15,547,934; gross receipts, £2,272,386; net receipts, £1,090,795. The lines of inland navigation are as follows: Grand canal with its branches, 165 3/4 m.; Royal canal with its branches, 96 1/4; Shannon navigation, river and canal, and two branches, 158; Lagan navigation, river and canal, 26 1/4; Newry navigation, do., 35; Tyrone navigation, do., 4 1/2; lower Boyne navigation, do., 19; Barrow navigation, do., 42 1/4; Ulster canal, 24; Suir navigation, 16 1/2. - Large amounts have been advanced by the government (according to statistics of 1872, £11,832,224) for the improvement of land by means of arterial and thorough drainage, post roads, farm buildings, etc.
The encumbered estates court, established in 1849, has brought into market smaller holdings and estates overburdened by debt, and has proved of very great advantage to the prosperity of the country. The total amount expended in the purchase of property under control of the court from 1849 to 1858, when it was replaced by the landed estates court, was £22,000,000, of which £3,000,000 was invested by English and Scotch purchasers. The number of estates sold was 2,380, divided into more than 11,000 lots, and 8,235 conveyances have been executed by the commissioners. The total number of letters delivered in 1871 was 71,-166,000, giving an average of 13 letters for each person. The number of newspapers published in 1873 was 154. Savings banks were introduced in 1810; in 1845 the amount deposited reached nearly £3,000,000, but owing to the famine it fell below £1,500,000 in 1849; a gradual increase has sirce taken place, bringing the deposits up again to £2,220,000 in 1871. Of loan societies there were 81, which advanced 115,095 loans, the amount circulated during the year being £542,295. The banknote circulation in 1871 was about £7,500,000. There are 8 banks, all issuing their own notes excepting the Hibernian joint stock company and the Royal bank of Dublin. The most important is the bank of Ireland, which acts as banker to the government, and which is bound to make weekly returns similar to those Of the bank of England. It has 42 branches; its capital is £3,000,000, its reserve fund about £1,000,000, and at the end of 1872 it circulated notes to the amount of about £3,392,000. The next most important establishments are the Provincial bank of Ireland, with a capital of £2,040,000 and 44 branches, and the National bank, with a capital of £2,500,000 and 73 branches. - The public institutions for religious, benevolent, and educational purposes are numerous.
The Episcopal or Anglican was formerly the established church of Ireland, but by act of parliament it was disestablished on Jan. 1,1871. (See Ireland, Church of.) The dignitaries of the Roman Catholic church of Ireland are the four archbishops of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam, and 24 bishops. The number of priests in 1873 was upward of 3,200, nominated by the bishops, and supported altogether by voluntary contributions. The "Presbyterian church in Ireland " in 1872 had 627 ministers and 553 congregations. There are eight other small Presbyterian and three Methodist organizations, with a small number of Congregationalists, Baptists, Moravians, and others. According to the census of 1871, there were 4,141,933 Roman Catholics, 683,295 persons reporting themselves as belonging to " the church of Ireland " or as Protestant Episcopalians, 503,461 Presbyterians, 41,815 Methodists, 4,485 Independents, 4,643 Baptists, 3,834 Friends, 19,035 of other denominations, and 258 Jews. - The chief educational institution is the university of Trinity college, Dublin, founded in 1591, with an average attendance of nearly 1,200 students.
Among the other principal seats of learning are the queen's colleges of Belfast (351 students in 187l-'2), Cork (253 students), and Galway (141 students), established by acts passed in 1845 and 1850. Maynooth college and All-Hallows college, Drumcondra, are the chief institutions for the education of Roman Catholics for the priesthood. The establishment of a Roman Catholic university was agreed upon by a syn-odical meeting in 1854, and the schools were opened in the same year. On July 20, 1862, the corner stone of a new university building was laid at Drumcondra. The Roman Catholics have also colleges affiliated with the Catholic university at Clonliffe, Tuam, Cloyne, Armagh, Carlow, Athlone, Tullamore, Thurles, Castleknock, Kilkenny, Fermoy, Longford, and Ellis. The Presbyterians have a theological college at Belfast, and Magee college (established in 1865) in Londonderry; the Methodists a college at Belfast (established in 1868). The college of St. Columba, at Rathfarnham, is an Episcopalian institution. The Alexandra college in Dublin was founded in 1866 for the higher education of females.
The royal college of science for Ireland was established under the authority of the science and art department, London, in August, 1867, in place of the museum of Irish industry, which then ceased to exist. The church education society, instituted in 1839 for the education of its pupils in the principles of the church of England, had 52,166 pupils in 1870, of whom 3,757 were Catholics. Since 1837 the grants of public money for the education of the people have been under the superintendence of commissioners, who were incorporated in 1835 under the name of the commissioners of national education in Ireland. Their report shows that on Dec. 81, 1872, there were 7,059 schools in operation, with 1,010,148 children on the rolls. There were 184 new schools, and 48 struck off, showing a net increase of 136. The commissioners had made grants for the erection of 98 additional schools to accommodate 13,045 children. The pupils were divided in reference to religious denominations as follows: Roman Catholic, 804,222; Presbyterian, 112,465; Episcopalian, 80,893. There were 125,347 Episcopalian pupils mixed with 27,312 Roman Catholics under exclusively Protestant teachers; 18,957 Protestant pupils mixed with 11,-270 Roman Catholics under joint teachers of both creeds; and 26,172 Protestant children with 362,313 Roman Catholics under exclusively Roman Catholic teachers.
These statistics are independent of the schools conducted by the Christian Brothers, which are numerous and largely attended; the teachers are experienced and well educated, and have the confidence of the people. The national schools are open during the entire year, five hours daily. The books used are the same in every school throughout the country, and the instruction embraces reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, bookkeeping, chemistry, hydrostatics, acoustics, electricity, mechanism, music, and drawing; and the girls in addition are taught plain and fancy sewing and knitting. The national system receives but small assistance from government; the entire amount paid out of the treasury in 1872 for teachers, tutors, and work mistresses was $322,000. The principal establishments for the promotion of literature, science, and art are situated in Dublin, among which are the royal Irish academy, the royal Hibernian academy of art, and the royal Dublin society; literary and mechanics' societies are scattered all over the country. The great industrial exhibition of 1853, called into existence by the exertions of William Dargan, produced increased interest in institutions calculated to diffuse a knowledge of useful sciences among the people.
The foundation for a national gallery of art was laid in Dublin in 1859. Medicine, the various branches of natural history, archaeology, and other departments of science as well as of the fine arts, are represented by numerous societies in Dublin, Belfast, and other towns. - Charitable institutions abound in Ireland. Infirmaries for counties and cities, supported by assessment and governed by corporations, afford annual relief to about 60,000 sufferers. Public hospitals for counties, districts, and poor-law unions are distributed over the country, besides various private establishments. The number of insane in 1871 was 18,327. There are houses for the relief of the poor in 163 unions of Ireland. The poor-law system is conducted with a view of assisting those who cannot support themselves by their personal labor, but at the same time of discountenancing in able-bodied persons all dependence on eleemosynary relief. The poor rate is levied under the assessment of poundage rate on the net annual value of various kinds of ratable property. In 1871 the valuation of the assessable property was £13,239,394, and the average poundage Is. The total amount expended on the relief of the indigent in that year was £685,668, chiefly for indoor maintenance.
Out of 282,492 persons assisted during the year, 56,416 received outdoor relief. - The number of offenders tried at assizes and quarter sessions has materially decreased since 1849. The total number of persons committed or held to bail in 1872 was 4,476 (including 814 females), of whom 2,565 were convicted. From 1865 to 1871 there were 21 persons sentenced to death, and 13 were executed. The number of county prisons is 33, of city or town prisons 5, and of bridewells 106. A law for the promotion and regulation of reformatory schools for juvenile offenders was passed in 1858. - The government is administered by a lord lieutenant (in 1874, the duke of Abercorn), who is assisted by a privy council appointed by the crown, and by a chief secretary for Ireland, a cabinet minister (in 1874, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach). In the absence of the lord lieutenant, he is replaced by lords justices, usually the primate or archbishop of Dublin, the lord chancellor, and the commander of the forces. Each county is in charge of a lieutenant, generally a peer of the realm, assisted by deputy lieutenants and magistrates who officiate gratuitously, and one or more resident paid magistrates, all appointed by the crown during pleasure. The cities, towns, and boroughs are governed by local magistrates.
Justice is administered by the lord chancellor, the master of the rolls, four judges in each of the courts of the queen's bench, common pleas, and exchequer, an assistant barrister for each county, a bankrupt court with two judges, and the judges of the prerogative court and of the admiralty. Assizes for criminal and civil pleas are held by two of the judges in each county in spring and summer of every year. The execution of the laws is intrusted to the constabulary in the counties and the police in Dublin. The total of the constabulary amounted, Sept. 30, 1871, to 12,274. The revenue police, organized for the suppression of illicit distillation, comprises about 400 officers and men. The Irish militia is composed of 12 regiments of artillery and 35 of infantry, numbering when embodied 31,972 men. Ireland is represented in the British parliament by 28 representative peers elected for life, and 105 commoners. Of the latter, 64 represent the counties, 2 the university, 12 the cities and towns of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford, Belfast, and Galway, and 27 the boroughs.
The number of county electors in 1871 was 175,149; of city and borough electors, 48,358. No separate return of the revenue and expenditure of Ireland has been given in the finance accounts since 1870; the gross amount of customs collected at the Irish ports in 1871 was £1,942,721, and the net amount of excise duties received in 1872 was £4,056,019. - The antiquities of Ireland are of various kinds: cromlechs, cairns (either simple mounds or to mark burial places), pillar stones, barrows, duns or defences of stone, lis or fortifications of earth, raths or villages, ancient stone-roofed buildings, round towers (of which there are 118, in height from 35 to 120 ft. with an internal diameter of 10 to 16 ft.), ecclesiastical architecture of all ages, with a vast number of castles and fortalices. The origin and use of the round towers have been much discussed. Of recent archaeologists, Dr. Petrie believes them to be Christian ecclesiastical structures dating for the most part from the 9th and 10th centuries; Dr. O'Brien thinks they are phallic monuments of remote pagan antiquity; and the Rev. R. Smiddy in 1873 claims them as Christian baptisteries.
Ancient weapons of bronze and ornaments of gold are frequently found in turning up the soil, the jewelry especially showing a high degree of artistic skill. The mediaeval architecture of Ireland has been largely illustrated by the labors of Dr. Petrie and his school. The round or oval structures of rough stone and earth, popularly called beehive houses, which are still found in great numbers on the islands off the coast of Connemara, county Galway, are probably of the 6th or 7th century. Of Cyclopean architecture, the most remarkable examples are the Dun Aengus, on a high cliff on the great Isle of Arran; Knockfennell in Limerick, 360 ft. in circumference, with walls 10 ft. thick; and the Staigue fort near Kenmare bay, circular, 90 ft. in diameter, with walls 18 ft. high and 13 ft. thick. Several ancient oratories built of uncemented stones admirably fitted, and their side walls and to some extent also the end walls converging from the base to the summit in curved lines, exist in county Kerry. The most beautifully constructed and best preserved of these ancient relics is the oratory of Gallerus. A building unique in Ireland is Cormac's chapel, on the rock of Cashel, constructed in the 12th century, covered with ornaments of the richest Norman character, of the period and probably the work of Anglo-Norman masons and sculptors.
The church or chapel of St. Doulough's, near Dublin, dating from the 14th century, presents a singular combination of church, house, and castle, all comprised in the space of 40 ft. long by 16 wide. Many parts of Ireland abound with ruins, especially of old manor houses, built in the form of towers for defence, and hence called castles, or the Irish towers. They are of all periods from the 12th to the 16th century. Besides these there are numerous real fortified castles, some of which furnish admirable specimens of the military architecture of the middle ages. Many smaller castles combining the military and domestic character are provided with keeps and exterior walls like the baronial castles of Britain. Conspicuous among these is Bullock castle, at Dalkey, near Dublin, which protected the port of Dalkey, where the commerce of Dublin was carried on for centuries. Among the principal tower houses are Loughmore castle, county Tipperary, Athenry castle, Gal-way, Blarney castle, near Cork, and Augna-nure castle, county Galway, on the borders of Connemara. Many buildings of the Elizabethan period exist in Galway; the finest are the Lynch castle and Castle Banks. Few countries offer so fine a field for the archaeologist.-According to the map of Ptolemy, the central portion of Ireland was inhabited in his day by the Scoti ; the north by the Robogdii; the east by the Darnii, Voluntii, Eblani, Cauci, Mena-pii, and Coriundi; the south by the Brigantes, Vodii, and Ibernii; the west by the Luceni, Velaborii, Cangani, Auteri, Magnatae, and Haudinii. In the Argonautica of Orpheus of Crotona (500 B. C), the island is called Iernis. In the De Mundo, attributed to Aristotle, " Albion " and " Ierne " are mentioned.
Dio-dorus Siculus alludes to the latter as Iris or Irisi, and Strabo names the island (Ierne);
Caesar, Tacitus, and Pliny call it Hibernia; Mela and others, Juverna. The native name is Ir, Eri, and Erin. The name of Ogygia, "most ancient land," was also applied to it by Plutarch. A very remote antiquity is claimed and supported with much display of erudition by Irish writers. The researches of the last 50 years have exposed the fallacies and fictions of previous writers on Irish history and antiquities. "The Annals of the Four Masters," as translated by John O'Donovan and Owen Connellan, with the remarkable collections of erudition forming the notes to these volumes, together with the researches of the former and Eugene O'Curry into Gaelic annals, rare works, and unpublished records, appear to authenticate the following statements in reference to ancient Ireland. During the reign of Ollav Fola, about 900 B. C, it is said, a species of parliament was organized by a triennial assemblage at Teamor or Tara, of the chiefs, priests, and bards, who digested the laws into a record called the psalter of Tara. Ollav Fola also founded schools of philosophy, astronomy, poetry, medicine, and history, which were protected by his successors. Kimbath, who reigned about 460 B. C, like Ollav Fola, promoted the civil interests of his kingdom.
Three reigns afterward Hugony the Great (300 B. C.) married a daughter of the king of Gaul, obliged the Picts to pay tribute, conquered the Western isles, and divided Ireland into 25 administrative provinces. The crown was declared hereditary in his family, in order to avoid the disorders caused by elections. To this period also is traced the division of Ireland into four provinces; and in the 1st century of the Christian era a portion was cut off from each to form a national district surrounding the capital. Crintham, one of Hugony's successors, married the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, and joined the Picts in their forays against the Romans. Tacitus mentions that, about this time, an Irish prince who had been exiled from his country solicited Agricola to invade Ireland, assuring him that a single legion would be sufficient to conquer it; but there is no trace or record of Roman occupation. Tacitus also notes the commerce existing between Ireland and Chester in England, and says that the harbors of Ireland are better known than those of Britain. Of Crintham's successors it will suffice to mention Feradach, surnamed the Just; Tuathal (A. D. 95), who erected temples for the sacred fire of the druids, and quelled "the revolt of the plebeians," which had lasted 25 years; Conn Keadcahagh, or Conn of the hundred battles, who was forced to give up half the kingdom to Modha Nuod, king of Munster, their respective shares being partitioned by a wall and ditch from Dublin to Galway, the country north being Leagh Cuin, or Conn's share, and south Leagh Modha, or Modha's share - names yet remembered, although the division lasted but a year.
Subsequently Conn became sole monarch. In the reign of his grandson Cormac flourished the military brotherhood of the Fianna Eirionn, commanded by Finn McCooil or Fingal, and cut to pieces at the battle of Gabra, in Meath, in the succeeding reign. Cormac was famous in peace and war. He enlarged the educational establishment originated at Tara by Ollav Fola, added to the number of military academies and law schools, and renewed the statutes concerning the psalter of Tara and the registration of individual histories. Nial of the nine hostages fought in Scotland, England, and France, and was killed by an arrow on the banks of the Loire. His successor Dathi, pushing his conquests through Britain into Gaul, was killed at the foot of the Alps. He was the last pagan king of Ireland. At this period the inhabitants were Scoto-Milesians, or Scots mixed with the descendants of an Iberian hero Mileagh. - From the 3d to the end of the 10th century the whole island took the name of Scotia, a term not then applied to the country now called Scotland. Usher and other historians mention four holy men who had preached the gospel in Ireland before St. Patrick. A fifth was sent by Pope Celestine L, in the person of Palladius, archdeacon of the Roman church.
Arriving in the reign of Laogare II., he was expelled after a few months, and died in Britain. Patrick, a native of Gaul, and a relative of St. Martin of Tours, was sent to Rome by Germanus of Auxerre, and intrusted by the pope with the mission of converting the Irish people. He arrived in Ireland about the middle of the 5th century, and died in 493, leaving the island Christian. This event gave a considerable impulse to civilization. The churches and monasteries founded by Patrick became so many schools, a zeal for learning spread among clergy and laity, and the favorite monastery of St. Patrick at Armagh became famous as a school all over Europe. For a time Ireland was so noted for the learning and piety of its ecclesiastics that it was called insula sanctorum, isle of saints. One of the most important events which happened about this time was the foundation of the Dalriadan or Scoto-Milesian kingdom of Albania, the first colonization of which from Ireland took place about A. D. 238. It had been established with the aid of the Malls or O'Neills of the north of Ireland, and when Columba landed in Albania in 563 he found at the head of the colony Connal, one of his own blood relatives.
Connal's successor Aidan was anointed king in Iona by Columba; and in 590 both went to Ireland, where, in the general assembly of Drumceat, Columba obtained a recognition of the new Scottish kingdom and the abolition of the colonial tribute paid to the Irish kings. According to Bede, in the year 646 many Anglo-Saxons settled in Ireland. In 684 it was invaded by Egfrid, king of Northumberland, who ravaged many churches and monasteries. More serious predatory incursions by the Scandinavians took place toward the close of the 8th century. Soon the idea of a permanent foothold seized the pirates, and they occupied good maritime positions, as Dublin, Drogheda, Waterford, Limerick, and Wexford. About the year 840 a powerful fleet arrived under Turgesius (Thjorg?), who for nearly seven years exercised authority over a large district, proscribed the Christians, dispersed the schools, burned the books, and issued his mandates from the high altar at Clonmacnoise. Turgesius was killed by Malachi, prince of Westmeath, and the Irish, rallying under the chief king Niall III., broke the supremacy of the Danes. Still they clung to the seaports, and by paying tribute when necessary and forming alliances with and against the Irish princes, retained occupation for more than two centuries, and were the source of great national decadence.
In 1002 Brian Boru, or Boroihme, king of Munster, expelled the Danes from his own kingdom, and, seizing the national authority, was crowned at Tara as king of Ireland. Ere long he expelled the Danes from the whole country. Having accomplished this result, he further effected great civil reforms, founded churches and schools, opened roads, built bridges, and fitted out a fleet. He also introduced the use of surnames, and made the marriage contract permanent. Another invasion by the Danes, incited by the king of Lein-ster, led to the decisive battle of Clontarf, Good Friday, April 28, 1014, in which the power of the Danes was finally broken. Brian was killed in his tent by a party of the flying enemy. His son and grandson perished on the same occasion. Malachi II., dethroned by Brian, now became king. His death in 1022 marks the decline of the Irish monarchy. The country in the 12th century presented a scene of almost ceaseless disorder, the five kingdoms of Ulster, Leinster, Meath, Connaught, and Minister, besides a number of petty principalities, being continually at war with each other. The island had fallen into a state of degeneracy sadly at variance with its former title of isle of saints.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux called the attention of Rome to this, and Pope Eugenius III. sent Cardinal Papiron to correct abuses and restore discipline. The synod of Kells, held under his auspices in March, 1152, acknowledged the supremacy of Rome, established the archbishoprics of Dublin and Tuam (Armagh and Cashel already existing), and condemned simony, usury, and concubinage. In 1155 a bull is said to have been issued by Pope Adrian IV., the existence of which is denied, conferring the sovereignty of Ireland upon Henry II. of England; but the latter did not avail himself of it for many years. The appeal of Dermot McMurrough, king of Leinster, to be reinstated on the throne from which he had been justly driven, furnished a pretext for the invasion of Ireland by two bands of Norman adventurers, one under Robert Fitz-stephen in 1169, and another under Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, commonly called Strongbow, in the same year. The success of McMurrough's allies aroused the suspicions of Henry II., who issued a proclamation recalling Strongbow and all Englishmen, under pain of outlawry.
This course gave him in the eyes of the Irish the aspect of a deliverer rather than that of an invader; and when in 1171 he arrived at Waterford, many native princes accepted him as liege lord, so that he might settle their existing difficulties, and guarantee them their own possessions and dignities. He was called away in the next year, and his lieutenants soon developed a system of spoliation. In 1177 the king's son John was made lord of Ireland, and in the same year Cardinal Vivian, the pope's legate, convening a synod at Dublin, published King Henry's title to Ireland with the papal ratification. In 1185 John arrived with a fleet of 60 ships, was defeated by Donal O'Brien, and soon returned with charges against Hugh de Lacy, chief of the English in Ireland. In 1210 King John arrived in Ireland, and was chiefly occupied in chastising the most powerful of the Anglo-Norman lords. He divided the country into counties, established courts in Dublin, appointed judges, circuits, and corporations, established a new coinage, and assimilated the currency of England and Ireland. In 1216 Magna Charta, or the great charter of liberties, was granted to the Irish by Henry III. Many years were passed in contentions among the rival English lords as well as the native chiefs.
On May 25, 1315, at the invitation of several Irish princes, Edward Bruce landed in Antrim, where he was joined by Donal O'Neil, prince of Ulster. The natives flocked to his standard. The Anglo-Normans with O'Conor of Connaught opposed him. Bruce-and O'Neil marched southward, overwhelmed the Anglo-Norman army, captured all the great towns on their route, and went into winter quarters at Christmas " in the midst of the most considerable chiefs of Ulster, Meath, and Connact." In the spring, having made a triumphant march south, they returned to Dun-dalk, when Bruce was elected and crowned king. Robert Bruce came to the aid of his brother, and, after a successful incursion as far as Limerick, returned to Ulster in May, 1317, the troops having been decimated by a famine of such severity as to compel a suspension of hostilities, after which Robert Bruce returned to Scotland. In August, 1318, the armies were moving. The English under John de Berming-ham were in the field first, found Edward Bruce at a disadvantage, and defeated and dispersed his troops at Faugard, Oct. 14, Bruce himself perishing on the battle field.
Unexpected dangers interfered with the subjection of Ireland. Notwithstanding incessant warfare between the Normans and the natives, the middle of the 14th century found the Irish language, laws, manners, and customs universally adopted by the former, while marriage and "fosterage" between the nobles of both races were making the Anglo-Normans " more Irish than the Irish." To avert this danger, many measures were adopted. By an ordinance of Edward III., 1341, all offices in Ireland held by Irish or English men who had estates or were married in Ireland were to be vacated, and filled by Englishmen who "had no personal interest whatever in Ireland." In 1367 a parliament at Kilkenny, under the auspices of the king's son Lionel, passed the memorable "statute of Kilkenny," directed against the English who adopted Irish customs or manners, and making intermarriage, fostering, or trading with the natives, treason. Near the end of the century Richard II. twice landed in Ireland with a large force, but he was completely baffled by Art McMurrough, who in the succeeding reign defied and fought the duke of Lancaster under the walls of Dublin. In the reign of Edward IV. was passed the " head act," which made it lawful to kill " any persons going or coming, having no faithful man of good name and fame in their company in English apparel." Henry VII. undertook still further to reduce the country to a condition of complete dependence by ordaining that no parliament should meet without his permission, and no law be valid unless sanctioned by the English king and council.
To meet his view Sir Edward Poynings, then lord deputy, assembled a parliament at Drogheda in 1495, at which was enacted the " Poynings law," which took away the independence of the Irish parliament, making all its acts subordinate to that of England. A parliament in Dublin, in 1537, passed the act of supremacy, declaring Henry VIII. supreme head of the church, prohibiting intercourse with the court of Rome under penalty of praemunire, and making it treason to refuse the oath of supremacy. Henry VIII. also took the title of king of Ireland, although in his day only an inconsiderable portion of the country-was practically subject to the English law. This reign was marked by the insurrection of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, which ended in the total ruin of the powerful house of Kildare. Henry introduced the Protestant reformation into Ireland with as little difficulty as he had into England. A few partial disturbances happened, but nothing of national importance till the reign of Elizabeth, during which fierce and almost incessant wars were carried on with the Desmonds in Munster, and other Anglo-Irish families who resisted the reformation. During the last 15 years of her reign the contest raged with fury, particularly against the O'Neills, O'Donnells, and other Ulster princes and chiefs.
It is estimated that this war of Elizabeth cost £3,000,000 and 200,000 lives, about equally divided between the English and the Irish. A great parliament summoned by the lord deputy Sir John Perrott, in 1585, was attended by nearly all of the great Irish chiefs and representatives of the Anglo-Irish families. James I. introduced into Ulster many Scotch and English Protestant settlers. The civil wars in England supplied the Irish and Anglo-Irish Catholics with a favorable opportunity to make an attempt to overthrow the new settlements and protect themselves. Accordingly, in 1641, an insurrection broke out in Ulster, which quickly spread to all parts of the island. Dublin narrowly escaped falling into their hands. Social and religious animosities alike served to embitter the contest, which was marked by great atrocities. As the abbe MacGeoghehan says, both sides were culpable, and the massacre "was one of the most cruel and barbarous that has been recorded among Christians, both on account of its duration and the fury of those who were the authors of it." In 1642 a national synod established the "Confederation of Kilkenny," issued a plan of provisional government, and called a general assembly of the whole kingdom, Oct. 23, at which a supreme council of 24 (comprising 3 archbishops, 2 bishops, 4 nobles, and 15 commoners) was elected.
This power exercised the functions of a national government for several years, coined money, appointed judges, held assizes, commissioned officers, and sent ambassadors abroad. Charles I. negotiated publicly and privately with it. Its favorite general, Owen Roe O'Neill, gained a great victory over the English army at Benburb, June 5, 1646; but it was finally distracted and destroyed by intrigue. The country was a prey to anarchy till 1649, when Cromwell appeared on the scene. He took Drogheda by storm, and delivered it up to the license of his soldiery. One after another the Roman Catholic strongholds fell, till the whole country lay at his mercy, and for the first time English supremacy might be said to be established. Four fifths of the whole soil was confiscated. Once more, in 1688, the Catholics took up arms. James II., after his flight from England, presented himself in Ireland, and was received with acclamation. An army was speedily organized under the Irish and French officers whom he had brought with him. But the superior genius of "William of Orange, displayed at the battle of the Boyne in 1690, broke the current of the ex-king's success.
The battle of Aghrim followed, July 12,1691, where the Irish met with a disastrous defeat; the fugitives retired to Limerick, and after a final stand surrendered, Oct. 3,1692, on terms which were violated by the victors. Renewed confiscations followed. A large number of Roman Catholics fled the country, and those who remained were barely permitted to exist. The next hundred years of Irish history record little else than relentless persecution of the Catholics. Even so late as toward the close of the 18th century the penal laws were tyrannous. Catholics were not eligible to offices of trust, were not allowed to serve in the army or navy, nor to possess arms, nor to exercise many other of the rights of citizenship. The gloom of the penal days was only broken by brave utterances from noble Protestant men in behalf of the general rights of the kingdom, such as Moly-neux's " Case of Ireland stated," Dean Swift's "Drapier" letters, and Dr. Lucas's protests against the encroachments on constitutional rights.
Molyneux's book was burned by the common hangman; a reward was offered for the Drapier, and his printer arrested; and Lucas had to find refuge in England from laws enacted by and for the English interest in Ireland. In 1782 Henry Grattan, backed by the arms of the volunteers who had organized to defend the country against an expected French invasion, achieved the independence of the Irish parliament by the repeal of the act 6 George I., the Poynings, and other objectionable acts. Still the Catholics had cause to sue for "emancipation," meaning thereby a complete community of privileges. The Protestants, too, had their grievances on various matters connected with trade and revenue. War with the American colonies touched their interests in various ways, chiefly by closing the markets for their linens, and by putting a stop to the emigration which was even then beginning to be developed. Hence the universal emancipation of nations proclaimed by the French revolution appealed powerfully to the Irish of both creeds.
Theobald Wolfe Tone had founded the first society of United Irishmen, Oct. 12, 1791. His avowed object was to break the connection by means of a union of Protestant, Catholic, and Dissenter. The British government, naturally jealous of the discontent everywhere manifest, increased its severities, suspended the habeas corpus act, dispersed meetings by force of arms, and distributed troops at free quarters upon the people. In defence the "United Irishmen" became a secret society, and besought French aid. The recourse to arms contemplated by the United Irishmen was forced to a premature culmination by the government, which through the viceroy Lord Camden proclaimed all Ireland under martial law, March 30, 1798. This led to great excesses on the part of those in power, and localities in which the united Irish organizers had little hold, like Wexford county, were goaded into revolt. The active civil war lasted less than five months, during which many notable battles occurred, as at New Ross, Enniscorthy, and Vinegar Hill. England employed 137,000 men.
Its cost is variously estimated at £30,000,000 and £50,000,000. The English lost 20,000 men, the Irish 50,000. Many of the leaders were executed, Lord Edward Fitzgerald died of his wounds in prison, and Tone, who was captured on board the Hoche, the admiral's ship accompanying the third expedition which he had projected from France and Hamburg, committed suicide in prison. Of the leaders of the United Irishmen fully, two thirds were Protestants and Presbyterians. Lord Cornwallis was appointed lord lieutenant, with instructions to pursue a pacific policy. A bill of amnesty was passed in 1799, and the country settled into the appearance of quiet. Government took advantage of the rebellion to hasten the legislative union of the two countries, which, despite the eloquent opposition of Grattan and his party, went into effect Jan. 1, 1801. The articles of the act of union were: 1, that the two islands be called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; 2, the succession to the throne to continue as existing, limited; 3, the kingdom to be represented by one parliament; 4, that Ireland be represented in the house of lords by 28 temporal peers elected for life from the Irish nobility, and in the house of commons by 100 representatives; 5, that the state churches of the two islands be united, their doctrines and discipline being one; 6, that the population of the two countries be on the same footing as regarded manufacturing, trading, and commercial privileges; 7, that the expenditure be in the proportion of Britain 15 to Ireland 2 for 20 years, afterward to be regulated by parliament; 8, that the existing laws and courts be continued, excepting that appeals from the Irish chancery be to the British house of lords.
The extremes of both parties were dissatisfied. An insurrection broke out in Dublin, July 23, 1803, but was speedily suppressed. Robert Emmet, the young enthusiast who led it, died on the scaffold. The outbreak had little other result than to cause the revival of harsh measures and of agitation. For several years the question of Catholic emancipation was a standard subject of excitement; it was periodically mooted in parliament, and as regularly thrown out, for nearly 20 years. In 1821 George IV. paid a state visit to Ireland, where he was received with demonstrations of loyalty. In 1822 Ireland suffered from a famine, produced, says Alison, "by the contraction of the currency and consequent fall of the prices of agricultural produce 50 per cent." Cobbett says there was food enough, but no money to purchase it. In 1823 the question of Catholic emancipation assumed larger proportions. Daniel O'Connell was the most prominent public man from this period till his death in 1847. Various associations were organized in aid of the ends for which the Catholics, supported by the liberal of all parties, were striving. The chief of these was "the Catholic Association," of which the ostensible object was, in brief, the removal of all political and civil disabilities.
Its ramifications extended throughout the country, and it derived from voluntary contributions a large revenue, known in the records of the time as " the rent." This organization exercised an important influence on the domestic political policy of the country, and may indeed be said to have effected its object, for, on April 13, 1829, the long-sought act of "Catholic emancipation" received the royal assent. Sir Robert Peel, in addressing parliament on the bill, made the admission that scarcely for one year since the union had Ireland been governed by the ordinary course of law, without- the intervention of insurrection acts, suspension of the habeas corpus, or martial rule. O'Connell took his seat as member for Clare, and immediately proclaimed an agitation for repeal of the legislative union. The tactics that had carried the measure of emancipation were revived. The repeal association followed the Catholic. Combined with this primary object were complicated lesser issues, such as a movement against the payment of tithes. Of the 8,000,000 inhabitants of Ireland, only one tenth were members of the established Protestant church, yet tithes for its support were exacted indiscriminately from all.
The "tithe war " was distinguished by many disgraceful and heart-rending transactions, notably the massacre at Newtownbarry and Car-rickshock in 1831, and at Rathcormack in 1834. At length, in 1838, the obnoxious features of the tax were concealed by the substitution of a fixed rent charge payable by the land owners. The parliamentary reform bill, in 1832, gave to Ireland five more members in the house of commons; and the municipal reform act, in 1840, removed many minor administrative grievances. In 1831 the national system of education was established by act of parliament. In 1833 the expenditure of the grants for public education was intrusted to the viceroy under the superintendence of " commissioners of national education;" and in 1835 these commissioners were incorporated, with power to hold lands. In 1838 the English poor-law system was introduced, and during the succeeding ten years received extension and adaptations as circumstances required. The organization of the police force kept pace with these ameliorations. In 1836 it was consolidated into the semi-military arm it now is. During the progress of these events the repeal agitation was increasing, until it culminated in " the repeal year," 1843. Monster meetings were held at various places.
A final one, on a yet more gigantic scale, was proposed to be held at Clontarf, but the government having forbidden it, it did not take place. In February, 1844, under the Peel administration, O'Connell and his fellow agitators were convicted and sentenced to a short term of imprisonment. An appeal to the house of lords set them at liberty. The agitation did not flourish afterward. In 1846 and the succeeding year a great famine fell upon the land, through the rotting of the potato crop, upon which most of the peasantry depended for sustenance, and thousands perished of hunger. Parliament made successive grants in aid, amounting in the aggregate to £10,000,000. Large sums were subscribed abroad; and among other donations, a cargo of food was sent from the United States. The crops of the two succeeding years were short, but gradually plenty came again. The young Ireland party, which had grown under the auspices of O'Connell, rejected his peace policy, and remonstrated against his affiliation with the English whigs. It received great accessions from the country, and on Jan. 13, 1847, formed the " Irish Confederation." Although it had upward of 150,000 enrolled men in its clubs, its organization was imperfect, and the amount of arms in its possession insignificant.
Neither was its purpose distinctly defined or understood. John Mitch-el, seeing nothing in the famine policy of the government but "a machinery deliberately devised and skilfully worked for the entire subjugation and slaughter or pauperization of the people," advised resistance and a general arming. William Smith O'Brien, C. Gavan Duffy, T. F. Meagher, and the "Nation" party thought this would be a virtual declaration of war. But the French revolution of February, 1848, gave a great impetus to Mitchel's views, and set all the confederate orators on the path of revolution. The confederation sent to France a deputation, with an address which declared that the heroism of the French republic " taught enslaved nations that emancipation ever awaits those who dare to achieve it by their own intrepidity." The parliament hurriedly passed a "treason-felony" act. Mitchel was arrested, tried, and banished for 14 years. The nationalists desired to wait for the harvest; but the government, as on former occasions, put forth all its power to force an immature rising. The " Nation," " Tribune," and " Felon," which had succeeded Mitchel's " United Irishman," were seized, and their writers thrown into prison.
The " gagging act" prevented freedom of speech at the clubs; and the suspension of the habeas corpus act compelled those who were objects of suspicion to evade the authorities. Thus the leaders were thrown on the country, and rewards offered for them. Hunted with celerity, they strove to face the emergency in hurried councils and with undisciplined material, and having come in contact with the forces at the slate quarries, Mullina-hone, Killenaule, Ballingarry, Abbeyfeale, and elsewhere, they were either captured or found safety in exile. O'Brien, Meagher, McManus, and O'Donoghue were sentenced to death; Martin and O'Doherty were banished for a term of years to Australia; and Doheny, Dillon, Devin Reilly, and O'Gorman found their way to America. Later in the year (September) a more persistent effort was made by John O'Mahony and John Savage to rally the people in Tipperary, Waterford, and Kilkenny, but it was hopeless. The government had 40,000 troops in the country. None were executed, the sentence of death having been commuted to transportation, and in most instances pardons were extended in 1856. In 1849 came into operation the act establishing courts for the sale of encumbered estates.
To May 25, 1857, property had been sold to 7,216 persons, 6,902 of whom were Irish, the rest English, Scotch, or foreigners. The amount realized for the same was over £20,000,000. In 1849 a serious collision took place between some Orangemen and unarmed Catholics at Dollysbrae, county Down, which necessitated the dismissal of Lord Roden and another Orange magistrate from the commission of the peace by the viceroy, Lord Clarendon. In the same year Queen Victoria paid her first visit to Ireland, and she again visited it in 1853 to witness the great exhibition of Irish industrial products, opened at Dublin, May 12. The year 1854 was signalized by the foundation of a Roman Catholic university. The political excitements of this period were an agitation by Protestants against the governmental grant to the college of Maynooth, and by the Catholic defence association in favor of perfect religious equality. " Tenant right," with other secular questions, under discussion at the same time, produced considerable effervescence. In 1857 the Phoenix society developed some active revolutionary spirit in the south of Ireland. This was followed up by the "Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood," the form under which Fenian-ism became known in the British islands.
The rise and progress of the Fenian movement on both sides of the Atlantic is treated under Fenians. It is only necessary here to allude to the measures passed by the British parliament growing out of the Irish efforts from 1857 to 1871. The government put forth its most vigilant and effective resources in Ireland, twice suspending the habeas corpus to strengthen the hands of the Irish executive. Mr. James Stephens was the controlling influence of the "Revolutionary Brotherhood" in Ireland, and the seizure of his organ, " The Irish People," in September, 1865, and of himself in November, created intense excitement, which was more widely extended by his escape on the 24th of the same month. The rising in March, 1867, gave a great number of active spirits into the hands of the government. Following the failure, the parliament passed a reform bill extending the franchise; this was supplemented by Mr. Gladstone's bill for the disestablishment of the Anglican church in Ireland, which was followed by a land-tenure bill for Ireland and' a naturalization bill. Throughout 1868-'9 immense meetings were held in favor of amnesty for the political prisoners, in which the corporations of leading cities took part.
This developed so much national spirit and concentration of feeling that it was taken advantage of by Mr. Isaac Butt, to direct its energy and fervor into a new national movement on a constitutional basis. Gentlemen of all classes and religions entered the "Home Rule League," and a great national convention or conference was held in Dublin, Nov. 18, 1873, at which the principles and objects of the organization were declared. The conference solemnly asserted the inalienable right of the Irish people' to self-government, and adopted "the principle of a federal arrangement, which would secure to an Irish parliament the right of legislating for and regulating all matters relating to the internal affairs of Ireland, while leaving to the imperial parliament the power of dealing with all questions affecting the imperial crown and government, legislation regarding the colonies and other dependencies of the crown, the relations of the empire with foreign states, and all matters appertaining to the defence and stability of the empire at large, as well as the power of granting and providing the supplies necessary for imperial purposes." In the election following the dissolution of parliament in January, 1874, the success of the home rule candidates was very significant.
In Ireland 60 noblemen and gentlemen elected were pledged to home rule, while England sent 28 also pledged. The new Disraeli administration initiated its Irish policy by warning, on April 17, through the lords justices, a national Dublin journal. The act having been brought before parliament, May 1, was defended by the secretary for Ireland on the ground that " a spirit of disaffection still existed there which might be easily fanned into a flame." - See Giraldus Cam-brensis, Topographia Hiberniae and Expugnatio Hiberniae (Frankfort, 1602, and in Holinshed's collection); Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland to the 13th Century" (4 vols., Dublin, 1822); Betham's "Irish Antiquarian Researches" (2 vols., Dublin, 1826), and "The Gael and the Cymbri" (1834); O'Connor's " Chronicles of Eri" (2 vols., Dublin, 1832); "The Annals of Ireland," by James Grace (Dublin, 1842); " The Annals of Ireland," by Friar John Glyn (Dublin, 1849); publications of the Irish archaeological society (Dublin, 1853 et seq.)- publications of the Ossianic society (Dublin, 1853 et seq.); O'Brennan's " Ancient Ireland" (Dublin, 1855); "The Four Masters' Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland," edited by J. O'Donovan (7 vols., Dublin, 1856); Dr. Todd's "Wars of the Irish and Danes" (Dublin, 1858); MacGeoghegan's " History of Ireland, Ancient and Modern," continued up to present date by John Mitchel (New York, 1874); Gustave de Beaumont, L lrlande so-ciale et politique (2 vols., Paris, 1839); and Abbe Perraud, Etudes sur l'lrlande contem-poraine (Paris, 1862).
I. Samuel, an English engraver and author, born in London, died there in July, 1800. After learning engraving, he became a dealer in curiosities, scarce books, prints, etc, but ultimately turned tourist and author. He visited Holland, Brabant, France, and various parts of England, and published several illustrated works of travel and scenery, none of which have now much interest or reputation. He also published "Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth" (1794-'9). II. William Henry, son of the preceding, born in London in 1777, died there, April 17, 1835. He was educated in France, and at the age of 16 was apprenticed to a conveyancer in his native city. Having accompanied his father to Stratford-upon-Avon, and noticing his enthusiasm for Shakespearian relics, he forged a deed or lease containing a pretended autograph of the poet, which he said he had found among some old law papers. The eagerness with which his father believed this tale induced him to manufacture other documents of the same description; and he finally produced a play called "Vortigern," purporting to be by Shakespeare. It deceived many literary men, and Sheridan purchased it for Drury Lane theatre, where it was produced with John Kemble in the leading part; but the total failure of the play, joined with the attacks of Malone and others, soon led to a general conviction of young Ireland's dishonesty. "Vortigern" and "Henry II.," a similar production, were printed in 1799, and the former was republished in 1832, with a facsimile of the original forgery.
Being required to show the source from which he had derived the manuscripts, he confessed his deception, left his father's house, and abandoned his profession. He passed the rest of his life in literary pursuits, publishing several novels which never had much popularity, " Neglected Genius," a poem (1812), etc. A new edition of his "Confessions" (1805), containing a full account of his literary forgeries, was published in New York in 1874, with additional facsimiles, and an introduction by Richard Grant White.