Jacob Moleschott, a German physiologist, burn in Bois-le-Duc, Holland, Aug. 9, 1822. He took his degree at Heidelberg in 1845, practised medicine at Utrecht till 1847, and afterward lectured at the university of Heidelberg till 1854, when, having been accused of pantheism and of propounding precepts dangerous to religion and morals, he resigned. He accepted in 1850 a professorship in Zurich, and in 1861 the chair of physiology in Turin. His doctrine has been popularly described as based upon the German saying that Der Mensch ist was er isst ('man is what he eats), or upon his own formula, Ohne Phosphorus Tcein Ge-danke (no thought without phosphorus); and though he does not deny the existence of a spiritual life, he connects the origin of all species of animals with physical laws alone. His influence has greatly promoted the study of physiology and anthropology, and he has given especial attention to food and diet, the liver, the blood, milk, the origin of bile, and the structure of the muscles. His principal works are: Lehre der Nuhrungsmittel (Erlangen, 1850; 3d ed., 1858; English translation, "The Chemistry of Food and Diet," by Dr. E. Bonner, London, 1.50); Physiologic der Nahrungsmittel (Darmstadt, 1850; 2d ed., Giessen, 1859); Der Krciahuif des Lebens (Mentz, 1852; 4th ed., 1863) Georg Forster (Frankfort, 1854; 2d ed., 1862); Ursache and Wirkung in der Lehre com Lrhen (Giessen, 1867); and Von der Selbst-w/ng im Leben der Memchheit (1871).