James Andrew Broun Ramsay Dalhousie, marquis of, a British statesman, born at Dalhousie, near Edinburgh, Scotland, April 22, 1812, died there, Dec. 19, 1860. The earl of Dalhousie, his father, was general in the army, for a time governor of Canada, and commander of the forces in India from 1828 to 1832. The son was educated at Harrow and Oxford, entered the house of commons in 1837 as member for Haddingtonshire, and on the death of his father (March 21, 1838) took his seat in the house of lords. In 1843 Sir Robert Peel made him vice president, and in 1845 president of the board of trade. On the accession of the whigs to office in 1846, he was requested to retain his position. In November, 1847, he went to India as Lord Hardinge's successor in the post of governor general, and entered upon his duties Jan. 12, 1848. The treaty concluded by Lord Hardinge with the Sikh chieftains having been broken by new risings, Lord Dalhousie invaded northwestern India, subjugated the Punjaub, and annexed it permanently to the British empire (1849). Under his administration also, in 1852, Pegu was annexed, and possession was obtained of Oude and several minor districts. Great improvements were effected in all departments of the government.

The civil service was thrown open to competition, prison discipline was reformed, cheap and uniform postage was introduced, and numerous railways, an extensive system of telegraphs, and the Ganges canal were constructed. The climate having destroyed his health, Lord Dalhousie resigned in 1855, and was succeeded by Lord Canning. He was raised to the rank of marquis in 1849; appointed warden of the cinque ports on the death of the duke of "Wellington in 1852; and rewarded in 1856 with a life pension of £5,000 by the East India company, which he resigned, however, in favor of the sufferers from the sepoy rebellion of 1857.