James, a S. E. county of Tennessee, bordering on Georgia, and bounded N. W. by the Tennessee river, formed since the census of 1870; area, about 200 sq. m. The surface is somewhat mountainous; the soil is generally fertile. Coal and iron are found. The East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad crosses it. The assessed value of property in 1871 was $801,093. Capital, Ooltewah.
I. Henry, an American philosopher, born in Albany, N. Y., June 3, 1811. He studied for some time in Union college and in the Presbyterian theological seminary at Princeton. During a tour in Europe he became interested in the views of Robert Sandeman, of whose " Letters on Theron and Aspasio " he prepared an edition with an original preface (New York, 1839). In 1840 he published a pamphlet entitled " Remarks on the Apostolic Gospels," in which he maintained the absolute divinity of Jesus Christ while denying the doctrine of the trinity. In another visit to Europe in 1843 he became acquainted with the works of Swedenborg, which have ever since exercised a marked influence upon his opinions and writings. In 1846 he published "What is the State? "a lecture delivered in Albany, and in 1847 " A Letter to a Sweden-borgian," in which, while asserting the doctrines promulgated by Swedenborg, he argues against the ecclesiastical organization of the New Jerusalem church. In the winter of 1849-'50 he delivered in New York a course of public lectures, which were collected into a volume under the title of "Moralism and Christianity " (1852), and excited much attention.
The leading idea of this volume is that there is a radical distinction between the moral and religious life of man; the former being mere obedience to the laws of human society, while the latter is the product of divine life and love flowing into the soul; consequently the one is outward, formal, and temporary, while the other is inward, spontaneous, and permanent. A second course of lectures delivered in 1851-'2, enforcing the same general views, was published, together with several articles written for magazines and reviews, in a volume entitled "Lectures and Miscellanies," in 1852. This was followed by " The Church of Christ not an Ecclesiasticism " (1854), " The Nature of Evil" (1855), "Christianity the Logic of Creation" (1857), "Substance and Shadow" (1866), and "The Secret of Swedenborg " (1869). In these works Mr. James advocates a body of religious philosophy and social doctrine which in its theological affinities is related to the teachings of Swedenborg, while its humanitary tendencies accord with the aims of modern socialism.
II. Henry, jr., an American author, son of the preceding, born in New York, April 15, 1843. He was educated partly in New York and partly in Europe, where he has lived for several years, mostly in France and Italy. He has become favorably known as a contributor of stories, sketches of travel, and literary and artistic criticisms to various reviews and other periodicals.