Janina, Or Yanina, a city of Albania, European Turkey, capital of a vilayet of the same name (pop. 400,000, chiefly Greeks), on a small peninsula on the bank of the lake of Janina, 85 m. W. by N. of Larissa pop. about 16,000, of whom 9,500 are Christians, 4,000 Mussulmans, and 2,500 Jews. The population has decreased about 10,000 since 1861, chiefly in consequence of emigration and military conscription. The streets are narrow and crooked, and most of the houses are poor. It is the seat of a Greek metropolitan, and contains 7 churches, 18 mosques, 2 synagogues, a Greek college, a library, and a hospital. Among the manufactures are gold lace and brocade, morocco leather, colored linen, and silk goods. The adjoining country yields grain, fruits, wine, tobacco, and timber in abundance, and is rich in pasture lands, sheep and goats constituting a principal source of wealth. - The site of Janina and its lake answers to that of the city and lake of Euroea in Epirus mentioned by Procopius. Justinian built a fortress at Euroea, probably on the site now occupied by the citadel of Janina. In the later period of the Byzantine empire its territory was a field of contention between the Greeks and Wallach and Slavic settlers.

In the latter part of the 11th century it was taken by the Normans, who defeated Alexis Comnenus under its walls. Toward the middle of the 15th Century it fell into the hands of the Turks. At the beginning of the present century Janina enjoyed a high degree of prosperity, numbering about 40,000 inhabitants, possessing an extensive trade and a large annual fair, and ranking among the most accomplished and industrious of modern Greeks. But the despotic rule of Ali Pasha, governor of the city, led to its ruin. When no longer able to defend the city, he set it on fire. (See Ali Pasha.) The mosques, the palaces, and the two academies for which Janina was celebrated, were all destroyed. Opposite the city is a small island with a fishing village and a church and monastery. - The lake of Janina is about 6 m. in length, and almost 3 m. in its greatest breadth, bounded N. E. by the Mitzikeli mountains (2,500 ft. high), and S. W. by a rocky mountain crowned with the ruins of an Epirote city, supposed to have been the ancient Dodona. The N. W. part of the lake is commonly called the lake of Lapsista, and the S. E. that of Janina. The middle resembles a marsh rather than a lake, and is traversed by two long channels which connect the two portions.

The waters of both lakes are absorbed by subterranean channels; that which communicates with the river Ka-lama (the Thyamis of the ancient Greeks) is in the lake of Lapsista. The lake of Janina abounds with pike, perch, carp, tench, eels, and other fish. Immense numbers of wild fowl breed in the covert of the lofty reeds upon its shores. It has been proposed to drain the lake by boring a tunnel 6 m. long through a limestone mountain.

Janina.

Janina.