Jefferson, the name of 23 counties in the United States. I. A N. county of New York, bordering on Lake Ontario and the river St. Lawrence; area, 1,868 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 65,415. Black river intersects it, and it is watered by other streams. The land rises gradually from the lake to a height of 1,000 ft. There are low ridges in the N. E. parallel with the St. Lawrence, and marshes in the S. W. The soil is generally fertile. Iron ore, lead, and copper are found. The Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburgh railroad and Cape Vincent branch traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 228,772 bushels of wheat, 221,551 of Indian corn, 1,058,227 of oats, 415,704 of barley, 86,602 of peas and beans, 507,349 of potatoes, 104,459 lbs. of wool, 262,738 of hops, 35,850 of flax, 529,109 of maple sugar, 4,883,508 of butter, 2,545,654 of cheese, and 223,343 tons of hay. There were 15,564 horses, 72,980 milch cows, 23,525 other cattle, 26,390 sheep, and 13,930 swine, 6 manufactories of agricultural implements, 9 of cheese boxes, 35 of carriages, 79 of cheese, 21 of clothing, 4 of confectionery, 1 of cotton goods, 21 of furniture, 10 of iron castings, 1 of blooms, 11 of machinery, 4 of malt, 6 of paper, 3 of pumps, 34 of saddlery and harness, 8 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 of sewing machines, I of steel springs, 24 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 6 of woollen goods, 36 saw mills, 5 breweries, 19 tanneries, 9 currying establishments, and 40 flour mills.
Capital, Water-town. H A W. county of Pennsylvania, drained by Mahoning and Red Bank creeks; area, 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,656. The surface is hilly and well timbered, and the soil generally fertile. Iron ore and anthracite coal are abundant. The chief productions in 1870 were 78,618 bushels of wheat, 64,678 of rye, 200,484 of Indian corn, 390,151 of oats, 46,632 of buckwheat, 54,596 of potatoes, 56,621 lbs. of wool, 497,951 of butter, and 18,914 tons of hay. There were 4,855 horses, 5,391 milch cows, 6,029 other cattle, 20,029 sheep, and 8,889 swine; 2 manufactories of agricultural implements, 8 of carriages, 8 of furniture, 4 of iron castings, 1 of machinery, 7 of saddlery and harness, 4 of woollen goods, II tanneries, 7 currying establishments, 1 distillery, 3 planing mills, and 44 saw mills. Capital, Brookville. III. The N. E. county of West Virginia, separated from Maryland on the N. E. by the Potomac river, bounded N. W. by Opequan creek, and S. and S. E. by Virginia, and intersected by the Shenandoah; area, 260 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,13,219, of whom 3,488 were colored. It has a rolling surface and a fertile soil resting on a bed of limestone. The Blue Ridge lies on the S. E. border. The Baltimore and Ohio and the Winchester and Potomac railroads pass through it.
The chief productions in 1870 were 468,841 bushels of wheat, 336,287 of Indian corn, 44,077 of oats, 24,305 of potatoes, 28,699 lbs. of wool, 120,374 of butter, and 5,753 tons of hay. There were 3,694 horses, 2,489 milch cows, 3,313 other cattle, 6,521 sheep, and 9,151 swine,'4 manufactories of woollen goods, 5 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of paper, 4 of cooperage, 1 of cement, 1 tannery, 6 flour mills, and 8 saw mills. Capital, Charlestown. IV. An E. county of Georgia, intersected by Ogeechee river and Brier creek; area, 634 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,190, of whom 7,943 were colored. It has a level surface, and contains buhrstone, agates, chalcedony, and carnelian. The soil was originally fertile. The Georgia Central railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 11,949 bushels of wheat, 211,528 of Indian corn, 22,514 of sweet potatoes, and 6,885 bales of cotton. There were 643 horses, 1,023 mules and asses, 1,508 milch cows, 3,432 other cattle, 4,440 sheep, and 8,686 swine. Capital, Louisville. V. A N. county of Florida, bordering on Georgia and Appalachee bay, and bounded E. by the Ocilla river; area, 470 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,398, of whom 6,374 were colored. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile.
The Jacksonville, Pensacola, and Mobile railroad and Monticello branch traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 238,728 bushels of Indian corn, 15,163 of sweet potatoes, 24 hogsheads of sugar, 21,773 gallons of molasses, and 6,051 bales of cotton. There were 494 horses, 1,025 mules and asses, 1,635 milch cows, 3,378 other cattle, 956 sheep, and 7,004 swine. Capital, Monticello. VI. A central county of Alabama, drained by Black Warrior and Cahawba rivers; area, 1,040 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,345, of whom 2,506 were colored. It has a hilly surface and a fertile soil. Coal, iron, and timber are abundant. The Alabama and Chattanooga and the South and North Alabama railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 45,219 bushels of wheat, 251,184 of Indian corn, 24,195 of sweet potatoes, 31,566 lbs. of butter, and 1,470 bales of cotton. There were 1,754 horses, 3,094 milch cows, 1,414 working oxen, 3,852 other cattle, 5,437 sheep, and 13,753 swine. Capital, Ely-ton. VII. A S. W. county of Mississippi, separated from Louisiana by the Mississippi river; area, 630 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,13,848, of whom 10,633 were colored, It has a fertile soil, and the E. part is occupied by pine woods.
The chief productions in 1870 were 204,464 bushels of Indian corn, 31,386 of sweet potatoes, 33,-235 lbs. of butter, and 13,719 bales of cotton. There were 1,681 horses, 1,964 mules and asses, 3,215 milch cows, 1,584 working oxen, 4,825 other cattle, 2,118 sheep, and 7,620 swine. Capital, Fayette. VIII. A S. E. parish of Louisiana, extending from Lake Pontchar-train to Barataria bay, and crossed by the Mississippi; area, 384 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,17,767, of whom 11,054 were colored. The surface is level and partly occupied by marshes and lakes. The soil is fertile. The New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern, the New Orleans, Mobile, and Texas, and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas railroads pass through it. The chief productions in '1870 were 67,460 bushels of Indian corn, 8,071 of Irish and 7,640 of sweet potatoes, 456 bales of cotton, 269,620 lbs. of rice, 2,196 hogsheads of sugar, and 136,200 gallons of molasses. There were 195 horses, 828 mules and asses, 533 cattle, and 336 sheep; 4 manufactories of brick, and 7 of molasses and sugar. Capital, La Fayette. IX. The S. E. county of Texas, separated from Louisiana by Sabine lake and pass, bounded N. E. by the Neches, and S. by the gulf of Mexico; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,906, of whom 498 were colored.
The surface consists chiefly of vast savannas, which pasture large herds of horses and cattle. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,282 bushels of Indian corn, 8,880 of sweet potatoes, and 15,150 lbs. of rice, There were 1,758 horses, 743 milch cows, 15,-307 other cattle, 642 sheep, and 535 swine. Capital, Beaumont. X. A S. E. county of Arkansas, traversed by Arkansas river, which is here navigable by steamboats; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,733, of whom 10,167 were colored. The surface is level and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 303,125 bushels of Indian corn, and 18,-390 bales of cotton. There were 2,211 horses, 1,936 mules and asses, 3,231 milch cows, 4,315 other cattle, 1,079 sheep, and 17,093 swine; 1 manufactory of agricultural implements, 1 of carriages, and 6 saw mills. • Capital, Pine Bluff. XI. An E. county of Tennessee, bounded N. W. by Holston river and drained by the French Broad; area, 356 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,476, of whom 2,910 were colored. It has a hilly and well wooded surface, and contains iron ore. The soil is fertile. The East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia, and the Cincinnati, Cumberland Gap, and Charleston railroads pass through it.
The chief productions in 1870 were 135,764 bushels of wheat, 527,-853 of Indian corn, 132,453 of oats, 22,892 lbs. of wool, 75,583 of butter, and 3,923 tons of hay. There were 3,210 horses, 3,097 milch cows, 4,828 other cattle, 11,598 sheep, and 11,971 swine; 4 manufactories of agricultural implements, 1 of paints, 1 flour mill, and 3 saw mills. Capital, Dandridge. XII. A N. county of Kentucky, separated from Indiana by the Ohio river; area, 330 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 118,953, of whom 19,146 were colored. The surface is diversified and the soil fertile. The Louisville and Nashville and the Louisville, Cin-ninnati, and Lexington railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 102,-820 bushels of wheat, 1,059,729 of Indian corn, 368,328 of oats, 49,975 of barley, 377,382 of Irish and 104,862 of sweet potatoes, 35,263 lbs. of wool, 312,233 of butter, and 11,228 tons of hay. There were 6,360 horses, 1,369 mules and asses, 6,263 milch cows, 3,071 other cattle, 7,089 sheep, and 34,575 swine.
There were altogether 801 manufacturing establishments, chiefly in Louisville, the county seat; capital invested, $11,129,291; value of products, $20,-364,650. XIII. An E. county of Ohio, separated from West Virginia by the Ohio river; area, 396 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 29,188. The surface is uneven, the soil rich, and coal abundant. The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis railroad and the river division of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroad pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 215,694 bushels of wheat, 630,196 of Indian corn, 430,384 of oats, 44,263 of barley, 122,-530 of potatoes, 664,512 lbs. of wool, 561,-047 of butter, and 28,569 tons of hay. There were 5,577 horses, 5,429 milch cows, 6,837 other cattle, 154,668 sheep, and 11,-627 swine; 15 manufactories of carriages, 3 of brick, 1 of cars, 11 of clothing, 1 of rectified coal oil, 4 of coke, 1 of glassware, 8 of iron, 3 of machinery, 1 of printing paper, 5 of woollen goods, 6 tanneries, 2 currying establishments, 1 distillery, 2 breweries, 5 flour mills, and 5 saw mills. Capital, Steubenville. XIV. A S. E. county of Indiana, separated from Kentucky by the Ohio river; area, 362 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 29,741. It has a diversified surface and a rich soil.
The Jeffersonville, Madison, and Indianapolis, and the Ohio and Mississippi railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 207,909 bushels of wheat, 466,246 of Indian corn, 131,321 of oats, 40,028 of barley, 98,952 of potatoes, 35,707 lbs. of wool, 408,565 of butter, and 20,933 tons of hay. There were 6,406 horses, 5,289 milch cows, 7,006 other cattle, 18,921 sheep, and 19,757 swine, and numerous manufacturing establishments, chiefly in Madison, the county seat. XV. A S. county of Illinois, drained by the head streams of Big Muddy river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,17,864. The surface is diversified by prairies and tracts of timber, and the soil is moderately fertile. The St. Louis and Southeastern railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 100,553 bushels of wheat, 887,981 of Indian corn, 285,949 of oats, 52,309 of potatoes, 99,469 lbs. of tobacco, 52,957 of wool, 150,298 of butter, and 10,460 tons of hay. There were 6,006 horses, 1,878 mules and asses, 3,908 milch cows, 6,484 other cattle, 22,759 sheep, and 24,805 swine; 4 manufactories of carriages, 5 of saddlery and harness, 1 of woollen goods, 8 flour mills, and 5 saw mills.
Capital, Mount Vernon. XVI. A S. E. county of Wisconsin, drained by Rock, Crawfish, and Bark rivers, and by Koshkonong lake, an expansion of Rock river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 34,040. The surface is generally level or undulating, and is well timbered, particularly in the E. part. The soil is good, the valley of Rock river being of remarkable fertility. The La Crosse and St. Paul, the Prairie du Chien, and the Madison divisions of the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad, and the Wisconsin division of the Chicago and Northwestern railroad traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 678,715 bushels of wheat, 34,374 of rye, 579,233 of Indian corn, 470.466 of oats, 50,-310 of barley, 296,103 of potatoes, 203,408 lbs. of wool, 206,755 of hops, 908,119 of butter, 84,201 of cheese, and 50,055 tons of hay. There were 8,409 horses, 11,701 milch cows, 11,969 other cattle, 49,118 sheep, and 14,965 swine; 5 manufactories of agricultural implements, 8 of brick, 25 of carriages, 5 of cheese, 16 of cooperage, 12 of furniture, 4 of iron castings, 2 of cotton and woollen machinery, 10 of saddlery and harness, 3 of sash, doors, and blinds, 9 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 2 of woollen goods, 2 tanneries, 14 breweries, 15 flour mills, and 11 saw mills.
Capital, Jefferson. XVII. A S. E. county of Iowa, drained by Skunk river and Big Cedar creek; area, 380 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,839. The surface is occupied by rich rolling prairies and forests of oak, ash, hickory, maple, etc. The Burlington and Missouri River railroad and the Southwestern branch of the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 234,779 bushels of wheat, 1,100,560 of Indian corn, 242,364 of oats, 72,637 of potatoes, 107,394 lbs. of wool, 403,782 of butter, and 26,335 tons of hay. There were 9,150 horses, 6,365 milch cows, 11,330 other cattle, 29,300 sheep, and 32,845 swine; 4 manufactories of carriages, 2 of furniture, 1 of machinery, 7 of saddlery and harness, 2 of woollen goods', and 3 saw mills. Capital, Fairfield. XVIII. An E. county of Missouri, separated from Illinois by the Mississippi river, and drained by Maramec river and its branches; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,380, of whom 763 were colored. The surface is diversified, and the soil is of Various qualities. Rich mines of lead are worked, and copper and cobalt are also found. The St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad passes through it.
The chief productions in 1870 were 149,298 bushels of wheat, 534,705 of Indian corn, 134,279 of oats, 76,278 of potatoes, 25,235 lbs. of tobacco, 18,152 of wool, 152,934 of butter, 6,426 gallons of wine, 29 bales of cotton, and 5,675 tons of hay. There were 4,639 horses, 1,374 mules and asses, 4,739 milch cows, 1,235 working oxen, 5,999 other cattle, 10,722 sheep, and 24,882 swine; 3 flour mills, 1 manufactory of kaolin and ground earths, and 3 of pig lead. Capital, Hillsborough. XIX. A N. E. county of Kansas, bounded S. by Kansas river, and intersected by Grasshopper river; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,526. The surface is undulating, and the soil fertile. Timber and limestone are abundant, and coal has been found in several parts. The Kansas Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 32,302 bushels of wheat, 1,257,790 of Indian corn, 210,040 of oats, 142,405 of potatoes, 261,161 lbs. of butter, and 18,925 tons of hay. There were 6,313 horses, 6,215 milch cows, 13,633 other cattle, 4,072 sheep, and 21,818 swine; 3 flour mills, 6 saw mills, and 1 woollen factory.
Capital, Oskaloosa. XX. A S. E. county of Nebraska, bordering on Kansas, and intersected by Little Blue river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,440. The soil is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 24,847 bushels of wheat, 72,230 of Indian corn, 15,199 of potatoes, 19,850 lbs. of butter, and 2,182 tons of hay. There were 528 horses, 507 milch cows, 905 other cattle, 791 sheep, and 712 swine. Capital, Fairburg, XXI. A central county of Colorado, situated partly in the foot hills and partly in the plains; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,390. It is watered by small tributaries of the Platte, which afford good water power. The soil is fertile and easily irrigated. In the west are found copper, iron, coal, fire and potter's clay, and gypsum. The Colorado Central railroad terminates at the county seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 54,746 bushels of wheat, 8,625 of Indian corn, 45,523 of oats, 9,060 of barley, 15,890 of potatoes, 47,470 lbs. of butter, 8,860 of cheese, and 1,957 tons of hay. There were 433 horses, 1,026 milch cows, and 1,684 other cattle; 3 flour mills, 8 saw mills, and 2 manufactories of stone and earthenware.
Capital, Golden City. XXII. A S. W. county of Montana, bounded E. by the Missouri river; area, 2,720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,531, of whom 122 were Chinese. It contains a large area of rich farming land, and is well adapted to stock raising. There are gold mines on the branches of the Missouri and Jefferson rivers. The chief productions in 1870 were 4,194 bushels of wheat, 11,584 of oats, 6,605 of barley, 11,693 of potatoes, 70,165 lbs. of butter, and 2,422 tons of hay. There were 572 horses, 2,484 milch cows, and 3,614 other cattle; 6 saw mills, and 8 quartz mills. Capital, Radersburg. XXIII. A W. county of Washington territory, bounded E. and N. E. by Hoods's canal and Admiralty inlet, and W. by the Pacific ocean; area, 1,670 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,268. The interior is mountainous, and the surface is mostly covered with forests of pine and fir, but there is much land suitable for agriculture. The chief productions in 1870 were 7,650 bushels of wheat, 3,038 of oats, 4,373 of barley, 13,698 of potatoes, and 13,356 lbs. of butter. The value of live stock was $37,674. There were 2 saw mills, producing $326,050 worth of lumber during the year.
Capital, Port Townsend.
Jefferson, a city and the county seat of Marion co., Texas, situated on Big Cypress bayou, 4 m. above its entrance into Soda lake, which empties into Red river, and on a branch of the Texas and Pacific railroad, 260 m. N. E. of Austin and 40 m. N. W. of Shreveport, La.; pop. in 1860, 988; in 1870, 4,190, of whom 1,825 were colored. In the vicinity are deposits of coal and iron ore. The river is navigable to this point by large steamers, and the city is the shipping point for a large extent of fertile country, the principal articles being cotton, cattle, hides, beef, tallow, wool, and Osage orange seeds. The principal manufactories are a foundery, saw, mills, planing mills, sash and door factories, and brick-making establishments. There is also an extensive foun-dery about 4 1/2 m from the city. There are a national and a savings bank, ten schools, three newspapers, and seven churches. Jefferson was first settled in 1843.