Jerusalem (Heb. Yerushalaim, possession of peace; Gr. 'Jerusalem 0900767 ; Lat. Hierosolyma ;

Arab. El-Khuds, the holy, or Khuda esh-Sherif, the noble sanctuary), a city of Palestine, anciently capital of the kingdom of the Jews, afterward of that of Judah, and now the seat of a Turkish pasha. It is the holy city of the Jews and the Christians, and one of the three holy cities of the Mohammedans, ranking next in sanctity to Mecca and Medina. It is situated in lat. 31° 46' N., Ion. 35° 14' E., 133 m. S. S. W. of Damascus, 33 m. E. of the Mediterranean, and 15 m. W. of the Dead sea; elevation above the Mediterranean, from about 2,000 to nearly 2,600 ft.; pop. about 20,000, of whom 5,500 are Mohammedans, 8,000 Jews, and 6,000 Christians, mostly of the Greek and Latin churches, the remainder Armenians, Protestants, Abyssinians, Copts, and Syrians. Jerusalem is built on a high plateau about 2 m. square, connected on the north with the wide mountain range which runs N. and S. through Palestine, and which forms the watershed of the country, so that streams within a mile of the city walls flow on the one hand to the Mediterranean and on the other to the Dead sea. Between the plateau and the mountain ridge on the north is a low depression through which small streams flow during the rainy season.

On the other sides the hills rise abruptly higher than the plateau on which the city stands. The limestone of this plateau is much harder than that of the surrounding hills, and is capable of receiving a high polish. The color is a pale yellow, with red or pink veins. W. of the city at Gihon, and on the N. side, about 1 1/2 m. from each other, are two gentle depressions, one running S. E. and then E., the other E. and then S., gradually becoming deeper till they form two narrow ravines with precipitous sides. These are the valley of Hinnom and the valley of Jehoshaphat (or of the Kedron), which almost skirt the city in their course, and unite in the S. E. part, a little S. of the pool of Siloam and near the well En-rogel. A third ravine, the Tyropoeon, begins in the city, and running S. joins the other two at this point. The gorge continues its course S. E. till it is lost in the basin of the Dead sea. On the east the triple-peaked mount of Olives rises abruptly from the valley of Jehoshaphat. On the south the hill of Evil Counsel overhangs the valley of Hinnom, which separates it from Zion. On the side of the hill of Evil Counsel a chain of rocks rises precipitously from the valley to a height of 30 or 40 ft., and on the ridge is the small field called Aceldama (field of blood), or potter's field.

Further N. W., up the valley where it blends with Gihon, is the lower pool of Gihon, formed by a strong wall built across the lower end; it is called by the Arabs birket es-Sultan, pool of the sultan. The wall being now broken, it is used by the Arabs as a threshing floor. The course of this valley N and then N. W. leads up to the plateau on which the city stands. On this spot, about 1/2 m. from the city walls, is the upper pool of Gihon, a basin about 350 ft. long, 200 ft, broad, and 30 ft. deep. The water that accumulates in this pool, after settling, is conducted into the pool of Hezekiah, within the city, where it is used for bathing. On the sides of the pool of Gihon is the Turkish cemetery, which, as in other eastern cities, is unfenced, and presents a desolate appearance. Immediately W. of this pool is the hill Gareb; the valley (Wady Haninah) beyond declines toward the Mediterranean. E. of this place, and next to the city, is a magnificent establishment built a few years ago by the Palestine commission of St. Petersburg, under the auspices of the emperor of Russia. It consists of the fine church of the Holy Trinity, two large hospices for male and female pilgrims respectively, a house for the missionaries and travellers of the higher classes, a hospital, and a residence for the Russian consul.

Near by is another large building for the Prussian deaconesses' schools. The country around Jerusalem is rocky and not very fertile. The rocks almost everywhere crop out at the surface, which in many parts is also thickly strewn with large stones, and the whole region has a dreary and barren aspect. At almost every siege the trees wore either burned or cut down, and the vegetation destroyed. The soil thus exposed was gradually washed down into the valleys and thence to the plains, which to this day are.remarkably fertile. Yet olives and vines thrive on the sides of these mountains, and fields of grain are seen in the valleys and level places. - The various parts of ancient Jerusalem were at different intervals surrounded by walls. The first old wall encircled Zion and a part of Moriah.

Plan of Modern Jerusalem.

Plan of Modern Jerusalem.

It began N. W. of the tower Hippicus, extended to the Xystus, and terminated on the W. side of the temple, thus separating the upper from the lower city. The other part of the wall, toward the west, commencing also from Hippicus, passed by a place called Bethso to the gate of the Essenes; thence it turned S. and E., taking in all the south of Zion till above the pool of Siloam; it then turned N. E., by the slope Ophel, and joined the E. cloister of the temple. The second wall began at the gate of Gennath, in the first wall E. of the tower Hippicus. Advancing thence toward the N. gate of the city, it turned S. E., and terminated at the fort of Anto-nia, which flanked the N. W. angle of the temple. The third wall began at the tower Hippicus, extended N. W. as far as the tower Psephinus, then turning E. passed by the tomb of Helena on the north for some distance, and finally turned S., joining the old wall E. of the temple. The present walls were built by the Turkish sultan Solyman the Magnificent in 1536-'9. They are 15 ft. thick at the base, and vary in height with the inequalities of the ground from 25 to 70 ft. Their total circuit is about 2 1/2 m. - The city is irregular in its outline, but approaches a square whose four sides, each about 1/2 m. long, nearly face the cardinal points.

It has at present five gates that are open, two on the south, and one near the centre of each of the other sides. On the west is the Jaffa gate (or bab el-Khalil, Hebron gate), the chief entrance to the city; on the north the Damascus gate (bab el-Amud, the gate of the columns); on the east St. Stephen's gate, called by the native Christians gate of our Lady Mary, and by the Mohammedans bab el-Asbat, gate of the tribes; on the south Zion gate (bab en-nabi Daud, gate of the prophet David), and another obscure portal, the Dung gate (bab el-Magharibeli, gate of the Moors), near the centre of the Tyropoeon. The Golden gate, on the E. side, is now walled up with solid masonry, and against it a tower has been erected, where a Mohammedan soldier is constantly on guard; for the Turks have a tradition that the Christians will some day enter by this gate and possess the city. Among the ancient gates mentioned in Scripture were the gates of Ephraim and Joshua, the horse, sheep, and fish gates (probably with adjoining market places for the sale of horses, &c), and the old, fountain, and water gates. The streets are narrow, winding, dirty, and badly paved; the principal and broadest street is about 15 ft. wide, and some are only 5 or 6 ft.

The houses are built of heavy masonry, with thick walls supporting arched roofs. They have neither symmetry nor elegance, but the rooms are generally lofty and well ventilated. The houses are usually two or three stories high, with a plain front, few or no windows in the lower stories, and doors so low that a person must stoop in entering. The roofs are terraced or rise in domes, and the apartments receive light from interior courts, which in the larger houses form cool and agreeable promenades, and sometimes are turned into gardens, where the household spend their leisure time. The principal apartments are in the upper story, the lower being occupied by lumber rooms, kitchens, stables, cisterns, and offices. Some of the houses are three or four centuries old. - The city, as seen from the mount of Olives, above the ancient Gethsemane, appears to be a regular inclined plane, sloping gently and uniformly from W. to E., or toward the observer, and indented by a slight depression or vale running N. and S., the Tyropoeon, which was formerly a deep ravine, but was filled up by Simon Maccabaeous when he razed Acra. The elevation W. of the Tyropoeon is Zion, E. Mo-riah and Ophel, N. Acra, and N. E. Bezetha. The S. E. corner is occupied by the great mosque and its extensive and beautiful grounds on Mt. Moriah, comprising about one seventh of the modern city.

This enclosure corresponds, in part at least, with the ancient temple area. The site was purchased by David, having been the threshing floor of Araunah, an altar was built, and materials were collected for the temple. The building was erected by Solomon about 1012-1005 B. C, its general plan being taken from the ancient tabernacle, while the dimensions were exactly doubled. It was 120 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, and consisted of three parts, the porch, the holy place, and the holy of holies, surrounded on all sides but the front by small chambers arranged in three stories, for the priests. The porch probably rose in a lofty second story, and its ceiling was supported by two highly ornamented pillars of brass. The temple stood within courts and cloisters of great beauty, and was connected by stone bridges spanning the Tyropoeon valley with the royal palace and the city on Mt. Zion. It was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B. C, and was rebuilt by Zerubbabel about 520, but of its restored character we have little information.

The temple of Zerubbabel was standing however in the time of Herod, and the restoration by that king was in two parts: the temple proper, which the priests rebuilt in 18 months, not trusting the work to profane hands, and perhaps only repairing the ancient building; and the courts and porches or cloisters, which Herod greatly enlarged, spending eight years in fitting them for use, while the work of completion continued nearly 50 years. The facade of the temple consisted of a lofty arch spanning the entrance. The temple was surrounded by a court about 360 ft. long and 270 ft. wide, adorned by porticoes and ten magnificent gates, one of them probably the "gate called Beautiful;" while beyond this was an enclosure about 600 ft. square, bounded by porticoes surpassing in size those of any other ancient temple. The whole structure was of white marble, the roofs lavishly adorned with gold, and the high and massive walls of the enclosure made it the stronghold of the Jews during the siege by Titus. The hill is now covered with greensward, and planted sparingly with olives, cypresses, and other trees, and is the most beautiful feature in the city. About the middle of this enclosure is a large and nearly rectangular platform, about 10 ft. high, 500 ft. long, and from 460 to 500 ft. in width.

On this platform stands the grand mosque, Kiibbet es-Sakhra, "Dome of the Rock." The building is an octagon, each side of which measures 67 ft. It is surmounted by a light and graceful dome, terminated by a tall crescent. Its exterior walls are covered with tiles of white, blue, and yellow glazed porcelain, with intricate arabesque patterns and inscriptions. The lower parts of the walls are further decorated with slabs of marble, few corresponding to each other; they are said to have been taken from the ruins. Four doors, facing the cardinal points, lead to the interior, which is about 150 ft. in diameter. A corridor 13 ft. wide runs round, having on its inner side 8 piers and 16 marble and granite Corinthian columns; the columns do not appear to occupy their proper places, and the Arabs say that they were lying about among the ruins when the mosque was built. "Within these is another corridor 30 ft. wide, with 12 larger columns and 4 great piers, which together support the dome. Under this dome is the rock, which varies in height from one foot to five feet from the surface. Under the rock is a cave, partly excavated, which is entered on the southeast by a flight of stairs.

Here are pointed out the altars of Solomon, David, Abraham, and St. George. In the centre of this chamber is a circular slab of marble, which on being stamped upon gives a hollow sound; the Mohammedans call this the "well of souls," and believe that the souls of believers descend there after death. The legend is that Mohammed, in his midnight visit to heaven, first alighted on this rock, from which he continued his journey, whereupon the rock raised itself to follow, but was prevented by the angel Gabriel; it therefore remained suspended in the air. About 450 ft. S. from the Sakhra, in the S. W. part of the enclosure, is the mosque Aksa (end or extremity, used figuratively, as akasi el-ard, "the ends of the earth "). Its form is that of a basilica of seven aisles; it is 272 ft. long by 184 ft. wide; in front there is a porch 20 ft. wide. The piers and columns in the interior are inferior to those in the Sakhra. At the S. end is a Saracenic dome similar to the Kubbet es-Sakhra, but much smaller. To the left, on the east, a door leads into a smaller mosque, said to have been the only one built by Omar. In front of the Aksa is a large basin with a fountain in the middle. The water that issued here was conducted from the pools of Solomon, 6 m.

S. of the city; but the aqueduct has lately been broken by the Arabs, who supply the city with water from the well En-rogel, near the junction of the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Hinnom. The building of the two mosques, the Sakhra and Aksa, is ascribed to Abdelmalek in 686; but some writers say that the emperor Justinian built the Aksa, then the church of St. Mary. Between this place and the E. wall are extensive subterranean cellars, called the stables of Solomon, nearly 200 ft. long and 100 ft. wide, supported by columns about 25 ft. high. In the centre of the E. wall is the Porta Aurea, a double gateway (bab ed-Dcihariyeh, the Eternal gate), a magnificent portal with finely sculptured arches, which have been sadly defaced by travellers since the mosque was opened to Christians. "When the crusaders held the city, a procession of Christians bearing palms entered by this gate on every Palm Sunday. The whole enclosure, including the mosques, is called Haram esh-Sherif. In this enclosure are immense tanks, calculated to hold nearly 8,000,000 gallons of water, which, together with the supply from the Virgin's fountain and the cisterns in the houses, would last during a protracted siege. The actual spot where the temple stood has not yet been ascertained.

The Porte, although it has granted the English engineers permission to excavate around the city and in parts of it where no injury will be done to the dwellings, has not been able to overcome the superstition and fanaticism of the natives so far as to allow them to dig within the precincts of the Haram. On the S. W. side of the Haram a portion of the temple wall is still standing, known as the Jewish wailing place; in this wall are five courses of large bevelled stones in a very good state of preservation. Here the Jews assemble every Friday to lament the woes of their country. The pool of Bethesda (now Birket Israil), N". of the Haram, near St. Stephen's gate, is a reservoir about 360 ft. long, 130 ft. broad, and 75 ft. deep. - The church of the Holy Sepulchre is situated almost in the heart of the N. part of the city, where the empress Helena is said to have discovered the true cross. (See Cross, vol. v., p. 513.) Concerning the authenticity of the sacred places a great deal of controversy has existed and is still kept up.

Dr. Robinson, in his " Biblical Researches," arrives at the conclusion "that the genuineness of the present site of the holy sepulchre is supported neither by well authenticated historical facts, nor by prior tradition, nor by archaeological features." His main argument to this effect attempts to show by the topography of Jerusalem that the present locality of the sepulchre was within the walls of the city at the time of the crucifixion, and consequently could not be near the place where Christ was crucified, which is stated in the Gospel to have been without the gates. Most Protestant and a few Catholic investigators agree substantially with Dr. Robinson; while on the other hand the great majority of Catholics and some Protestant travellers believe in the genuineness of these remains. Among others, Mr. William 0. Prime maintains the authenticity of the sepulchre on the following grounds: "It is not credible that this locality was forgotten by Christians within 300 years after the great events of the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.

Critical scholars and learned men, employed in investigating the topography of the Holy Land, had no doubt of its authenticity in the beginning of the 4th century; no one, so far as we know, thought in that age of disputing the fact, but all men acknowledged its truth; it is not doubted by any one that this is the locality in which those learned men placed their confidence, it having been well preserved from that time to this." The main entrance to the church is on the south. After descending a broad flight of rude steps, a large open paved court is reached, along whose sides are the bases of a row of columns, which probably once supported cloisters. Recent excavations have shown that under this court is a crypt with arches of high antiquity. On the left is the convent and chapel of St. James; and on the opposite side is the convent of Abraham or Isaac, in the place, the Greeks say, where Abraham was going to sacrifice his son. The facade of the church occupies nearly the whole of the N. side of the court. The lower story has a wide double gateway, with marble and granite columns supporting richly sculptured architraves, on which is represented Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem; over these are finely carved arches.

The eastern section has been closed for several centuries; it is said to have been walled up by the Moslems to limit the Christians to one entrance, where the fees could be collected by one person. A large polished slab of stone on the floor of the church, near the entrance, is called the stone of unction, and is said to cover that upon which Joseph laid the body of Christ to be anointed for burial. On the east of the stone is a chamber, the roof of which forms the floor of the chapel of Golgotha; this chamber has on the right and left the tombs of Godfrey and Baldwin, between which the visitor passes to the chapel of Adam, ending against the native rock, in which a huge fissure is visible, said to have been made by the earthquake at the time of the crucifixion. This rock, ascending through the roof, is pointed out as Calvary, where Jesus was crucified. Ascending a flight of stairs outside of the chapel of Adam and the chamber of Godfrey and Baldwin, the low vaulted chapel of Golgotha is entered. At the E. end is a platform about 10 ft. long by 7 ft. broad, and 20 in. high.

In the centre is an altar, under which is a hole in the marble slab on the floor, said to be the place where the Saviour's cross was fixed, and on the right and left are shown the holes where the crosses of the thieves were placed. In the platform is another opening in the marble pavement, through which is seen a rent in the rock continuous with the one below in the chapel of Adam. On the right hand, S. of the platform, is another division called the chapel of the crucifixion, said to have been the place where Christ was nailed to the cross. This part does not stand on the rock, but forms a kind of upper story, which is accounted for by saying that Helena removed the ground beneath it and took it to Rome, so that the chapel is still on the real site. Through a barred window in this division another chapel is seen, the entrance to which is by a flight of steps outside of the church. Here the Virgin Mary and the other women stood watching the crucifixion. Returning down stairs from the chapel of Golgotha, and passing by the stone of unction, we enter the rotunda, about 70 ft. in diameter, surrounded by 18 massive piers which support the Armenian church on one hand and the Latin galleries on the other; the whole surmounted by a large dome with an opening at the top.

This dome was a few years ago in a ruinous condition, but in 1869-'70 it was repaired at the joint expense of the French, Russian, and Turkish governments. This combined action was a compromise reached after long negotiations, in which the two Christian powers strenuously contended for the privilege of doing the work, as protectors respectively of the Latin and Greek ehurches in Palestine, in order to establish a claim to exclusive possession. Claims thus originating in the large churches of Jerusalem, partitioned among different sects, have sometimes resulted in fierce quarrels, lawsuits, and even fights, requiring the interference of the Turkish soldiery. The space behind the piers was formerly open; now it is partitioned off and divided among the various sects. In the centre of the rotunda is the holy sepulchre. Above it is a chapel 26 ft. long and 18 ft. broad, built of polished native limestone, and surmounted with a small dome. The facade is ornamented with several twisted marble and limestone columns, and numerous silver and brass lamps, pictures, etc. On each side of this chapel is a small circular aperture, through which the holy fire is dealt out to the pilgrims by the Greek patriarch within. The chapel is divided into two compartments.

The front chamber is the "chapel of the angel," where the angel is supposed to have sat on the stone which he rolled away from the door of the sepulchre; in the centre of the apartment, on a pedestal, is a fragment of the stone; the other part is said to have been placed by the Armenians in the convent of Caiaphas, just outside of the Zion gate. In the second chamber, which is entered by a low narrow doorway, is the tomb of Christ, occupying the whole length and nearly half the width of the apartment. It is raised about two feet from the floor, and covered with a single slab of marble, whose edges have been worn off by the kisses and embraces of the pilgrims who for centuries have gathered here from all parts of the world. Facing the chapel over the sepulchre is the Greek section of the church. It is the nave of the edifice, but is now divided from the aisles by high walls, said to have been built by the Greeks after the crusaders were expelled by Saladin. This church is quadrangular, about 70 ft. by 40. At the E. end is the high altar, reached by four steps, and divided by a richly gilt screen. On the right hand is the Greek patriarch's throne. In the centre a small column indicates the middle of the earth, and Adam's skull is said to be buried beneath.

There are two other side doors, N. and S., opening into the aisles. Returning by the main entrance on the west, facing the sepulchre, the visitor turns to the right, passing between the piers of the rotunda, and arrives at a circular marble pavement, where Mary, according to the tradition, stood when she first saw Christ after his resurrection. On the north, ascending a few steps, is the Catholic section of the church. In this place is pointed out the pillar to which Christ was bound when scourged; the pillar itself is hidden from view by the building, but a stick with a silver head is thrust through an iron grating in the wall; the silver head, having touched the pillar, is drawn out and kissed. In the vestry of this chapel the sword of Godfrey is exhibited. Returning and following the course of the aisles behind the Greek section, the visitor, after passing one or two stations connected with different events in the passion of Christ, arrives at a long flight of stairs leading to Helena's church, a massive and rudely constructed edifice, crowned by a dome with windows to admit the light. Here Helena sat while search was made for the cross. At the further end another flight of stairs leads down to the cave where the cross, the crown of thorns, and the nails were discovered.

It is an irregular excavation in the rock; at one end an altar marks the spot where the true cross lay. Ascending again, and continuing his course, the pilgrim arrives at last at the principal gate to the church, near the stairs leading to Golgotha, from which he first started. About 35 yards beyond the E. door of the church of the Sepulchre are the ruins of the hospital of the knights of St. John; the entrance is by a picturesque Gothic gateway, the facade of which was richly carved with historical and symbolical sculptures, now nearly defaced by curious tourists. Beyond the gateway is an open court, part of which was once the church; at the E. end is the altar. A stairway on the south leads to a corridor surrounding a quadrangular court. The building itself is very spacious, but the chambers and halls have for ages been filled with rubbish, and several are in ruins. In 1869, on the occasion of the visit of the crown prince of Prussia, the Turkish sultan presented him with these ruins; and the Prussians are now clearing them out, and intend to restore the church and other parts of the building. - On the west of Jerusalem, at the Jaffa gate, is the citadel, consisting of three high square towers, separated from the city by a low wall and from the suburbs by a deep and wide moat.

The largest and highest is called the tower of David. The lower part, rising in a solid mass, is undoubtedly ancient, and is probably the remnant of the tower Hippicus, built by Herod, and named from his friend who had fallen in the Parthian wars. The upper part, like the other towers, is of more modern construction. The battlements afford a view of the whole city, the mount of Olives, the Dead sea, and the mountains of Moab beyond. To the northeast lies the pool of Hezekiah; to the south lie the gardens of the Armenian convent, in which are the ruins of the pool of Bathsheba; and to the west the Jewish almshouses, built by Sir Moses Monte-fiore as executor of his American coreligionist Judah Touro, who bequeathed a large sum of money for that purpose. The tomb of David, now outside of the walls, S. of the Zion gate, was formerly within the city; the place is kept by the Mohammedans, who have a mosque over the spot. In the large hall, the coenaculum, is a stairway leading to the cave which is said to contain the tombs of David and his successors; but no one is allowed to enter. Over the cave is a small room with a raised structure about 3 ft. high, representing a Moslem tomb, covered with green cloth; this is pointed out as the spot under which the body of David lies.

At the foot of the mount of Olives, a short distance N. of the garden of Gethsemane, is the traditional tomb of the Virgin Mary, first mentioned in the 8th century. It fronts upon a sunken court reached by a short flight of steps. Within the door 60 steps descend into the chapel, which seems excavated in the rock, and contains the tombs of Joseph and the parents of the Virgin, as well as the empty tomb of the Virgin herself. About 100 paces from it is the traditional place of the assumption. In the city walls, a few yards E. of the Damascus gate, is an opening to an extensive cavern extending to a considerable distance under the city, and known as the royal quarries. Descending S., by a sloping hill formed of accumulated debris, the traveller arrives at the edge of a large pit, into which there is a passage in another part of the cave. To the left, through some windings, is an immense hall excavated out of the rock. Several blocks, nearly detached from the rock, may be seen, and the marks of the tools in the stone are plainly distinguishable. - Modern exploration of Jerusalem begins with the visit of Dr. Edward Robinson in 1838, which was followed by his second journey in 1852. Dean Stanley, in his "Sinai and Palestine" (London, 1855), suggested the necessity of excavations in and about the city for the acquirement of certain knowledge of sacred localities; but little was done till 1864, when Miss Burdett-Coutts, for the purpose of securing a better water supply for the inhabitants, gave £500 to pay the expenses of a topographical survey of the city, and Capt. Wilson of the British army was detailed to conduct it.

This led to the formation of the English society entitled "The Palestine Exploration Fund," which sent out in 1867 a party under the command of Capt. Warren, R. E., who remained in Palestine three years, chiefly occupied in and around Jerusalem, where several important discoveries have been made. On the S. E. side of the city, where the wall rises to a height of about 55 ft. from the surface, a shaft was sunk and the foundation discovered at a depth of 73 ft., making a total height of nearly 130 ft. The masonry of the lower part must have belonged to the original wall, the bevelled stones giving indications of Phoenician workmanship. On the immense blocks that form the base of the wall several marks in red paint were discovered, resembling Phoenician characters, though no one could explain their meaning; it is supposed that they were made by Solomon's workmen. The wall extended further S. than the present one; it ran S. by Ophel, and encompassed Zion. At the foot of Mt. Moriah, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, is the Virgin's fountain, an intermittent spring; the water flows out at the rear of the cave through an aqueduct excavated in the mountain into the pool of Siloam. Above this place, on Ophel, the engineers sunk another shaft, and discovered a Roman archway leading to a small cave, at one end of which was a pit subsequently found to be connected with the subterranean aqueduct between the Virgin's fountain and the pool of Siloam. This important discovery goes far to explain how the city endured such protracted sieges.

A little S. of the Jewish wailing place three large stones, forming a segment of an arch, are seen projecting out of the wall. Dr. Robinson was the first to identify it as part of the bridge that was built across the Tyropceon. Capt. Warren discovered the remains of the pier that supported the other end of the arch, about 40 ft. beneath the surface, 50 ft. from the wall. The distance from the wall to the steep sides of Zion is 350 ft., and it is calculated that five such arches formed the bridge. Further N. he found the ruins of another similar bridge. About half a mile S. of the well of Rogel is a place called by the Arabs the Almond spring, where in winter the water flowed out; it was supposed to be an outlet to the well of Rogel, through which the superfluous water escaped. The engineers dug here, and discovered a passage hewn in the rock, but choked with earth and stones, which they cleared out; it first led N. for several hundred feet, then took a N. W. direction, leaving Rogel on the right, and at last terminated in a small rock-hewn chamber, further than which no passage could be discovered.

The party also excavated another remarkable rock-hewn passage, leading S. toward the temple from the convent of the sisters of Zion. Mr. Schick, who discovered the well of Gihon, traced the aqueduct from the convent to the N. part of the city, where it is partially destroyed by the formation of the ditch and the royal quarries. - The chief executive and judicial officers of Jerusalem are Mohammedans. Christians hold subordinate offices, and since the massacre of the Christians in the Lebanon, Damascus, Sidon, etc, in 1860, they have gradually been appointed to places of trust. The United States, Russia, England, France, Germany, Austria, Spain, and Greece have each a consul resident here. The jurisdiction of the pasha of Jerusalem extends northward to within 15 m. of Nablus, southward to Gaza and the confines of Egypt, and eastward to the Jordan. He is appointed by the Porte, but receives his instructions through the governor general of Syria, except in cases where despatch is necessary. His principal officers and the vice governors of the towns under his jurisdiction are appointed by the governor general, but are subject to his orders, and decisions of the courts in criminal cases are sent to the courts at Damascus for confirmation.

Most of the Jews now there are of German or Polish origin, and speak a corrupt German dialect. They are called Ashkenazim, to distinguish them from the Sephardim, consisting of Jews of Spanish and Portuguese origin, whose ancestors were expelled from Spain and Portugal toward the close of the 15th century, and who speak a corrupt Spanish dialect, and of Persian and other oriental Jews. Between these two bodies little intercourse exists; they seldom intermarry, and they pray in different synagogues. The Jewish community inhabit a particular portion of the city; but of late years, in consequence of increasing numbers, they have extended their quarter far into the Mohammedan part, and many live in the suburbs. The Jews' quarter proper is badly built and filthy, and the people suffer much from crowded dwellings, scarcity of water, and extreme poverty. Their chief rabbi is elected for life, and is recognized by the Sublime Porte in this capacity. He is entitled to send a delegate to act as a member of each local court in suits to which Jews who are Turkish subjects are parties.

The Spanish-Portuguese Jews being subjects of the Porte, the right of election was vested in them, and the chief rabbi always was one of the Sephardim. To this the Ashkenazim objected; but being unable to carry their point, they elected one of their own number as their chief rabbi. Though not recognized by the Porte, he has great influence over the foreign Jews. The Jews, in differences among themselves, are governed by their rabbinical laws, preferring to abide by the decisions of their rabbis rather than carry their cases before gentile courts. The Greek Christians are Arabs, Greeks, and Syrians, and speak only the Arabic language, except the superior clergy, who are natives of Greece and the archipelago. They have eight convents in the city. The Greek patriarch has more power and influence than any of the other spiritual chiefs in the city, and his church is the wealthiest. He is officially recognized by the Turkish government as the chief of the Greek church in Syria, and is entitled to send representatives to act as members in the local courts. Under him are two classes of priests besides the ordinary monks. They are the married clergy, who do not aspire to the higher grades in the church, and the unmarried.

The latter live together in the grand convent, or are appointed abbots and assistants to the other monasteries under the surveillance of the patriarch. The Latin Christians, or Roman Catholics, who are principally seceders from the Greek church, also speak Arabic. They have a patriarch, who exercises spiritual oversight over all the Catholic churches in Syria, but is recognized by the Turkish government only as a distinguished personage, and does not enjoy equal privileges with the Greek, Jewish, and Armenian spiritual heads, partly in consequence of his being a foreign subject. The right of sending representatives of the Roman Catholic community is vested in the abbot of all the Catholic convents in the country, who is always an Italian, his vicar a Frenchman, and the treasurer a Spaniard. He is appointed by the pope every three years. The Catholics at Jerusalem have one large convent, that of the Holy Saviour, and two nunneries, that of the order of St. Joseph or sisters of charity, and that of the daughters of Zion. No males are admitted into the latter, except monks and priests. There are 14 other convents in Syria, subject to the abbot of this principal one.

The Armenians number about 200; they have one large convent, that of St. James, in the most elevated part of the city, and a patriarch, who is recognized in that capacity by the Turkish government, and who enjoys equal privileges with the Greek patriarch and Jewish chief rabbi. The Protestant population numbers about 200. An Anglican bishop resides here, with a diocese including Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Abyssinia. This bishopric was established in 1841 by the joint action of the Prussian and British governments, and its incumbent is chosen alternately by the sovereigns of England and Prussia. Besides exercising supervision over a few schools, and occasionally officiating in the Protestant church, the duties of the bishop are almost nominal, as the work of preaching and conducting the Protestant institutions is managed by the missionaries. The Copts, Abyssinians, and Syrians have convents in the city, and altogether amount to about 100 persons. The non-Protestant Christians at Jerusalem are in a measure dependent on their convents, which allow them house rent and other gratuities. As nearly every community carries on a work of proselyting, it frequently happens that these Christians embrace each denomination in turn, as the chances favor.

In 1867 the pasha commenced building a carriage road between Jerusalem and Jaffa, the money for the purpose being raised by taxation. For want of proper engineers and energy in the commissioners, it was imperfectly completed in about 18 months, and stage coaches carried passengers between Jerusalem and Jaffa. The work was about to be extended when a new governor was appointed, and it was discontinued. The inhabitants of Jerusalem get their support mainly from the pilgrims and travellers who visit the city. Beads, crosses, and ornaments are largely manufactured and sold to strangers. Quantities of olive and sesame oil and soap are also produced here, and much is exported to Egypt and to ports on the Mediterranean; grain and other articles are also exported. Almost all manufactured articles, as cloths, sugars, candles, etc, are imported from France, England, and Germany. Petroleum has for several years been in great demand in the markets of Palestine, and has now almost superseded olive and sesame oil for lighting, these being used only for food and manufacturing soap. - The primitive name of Jerusalem appears to have been Jebus, or poetically Salem, and its king in the time of Abraham was Melchizedek. When Abraham returned from the slaughter of the kings who had made his nephew Lot prisoner, the king of Sodom met him in the valley of Shaveh, or the king's dale, now probably the valley of Jehoshaphat; and there Melchizedek brought bread and wine.

At the conquest of Canaan by the Hebrews, the tribe of Judah took the city and set it on fire; but the fortress probably still remained in the hands of the Jebusites for 400 years longer. Its situation among the mountains almost in the heart of his kingdom naturally excited in David a desire to possess it. In the ninth year of his reign (about 1046 B. G.) he stormed the fortress of the Jebusites, Zion, called it the city of David, and made the place the capital of his kingdom. From that time it has been called Jerusalem. Under Solomon the temple was built on Mt. Moriah, and several palaces were erected. David's many conquests, his vast accumulation of treasures for the temple, the magnificent structure itself, and afterward Solomon's reputed wisdom and immense wealth, all tended to spread the fame of the city, and during his reign it attained its highest degree of power. At the accession of his son Rehoboam ten of the tribes seceded under Jeroboam and made Shechem, and subsequently Samaria, the capital of their kingdom of Israel. Jerusalem then lost much of its importance, remaining only the capital of the smaller, though more powerful, kingdom of Judah. About 971 B. C. Shishak, king of Egypt, took the city and plundered the temple and palace of their treasures.

It was again conquered and sacked by Joash, king of Israel, and was afterward beautified by Uzziah, Jotham, Hezekiah, and Manasseh. In the time of Ahaz the king of Syria attacked Jerusalem, and carried many of the Jews captive to Damascus, though he could not take the city. Under Hezekiah it was besieged by Rabshakeh, the general of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, but it was saved by the sudden destruction which overtook the Assyrian army. Manasseh's being carried captive to Babylon seems to intimate that the city was taken by the Chaldeans about 650, although the fact is not expressly stated in the Bible. After the death of Josiah at the battle of Megiddo, Jerusalem was tributary to

The Great Mosque (Kubbet es Sakhra).

The Great Mosque (Kubbet es-Sakhra).

Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Tomb of the Virgin Mary.

Tomb of the Virgin Mary.

Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, for two or three years, when it passed into the hands of the Babylonians, who, after repeated revolts and sieges, finally reduced it in 586. (See Hebrews.) On this occasion Nebuchadnezzar demolished the walls and all the principal houses in the city, plundered and destroyed the temple, and carried away to Babylon all except the poorest citizens. For the next 50 years Jerusalem remained in ruins, till the return of the Jews during the reign of Cyrus, the conqueror of Babylon (538). This monarch issued a proclamation allowing the return of the Jewish captives to Jerusalem and authorizing them to rebuild the temple, and enjoined every one to contribute to and assist in this work. A part of the captives returned under Zerubbabel, and rebuilt the altar and laid the foundation of the second temple. But they were interrupted by the intrigues of their enemies, who unceasingly wrote insinuating letters to the capital of the empire, and at last succeeded in stopping them. The work was renewed under Ezra, who obtained a commission from Artaxerxes (Longi-manus). In the 20th year of his reign (458), the king commissioned Nehemiah to rebuild the city itself.

This he effectually carried out in spite of the opposition of his enemies, being himself appointed civil governor of Judea, and having the direct patronage of the king, whose cupbearer he was. Nehemiah rebuilt the walls on the ruins of the old city. From this period till the Macedonian invasion in 332 Jerusalem enjoyed comparative peace. Yielding to Alexander without resistance, it escaped the fate of Tyre and Gaza. After the death of that conqueror and the division of his empire among his generals, Judea and its capital, lying between the rival kingdoms of Egypt and Syria, were alternately seized by the sovereigns of these two countries. Under the Ptolemies Jerusalem flourished both as a commercial city and a shrine. It was well adapted for trade, and abounded in artificers of various crafts. Its markets were well supplied by the Arabs with spices, gold, and precious stones. Goods were also imported across the sea, for there were good harbors at Gaza, Joppa, and Ptolemais (Acre). It passed into the power of Syria, with the rest of Judea, in 198, and was mildly ruled by Antiochus the Great; but the tyranny of his son, Antiochus Epiphanes, inflicted on it repeated massacres, and finally brought about the victorious revolt under the Asmoneans. Judas Maccabseus wrested Jerusalem from his enemies, and repaired the temple (165), though he was unable to expel the garrison that had been left in the fortress of Acra W. of Moriah, which commanded the temple, and from which the Syrians made annoying sallies.

Against it he fortified Mt. Zion. This, however, shortly after surrendered to Antiochus V., who, breaking the capitulation, demolished the fort. Jonathan, the brother and successor of Judas, rebuilt it, but equally failed in an attack on Acra. His brother Simon reduced Acra, demolished the citadel, and levelled the hill. In 63 Jerusalem was captured by Pompey, who intervened between the brothers Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, the walls were demolished, and thousands of the inhabitants were slain. He also entered the temple, but did not touch any of the treasures. It was plundered by Crassus, on his way to Parthia, in 54. The walls were rebuilt by Antipater, who was appointed procurator of Judea by the Romans. In 40 the Parthians, allies of Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, sacked the city. Herod, having been appointed king by the Roman senate, besieged Jerusalem, and took it in 37, and the massacre on this occasion was as bloody as that by Pompey. Herod erected or enlarged and beautified the fortress of Antonia; he also improved and enlarged the city, and restored the temple on a more magnificent scale than Solomon's. Jerusalem appears now to have reached the zenith of its greatness, though not of its power, which it never recovered after the death of Solomon. It is conjectured that the city at this time contained at least 200,000 inhabitants in its lofty and closely compacted dwellings.

This period is marked by the most memorable events in its history, the ministry and crucifixion of Christ. About A. D. 66 the Jews, goaded to despair by the tyranny of the Romans, revolted, took possession of Jerusalem, and defeated a Roman army commanded by Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria. This was the beginning of the disastrous war which ended in the complete destruction of Jerusalem. In 70 Titus, after a long and vigorous siege, took the city, and his soldiery, maddened by the obstinate resistance of the defenders and their own repeated fruitless attempts and great losses, spared neither age nor sex. Thousands of Jews, seeing all hope lost, threw themselves headlong from the towers, turned their swords against their own breasts, rushed into the flames, or fell fighting the enemy. Titus himself was unable to control the rage of his troops, and with regret saw the temple destroyed by the flames and the principal towers demolished, which he had intended to preserve as memorials of his own victories.

According to Josephus, 1,100,000 Jews perished in this siege, and 97,000 were carried into captivity; and Tacitus says that the number besieged in the city, including both sexes and every age, amounted to 600,000; but a critical examination easily proves both statements to be greatly exaggerated. The walls were levelled, the dwellings demolished, the temple was burned, and Mt. Moriah literally ploughed over. Sixty years afterward Hadrian resolved to rebuild the city and colonize it with Romans. But a revolt, headed by Bar-Cokheba, for a long time delayed the realization of his plans. For two or three years the insurgents held out in Jerusalem, but at last they were vanquished, and such edifices as remained or had been rebuilt were again demolished by the emperor's general, Severus. On the ruins Hadrian built another city with luxurious palaces, a theatre, temples, and other public buildings. He called it AElia, after his family name AElius. On the site of the Jewish temple he raised another to Jupiter Capitolinus, from which the city took its surname of Capitolina. It is said that he erected a fane of Venus over the sepulchre of Christ, and Jews were forbidden to enter or come within a certain distance of the city on pain of death.

Under the Christian emperors they were permitted to enter once a year, on payment of a large sum of money, to lament over their misfortunes. Under Constantine the city had already become the place of pilgrimage of the Christian world. It regained its ancient name, and the emperor furnished new attractions by the erection of a church over the place that had been pointed out as the sepulchre of Christ. The emperor Julian not only allowed the Jews to return to their city, but also made a futile attempt to rebuild the temple. About 530 Justinian followed the example of Constantine by building churches and hospitals in the city. In 614 Chosroes II. of Persia invaded the Roman empire. A division of his army marched into Palestine, and 26,000 Jews mustered under his banner, hoping to find in him a second Cyrus. After conquering the northern parts of Palestine, the united army of Persians and Jews laid siege to and captured Jerusalem. The Jews wreaked their vengeance on the Christians for all the persecutions they had suffered at their hands; 20,-000 of them are said to have fallen, the church of the Holy Sepulchre was burned, and the part of the reputed cross of Christ which was deposited there was carried to Persia. It was recovered by the emperor Heraelius, and replaced in the church of the Holy Sepulchre with great pomp, and the law of Hadrian forbidding the Jews to enter the city was renewed.

In 636 Jerusalem was besieged by Khaled and Abu Obei-dah, the generals of the caliph Omar. The siege lasted four months, and scarcely a day passed without a sortie or an attack. The besiegers, notwithstanding the inclemency of the winter and the hardships against which they had to combat, displayed great courage and persistence. The patriarch Sophronius at length resolved to capitulate, but insisted upon treating with the caliph in person, hoping to gain from him better terms than he could from his generals. Omar came up to Jerusalem, and on taking possession of the city treated the inhabitants with great kindness and generosity. In the latter part of the 11th century Syria was invaded by the Seljuk Turks and converted into a province of their empire. The cruelties which the Christian pilgrims suffered at the hands of these people roused the indignation of all western Europe, and great numbers of the chivalry of France and England were led by Godfrey de Bouillon to recover the sepulchre from the infidels. Jerusalem was stormed and taken, July 15, 1099, and the crusaders, in their zeal to avenge the wrongs of the Christians, slew 70,000 Moslems. Godfrey was elected ruler of Jerusalem, and his brother and successor assumed the title of king.

In 1187 Saladin, sultan of Egypt, marched against the city, summoned it to surrender, and promised the inhabitants rich lands in Syria; but his proposals were rejected with scorn. Upon this he swore to avenge the Moslem blood shed by the soldiers of Godfrey, and to demolish the towers. The Christians resisted bravely for 12 days, but at last were conquered. Saladin, however, did not carry out his threat of massacre, but contented himself with expelling the Christians from the city, granting them 40 days to remove their effects, and assisting many of the poor and helpless on their departure. Jerusalem again passed into the hands of the Franks by treaty in 1229, was retaken by the Moslems in 1239, once more restored in 1243, and finally conquered in 1244 by a horde of Kharesmian Turks, who had overrun Asia Minor. In 1517 Palestine was conquered by Sultan Selim I., and since then Jerusalem has been under the rule of the Ottoman empire. From 1832 to 1840 Palestine was in the hands of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, and Jerusalem was governed by his son Ibrahim Pasha. Previous to the Egyptian invasion Palestine was distracted with anarchy, and but nominally ruled by the Turks. When Ibrahim Pasha took possession of Jerusalem his first acts were to restore order in the city and country.

He did his utmost to protect the Christians and Jews against the oppressions of the Moslems, and granted them many privileges. Safety was restored, the roads were cleared of robbers, and commerce revived. (See Palestine, and Hebrews.) - See Robinson, "Biblical Researches " (3 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1841), and "Later Researches" (8vo, 1856); Bartlett, "Walks about Jerusalem" (8vo, London, 1845); Fergusson, "Ancient Topography of Jerusalem" (London, 1847), " Site of the Holy Sepulchre" (1861), and "The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple " (1865); Pou-joulat, Histoire de Jerusalem (2 vols., 2d ed., Paris, 1848); Thrupp, "Ancient Jerusalem" (Cambridge, England, 1855); Barclay, "The City of the Great King " (Philadelphia, 1857); Tobler, Planographie von Jerusalem (Gotha, 1858); Lewin, " Jerusalem to the Siege by Titus " (London, 1861); Sepp, Jerusalem und das heilige Land (Schaffhausen, 1862); Sandie, "Horeb and Jerusalem " (Edinburgh, 1864); Pi-erotti, "Jerusalem Explored," translated from the French by T. G. Bonney (London, 1864); De Vogue, Le temple de Jerusalem (fol., Paris, 1864-'5); De Saulcy, Voyage en Terre-Sainte (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1865); Wilson, "Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem" (3 vols, fol., London, 1865-'7); Wilson and Warren, " The Recovery of Jerusalem " (8vo, London, 1871; popular edition, "Our Work in Palestine," 1873); and Wolff, Jerusalem, nach eigener Anschau-ung und den neuesten Forschungen geschildert (3d ed., including his latest investigations, Leipsic, 1872). See also the works referred to under Palestine.