John Bulwer, an English physician of the 17th century, author of several works on dactylology. Although he was not himself an instructor of deaf mutes, he was the first in England to indicate the proper plan on which all subsequent methods for the instruction of the deaf and dumb have been based. In 1644 he published "Chironomia, or the Art of Manual Rhetoric," and " Chirologia, or the Natural Language of the Hand," which obtained for him the surname of "the Chirosopher." His principal work is " Philocophus, or the Deafe and Dumbe Man's Friend; exhibiting the philosophical verity of that subtile art which may inable one with an observant eie to heare what any man speaks by the moving of his lips," etc. (London, 1648). This title illustrates his plan for a labial alphabet and articulation, as his former works exhibited his plans for a manual alphabet and imitative signs. Among his other curious works are "Patho-myotomia, or a Dissection of the Significative Muscles of the Affections of the Mind " (12mo, London, 1649), and " Anthropo-metamorphosis, Man-transformed, or the Changeling" (4to, 1653).