I. The largest of the native Rajpoot states of India, between lat. 24° 36' and 27° 40' N., and Ion. 70° 4' and 75° 23' E.; area, about 36,000 sq. m.; pop. estimated at 1,800,000, chiefly Hindoos. The Loonee river divides it into two parts; the S. E. or left bank is fertile, and the N. W. or right bank is a continuation of the desert of Sinde. It is traversed in the east by the Aravulli range of mountains, from 3,000 to 4,000 ft. high, the torrents of which irrigate the south, and favor the cultivation of grain. The chief products are wheat and cotton, but frosts often destroy the latter in a single night. Millet and a pulse called moth are the principal food. Camels, horses, cattle, and sheep abound, as well as many wild animals, and snakes to such an extent that thick gaiters are worn as a protection. Salt is plentiful. Iron is worked to some extent, and there are large deposits of hard red sandstone adapted for building; and fine quarries of marble at Mukrana, 120 m. N. E. of Joodpoor. Various woollen articles are manufactured, and trade is active, the natives, chiefly Jains, excelling as merchants and bankers. The revenue is about £175,000, and the maharajah or ruler of Joodpoor pays to Great Britain a considerable annual tribute.

II. A town, capital of the state, 300 m. S. W. of Delhi; pop., including suburbs, estimated as high as 150,000, but supposed to be rather less than 80,000. It is enclosed by a rampart 5 m. in circuit, which is in a dilapidated condition. The town is well built; several streets and the tanks are bordered by trees, and some of the houses are built of red freestone. The greater part of the area of the citadel is occupied by the royal palace and premises, and there are many temples. The Mahumandir suburb outside the walls, enclosed by a fortified wall with a distinct settlement of 1,000 houses, derives its name from a great sanctuary which has a lofty spire and rich interior decorations, one of the most conspicuous of which is a canopy of silver in the shape of an umbrella. The most important manufactures are those of ivory and hardware. It was founded in 1459 as the capital of Marwar, in place of Mandor, the ruins of which are 5 m. N.