Joseph Haydn, a German composer, born at Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732, died in Vienna, May 31, 1809. He was the eldest of the 20 children (by two mothers) of Matthias Haydn, a wheelwright. In his fifth year his musical talents attracted the notice of Frank, a school teacher of Haimburg, who advised the parents to give their son a musical education. When six years old he was sent to the school at Haimburg, where he learned reading, writing, singing by note, and all the instruments then usual in orchestras which his strength would admit of his playing. He had come to Haimburg at a season of numerous religious processions, and the drummer had just died. Frank gave the child a lesson or two, and a few days after the people of the town laughed to see their processions led by a boy of six years beating a drum, which was mounted upon a humpbacked dwarf. His voice proved to be one of remarkable power, sweetness, and compass, and attracted the notice of the parish priest, who afterward recommended him to Reuter, chapelmaster of the cathedral of St. Stephen's in Vienna, as a choir boy. Reuter examined him, gave him a single lesson in the execution of the shake or trill, ordered him to practise singing the scale daily, and at eight years of age received him into the choir.

The number of boys in the choir was six, for the support and instruction of each of whom Reuter received 700 florins (about $300), a sum amply sufficient in those days for their handsome support, and to furnish them with the best teachers. In the case of Haydn, and doubtless of the others, a large proportion of the 700 florins went into Renter's pocket; for, with the exception of a little Latin and much practical music, Joseph seems to have been taught nothing. In the theory and science of the art he received in eight years but two lessons from his master. His physical wants were as ill supplied as those of his mind. Hunger during these years was a spur to him in the study of singing, he having early learned that his beautiful voice could be made to procure him food. Constant practice in singing the music of the best Italian and German ecclesiastical composers made up in some measure for the want of adequate instruction in musical theory; his natural instinct for correct harmony and counterpoint being developed in spite of his ignorance of rules.

With little bread, little instruction, and many a beating from Reuter, Joseph reached his 16th year, when his voice began to break, and his master, seeing that he could no longer make him a source of profit, sought a fit occasion to dismiss him. Joseph was often in difficulty from his practical jests. One of these gave Reuter the wished-for occasion. One of the boys wore his hair long and tied in a queue. Joseph, to bring him into uniformity with the others, took opportunity to cut it off, and being complained of was sentenced to a severe castigation upon the open hand. He begged hard to be let off, offering to resign if his punishment were remitted. "No help for you," said Reuter; "you shall first receive your Schilling and then march.11 The boy of 16 was turned into the streets of Vienna with a threadbare coat and three bad shirts. His parents, to whom he went, could not aid him, and besought him to carry out the old plan and enter the church. What he had seen of the lower clergy during his eight years in St. Stephen's had not increased his liking for such a life, and he returned to Vienna to see what could be done in music.

He took up his abode in a garret room of a five-story house, where he had neither stove nor fireplace, and where rain and snow penetrated through the holes in the roof. Among the first friends whom the boy found was a widow, who with her daughter lived by knitting; she gave him permission to sleep on the floor in her own room when the winter came. She afterward fell into extreme want. Haydn was then in prosperity; in his good fortune he remembered her, and for 30 years gave her a small monthly pension. It was at this period that his genius received its permanent direction. The first six sonatas of C. P. E. Bach fell into his hands. " I could not leave my instrument,11 said he in his old age, " until I had played them through; and whoever thoroughly understands me, must see that I owe very much to Emanuel Bach; that I comprehended and industriously studied him. Emanuel Bach himself sent me a compliment for this.11 After a time he attracted the notice of Metastasio, who lived in the same house. The poet had charge of the education of a Si-gnora Martinez, then a child, and Haydn was employed to give her rudimental instructions in music, thus having opportunity to make himself a thorough master of the Italian language.

Through Metastasio he became acquainted with Porpora, who was then in Germany giving singing lessons to the mistress of Correr, the Venetian ambassador. Thus far Haydn had had no opportunity of studying the theory of music with a master, nor been able to purchase books for this purpose. It was therefore of the greatest importance to him to have the benefit of the profound knowledge and experience of Porpora. Porpora, too, wished for some one to play the accompaniments when he gave his lessons. That he received lessons from Porpora directly, save such as were necessary to render him adequate to the old masters demands upon him, is very doubtful; but he derived the highest advantage from being present at the lessons, and willingly bore the old man's ill humor. During a visit of three months to the baths of Mannersdorf, Correr took his mistress and her teacher, and Haydn chose to act during that time as Porpora's servant rather than miss the opportunity of improving himself. He wore no livery, and dined at the table of Correr's officials, not at that of the servants. He was known as Porpora's accompanist, and in this capacity attracted the notice of Gluck, Wagenseil, and other musical notabilities of Vienna. His salary was then six ducats a month.

From this time his prospects were continually brighter. A Baron Furnberg often invited him to his house both in the city and in the country, to small musical parties; and for him, during the autumn of 1750 or the winter following, Haydn composed his first quartet for stringed instruments. Returning one day to his lodgings, he found that his clothes and a few other possessions had been stolen; but he had already made friends, and one of them gave him a good suit of black, another linen, etc, and Furnberg took him for two months to his country seat. From 1751 to 1759 his life was that of a successful young music teacher. His fees for instruction gradually rose from two to five florins per month. Sundays and church festivals were busy days with him; at 8 in the morning he played the organ in the chapel of the Carmelites, at 10 in the chapel of Count Haugnitz, and at 11 he sang (tenor) in his old choir at St. Stephen's, receiving for each service 17 kreutzers. He was often employed in serenading, his own music generally forming part of the programme. One evening the handsome wife of Kurz, a famous harlequin, was the recipient of the serenaders' homage, and the husband was so struck by the music as to go down to the street and ask who was its author. Haydn, then about 20, acknowledged it.

Kurz had the text for a short comic opera, Der hinkende Teufel ("The Limping Devil1'), a satire on the lame theatre director, Affligio, and this he persuaded Haydn to compose. The piece was given three times with applause, and then forbidden by the police. Haydn received for his work 24 ducats. Having now the means, he determined to make himself master of the science of music, and to reduce to order what he had previously acquired by observation and practice. His first purchase was the theoretical work of Emanuel Bach, which appeared in 1753. Then came Mattheson's Voll-kommener Kapellmeister, and finally Fux's Gradus ad Parnassum. To these works he devoted a most thorough study, giving the preference on the whole to Bach, although he afterward used Fux as his text book in teaching on account of the excellence of his method. His own pen was never idle. Besides his exercises in harmony and counterpoint for his own improvement, he wrote pieces in infinite variety for his pupils, which fell into the hands of publishers and made him known, though they gave him no pecuniary profit. In 1759, at the age of 27, he at length obtained an appointment.

A Bohemian, Count Morzin, engaged him as music director and composer, with a salary of 200 florins, free lodgings, and table with his secretaries and other officials. Haydn now resolved to marry. A hair dresser, Keller, in the Landstrasse, Vienna, had often aided him in his days of want, ♦ and in return Haydn had instructed the eldest daughter in music, and to her lost his heart. But she had chosen to enter a convent, and, urged by gratitude and the persuasions of Keller, he transferred his proposal to her sister, and married her. She proved but a sorry match for the chapelmaster. She had few truly feminine qualities, and was disposed to squander Haydn's earnings. Morzin would have no married men in his orchestra, and Haydn was obliged to keep his marriage secret. It was during this year that Haydn wrote his first grand symphony for full orchestra. Before the winter of 1759-'60 was over, which Morzin spent in Vienna, he found it necessary to reduce his expenses, and one step was to dismiss his orchestra. This was no loss to Haydn, for Prince Nicholas Esterhazy had heard his symphony, and in 17G0 appointed him chapelmaster.

This position Haydn held without interruption until Esterhazy's death, full 30 years, spending eight or nine months of the year at Eisenstadt or at Eszterhaz in Hungary, and the winter in Vienna. His salary, at first 400 florins, was gradually increased to 1,000. The prince was ever ready with his purse, and thrice when Haydn's house in Eisenstadt was burned, Esterhazy rebuilt it at his own expense. In his will he gave Haydn a pension equal to his salary for life, and his successor, though he dismissed his orchestra, continued to Haydn his title of chapelmaster, and added 400 florins to his pension. The composer had free range of the fields and forests of the prince, and could gratify his passion for shooting and fishing to his heart's desire. It cost him little to live in the country, with no family but a wife and a servant or two; and but for Frau Haydn's propensity to squander her husband's earnings, he might have saved a handsome share of his emoluments. A French traveller who visited Eszterhaz about 1782 says: "The chateau stands quite solitary, and the prince sees nobody but his officials and servants, and strangers who are drawn hither from curiosity. He has a puppet theatre, which is certainly unique in character. Here the grandest operas are produced.

One knows not whether to be amazed or to laugh at seeing Alceste, Alcides, Al bivio, etc, put upon the stage with all due grandeur and played by puppets. His orchestra is one of the best I ever heard, and the great Haydn is his court and theatre composer. He employs a poet for his singular theatre, whose humor and skill in suiting the grandest subjects to his stage, and in parodying the gravest pieces, are often exceedingly happy. He often engages a troop of wandering players for months at a time, and he himself with a few officials and servants forms the entire audience. They are allowed to come upon the stage uncombed, drunk, their parts not half learned, and half dressed. The prince is not for the serious and the tragic, and he enjoys it when the players, like Sancho Panza, give loose reins to their humor." For this prince Haydn, ever ready with new and excellent music in which no tragic tones resounded, was just the man. Haydn said of him toward the close of his life : " My prince was satisfied with all my works; I received applause; as chief of the orchestra, I could try experiments, observe what produced the right effect and what weakened it; could therefore improve, add, cut out, venture.

I was separated from the world, nobody to meddle with and plague me, and so I was perforce original." The demand upon him for church and instrumental music was constant; for theatrical music frequent; and the best of the year's productions in the country came in the winter to a hearing in Vienna before the highest musical circle in Europe. Thus ten years had not passed since entering the service of Esterhazy before the name of Haydn had a European reputation, and the publishers of Leipsic, Berlin, Hamburg, and even of more distant cities, vied with those of Vienna in giving his works to the world. Anything like a complete catalogue of his compositions during these 30 years is impossible; much was lost when his houses were burned, much was scattered; but we know of 163 pieces for the baryton, from the solo with pianoforte to the octet and grand concerto; of symphonies for full orchestra, at least four per annum; of a score or two of masses and other works for divine service in the prince's chapel; of more than 100 works of chamber music of the higher forms, with an immense number of simpler construction. At least 12 Italian operas by him were performed in the private theatre, and four German operettas by the marionettes.

The oratorio II ritorno di Tobia was composed in 1774 for the "Musicians' Widows and Orphans Society" in Vienna, he being a candidate for admission. On learning that he must bind himself to compose for the society whenever called upon, he withdrew his score; and the society 18 years later was proud to elect him an honorary member. The fame of his Italian operas procured him an order to compose one for the imperial opera house in Vienna. La vera constanza was written and accepted. Haydn had studied the capacities of the singers carefully, and adapted his parts with great skill to their various powers. The theatre was in the hands of the same Italians who had before succeeded in preventing the performance of Mozart's La finta simplice, and it was enough to array them against Haydn that he was a German. The one means in their power to kill the opera was to make an entire change in the distribution of the parts, and this they did. Saying, "I know what and for whom I wrote," Haydn took his score and returned to Eisen-stadt. During the building of the new chateau at Eszterhaz, the accommodations were so limited that the prince took with him of his orchestra but a few virtuosos, who were obliged to leave their families at Eisenstadt. Six months passed, and the musicians, full of impatience to return, were astonished and despairing to learn that Esterhazy intended to prolong his stay two months.

They came to Haydn praying him to find some means of changing the prince's determination. To have sent in a petition would only have brought upon him and them the laughter of their employer. Haydn composed a sextet, giving the first violin to the virtuoso Tomasini, whose playing would be sure to hold the prince until the close. At the performance one player after another ceased, blew out his candle, took his music and instrument, and silently left the room, until at length Tomasini alone remained, and he only to finish his part, when like the rest he put out his light and withdrew. " If they all go away, we must leave too," said Esterhazy. The performers had waited in an anteroom, and as the prince came through he said laughing: "Haydn, I understand it; the gentlemen may all leave tomorrow." The sextet was afterward developed into a symphony. In 1780 the philharmonic society of Modena sent Haydn a diploma as honorary member. In 1785 he received an order from Cadiz in Spain to compose a series of seven adagios for orchestra, to be played in the principal church at the annual festival in commemoration of the crucifixion. To these seven were afterward adapted words founded upon the seven phrases spoken by Christ upon the cross.

As adagios, performed in a church lighted by a single lamp, the priests prostrate before the altar, and the multitude kneeling in silence, this music is, as Haydn himself declared, among the most successful of his compositions. Prince Nicholas Esterhazy died Sept. 28, 1790. His son and successor Paul Anthony, not having the taste of his father, dismissed the orchestra, retaining Haydn nominally as his chapelmaster. The composer was now free from all labor but that of composition, had a handsome income secured to him, and, having made Vienna his residence, occupied himself in laying plans for future works on a grander scale than any hitherto attempted. Thus only could he compete with the young Mozart, whom he loved as a son, but whose genius was a spur to the veteran. A few weeks after the death of Esterhazy a stranger entered the room of Haydn. "I am Salomon, of London," said he, "and come to take you thither; tomorrow we will strike a bargain." Salomon was a native of Bonn, but left that city early in life to enter the service of Prince Henry of Prussia, and in 1783 emigrated to London. He had repeatedly urged Haydn by letter in previous years to visit that city, and Prince Esterhazy was ready to give the necessary leave of absence; but Haydn was unable to make up his mind to accept the invitation.

Gallini, the undertaker of the great professional concerts in Hanover square, was with Salomon upon the continent at this time engaging singers and virtuosos for the succeeding season. Salomon was already at Bonn on his way back to London when he learned the death of Esterhazy, and immediately started for Vienna to engage Haydn. The composer hesitated long, but an offer of 3,000 florins for an Italian opera, and 100 florins for every new work which he should compose and direct in a series of 20 concerts, at length overcame his scruples, and on Dec. 15, 1790, he left Vienna. The musical world of London received him with the highest degree of enthusiasm, which increased with each new work that he produced. Soon after the concerts began, a quarrel broke out between Gallini and Salomon on the one part, and the other directors of the concerts on the other, which resulted in driving the two from Hanover square to the Haymarket theatre. Haydn, having made his contract with Gallini, remained faithful to him notwithstanding the offer of a large sum from the other party. The public followed Haydn to the Haymarket, and the enterprise of Gallini and Salomon was successful. Haydn's first stay in London lasted 18 months.

The principal works produced were: Orfeo (opera seria), 9 symphonies, a symphony concertante, "The Storm," a grand chorus with orchestra, 6 quartets, 11 sonatas, several beautiful songs and canzonets, and the arrangements to more than 100 Scotch songs. The Orfeo was not given, because Callini's license did not include operatic performances. In the summer of 1792 Haydn returned to Vienna, with a handsome sum saved from his earnings, and the fame of being (for Mozart was now dead) the greatest of living composers. On Jan. 19, 1794, he left Vienna for a second visit to London, where he remained a year and a half. His principal works were three symphonies, a large number of songs and airs, both with pianoforte and orchestral accompaniment, the ten commandments composed as canons, 24 minuets and German dances, 6 contra dances, 3 sonatas, an overture, ballads, etc. George III. and his queen endeavored to persuade him to remain in England; the university of Oxford created him doctor of music. All classes vied in testifying their admiration of his genius.

His fame preceded him to Vienna, and soon after his return in 1795 he gave a concert, which was crowded to excess, wherein he produced his three new symphonies, and in which the young Beethoven appeared both as composer and virtuoso, and played his own first pianoforte concerto. Haydn was now in Vienna what he had been in London, the unrivalled master. He had brought with him from London an English text for an oratorio, prepared by Linley, from Milton's "Paradise Lost," entitled "The Creation." Not venturing to compose so grand a work to an English text, he placed it in the hands of Baron van Swieten, who translated and arranged it in its present form. Twelve persons of the highest nobility subscribed to the amount of 500 ducats, which they offered him for a composition of the new text. Haydn accepted the proposition, and in the 68th year of his age he completed this magnificent work. It was first produced March 19, 1799. Its great success led Van Swieten to prepare another text from Thomson's "Seasons," which was composed within the next two years, and first produced at Vienna, under the title of Die Jahreszeiten ("The Seasons"), April 24, 1801. This labor had been too great for him, and the barren, unpoetical text had been a source of great trouble and annoyance.

Soon after finishing it he felt a feverish attack in his head, and from that time his strength, both mental and physical, sensibly failed. From this period to his death he spent most of his time in his house and garden, which had become one of the principal attractions to strangers in Vienna. On March 27,1808, he was once more induced to appear in public. It was at a performance of the " Creation," in the great hall of the university. At the famous passage, " and there was light! " in the first chorus, the audience as usual burst into tumultuous applause. Haydn, waving his hand toward heaven, ox-claimed, "It comes from there!" At the end of the first part he felt it necessary from his great weakness to leave the room; and as he was borne out in the great chair in which he had sat, he once more, with tearful eyes, turned to the orchestra, and spread out his hands as if to bless them. It was his farewell to the whole world. On May 10, 1809, early in the morning, a corps of the French army advanced toward the suburb Mariahilf of Vienna, not far from Haydn's house.

His servants were engaged in getting him out of bed and dressing him when four cannon reports shook the house and frightened the domestics. "Children," said Haydn, "fear not; where Haydn is, no misfortune can befall you." But he had hardly spoken these brave words when he himself began to tremble violently. He now declined rapidly, and died May 31, in his 78th year. - Gerber's attempt to catalogue Haydn's works fills over 13 octavo pages of his Neues Lexikon, and is far from being complete. Haydn himself in 1805 was unable to give a complete list of his compositions; he could remember but 118 symphonies, yet Gerber had at that time the themes of 140. His compositions in England alone filled 708 leaves (1,536 pages) music folio. The following is an abstract of the list which he made out in 1805 for Prof. Bertuch, "of such as he could remember:" 118 symphonies, 83 quartets, 24 trios, 19 operas, 5 oratorios, 163 compositions for the baryton, 24 concertos for different instruments, 15 masses, 10 pieces of church music, 44 sonatas for pianoforte, with and without accompaniment, 42 German and Italian songs, 39 canons, 13 vocal pieces for three and four voices, 365 Scotch and English songs arranged with accompaniments, 40 divertimenti for from three to nine instruments, four fantasias, capriccios, etc.

Haydn will for ever fill a large space in musical history, not only for the magnitude, number, originality, and beauty of his compositions, but as being one of the small number who have made eras in the development of the art. He is the great mentor in the department of orchestral and chamber music, the father of the modern quartet and its kindred forms, and of the grand symphony. By this it is not meant that orchestras and small companies of performers on stringed instruments were unknown before his time, but that he, adopting the sonata form as perfected by Emanuel Bach and introducing it into compositions for the orchestra and chamber, laid the foundation for that wonderful development of instrumental music exhibited in his own later compositions and in the works of Mozart, and which reached its climax in the musical "poems" of Beethoven. There are but two names in musical history for which this honor is claimed at the expense of Haydn's fame. The one, San Martini (Sam-martini), belonged to the old Italian school, and if any of his instrumental works belong to the new era, they are those of his later days, when Haydn's influence was already everywhere felt.

But the fame of Haydn has hardly been seriously claimed for San Martini. Of the other, Boccherini, for whom more serious claims have been urged, it is sufficient to say that when Haydn's quartets were already be-coming known and gaining him a reputation, Boccherini was a child of 13 or 14 years; that Haydn was already in the service of Prince Esterhazy as chapelmaster when Boccherini's opus I., Sei sinfonie, for two violins, alto and 'cello obbligato (that is, mere quartets) was written; that Boeeherini's first work for more than four instruments - a concerto (op. 8) for six instruments obbligati, and six ad lib. - was not composed till 1769, before which date at least 18 of Haydn's symphonies and several of his quartets had been printed in Paris. Haydn thought it unfortunate that circumstances had led him so preponderantly into the field of instrumental composition, rather than into that of operatic writing. But in this no one who is acquainted with his works at all extensively can doubt he was in error.

He was of too happy a temperament to have touched the deep-toned harps of Handel, Gluck, Mozart, and Beethoven. For more than half a century music flowed from his pen in a continuous stream, always new, always attractive, always cheerful, always beautiful, often grand, sometimes reaching the sublime, but never betraying any touches of really tragic sorrow or grief. He was the musical apostle of the beautiful and the happy. - Haydn's biography has been written by Grie-singer (1810), Bombet ("Bayle," 1817), Grosser (1826), and Ludwig (1867). II. Michael, a German composer, brother of the preceding, born at Rohrau, Sept. 16, 1737, died in Salzburg, Aug. 18, 1808. He was educated in music by Reuter, and rose to eminence as an organist and composer, chiefly in consequence of his close study of the works of Fux, Bach, Handel, and Graun. He was chapelmaster at Gross-wardein in Hungary, and occupied the same position in the cathedral of Salzburg, where he also established an excellent school of counterpoint. His works are numerous, and embrace operas, oratorios, masses, symphonies, and many other popular forms of vocal and instrumental composition; but they are little known in consequence of the author's reluctance to have them published during his life.

His brother Joseph considered him the best composer of sacred music of the day.