Joseph Hooker, an American soldier, born at Hadley, Mass., in 1815. He graduated at West Point in 1837, served in the Florida war and in the war with Mexico, and was successively brevetted as captain, major, and lieutenant colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Monterey, the National Bridge, and Chapultepec. He was on leave of absence from 1851 to 1853, when he resigned his commission and became a farmer in California, serving also in 1858-'9 as superintendent of military roads in Oregon. He reentered the service at the beginning of the civil war, was appointed brigadier general of volunteers March 17, 1861, and was employed in the neighborhood of Washington till March, 1862, when he was placed in command of a division of the army of the Potomac. He was made major general of volunteers May 5, and took an active part in McClellan's peninsular campaign, especially at the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Frazier's Farm, and Malvern Hill, and in the subsequent campaign at Bristoe Station, the second battle of Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, and Antie-tam, where he was wounded.
He was made brigadier general of the United States army Sept. 20, and at the battle of Fredericksburg commanded a grand division under Burnside. He succeeded Burnside in command of the army of the Potomac Jan. 26, 1863, and fought the battle of Chancellorsville in the beginning of May. On June 27 he resigned his command because Gen. Halleck would not consent to the evacuation of Harper's Ferry and the placing of the 10,000 men there under Hooker's orders, for a demonstration on Lee's rear, who was then invading Pennsylvania. He was succeeded by Gen. Meade. In September he was placed in command of the 12th and 13th army corps, which were concentrated about Chattanooga, and took a leading part in the series of battles fought there in November, commanding in the action on Lookout mountain, for which he was made brevet major general. Subsequently, in command of the 20th army corps, styled the army of the Cumberland, he was prominent in the operations about Atlanta. He resigned the command of this corps in August, 1864, in consequence of a question of rank.
In September he was placed in command of the Northern department, in 18G5 of the department of the East, and in 1866 of that of the Lakes. He was mustered out of the volunteer service Sept. 1, 1866, and on Oct. 15, 1868, was made brevet major general of the United States army and retired from the service.