Joseph I.emperor of Germany, of the house of Hapsburg, eldest son of Leopold I. by his third wife, born July 26, 1678, died April 17, 1711. He was crowned king of Hungary in 1687, of Rome in 1690, and after the death of his father succeeded to the imperial throne of Germany in 1705. He inherited at the same time a double war, against Louis XIV. for the succession of his brother Charles to the throne of Spain, and in Hungary against the revolted patriots under Francis Rakoczy. He was willing to make concessions to the Protestants of Hungary and other provinces, frequently attempted to negotiate with the insurgents, and readily yielded to the demands of Charles XII. of Sweden in behalf of the Protestants of Silesia, which country the young conqueror crossed on his march from Poland to Saxony without even asking the permission of the distracted emperor. The victories of Marlborough and Eugene in the war of the Spanish succession allowed Joseph, who had personally taken part in the siege of Landau, to send considerable forces against the Hungarians, and dissensions which broke out in the camp of the latter slowly prepared a final triumph of the imperial arms.
Shortly before the death of Joseph, Count Palffy succeeded in concluding a treaty with the insurgents at Szatmar, in the absence of Rakoczy. Joseph was of a mild disposition, and exceedingly fond of ceremony and of the chase. He founded the academy of arts at Vienna, and a national bank. He was succeeded by Charles VI.