I. Adoniram, an American missionary, born in Maiden, Mass., Aug. 9, 1788, died at sea, April 12, 1850. He was the son of the Rev. Adoniram Judson, a Congregational clergyman, and descended from William Judson, who came to New England in 1634. He graduated at Brown university in 1807, opened a private school in Plymouth, Mass., and published "Elements of English Grammar" (1808) and "Young Ladies' Arithmetic" (1809). His previously skeptical views having yielded to an examination of the evidences of Christianity, he entered the second class at Andover theological seminary, not as a candidate for the ministry, but as an inquirer after truth, and completed the course in 1810. The reading in 1809 of Dr. Buchanan's celebrated sermon entitled "The Star in the East" led him to devote himself to the missionary enterprise. Several of his fellow students concurred in his views, and a formal application for counsel and encouragement, addressed by Adoniram Judson, jr., Samuel Nott, jr., Samuel J. Mills, and Samuel Newell, to the general Congregational association of Massachusetts, became the incipient step toward the formation of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions.
Impatient at the slow progress of the American movement, he embarked for England, under invitation, to consult with the directors of the London missionary society in regard to the practicability of cooperation with that society by the newly formed American board. The vessel in which he embarked was captured by a French privateer, and the young missionary soon found himself in a prison in Bayonne. Released on parole, he reembarked for England, where he arrived in May, 1811, and was offered for himself and his associates appointments and support from the London society, but the plan of cooperation was declined as unadvisable. He returned to New York in August, and in September was present at the meeting of the American board at Worcester. Here his eloquent importunity, united with that of one of his colleagues, triumphed over the continued tendency to delay, and Judson, Newell, and Nott, with Gordon Hall, were appointed by the board its missionaries to the Burman empire. Luther Rice was subsequently added to their number, and the five young men were ordained at Salem, Feb. 6,1812. Mr. Judson's marriage with Miss Ann Hasseltine had occurred the day previous to his ordination, and on the 19th of the same month they, with Samuel and Harriet Newell, embarked from Salem for Calcutta. At this place, and at Madras, they were subjected for a full year to much annoyance by the East India company's regulations.
Finally they found refuge in flight to Rangoon, in the Burman empire, the place of their original destination, where they arrived in July, 1813. Meanwhile Mr. and Mrs. Judson had adopted the views of the Baptist denomination, and having been baptized by Dr. Carey, English Baptist missionary at Serampore, had surrendered their connection with the American board. Mr. Rice, arriving at Calcutta by another vessel, had on his voyage pursued similar studies with similar results, and had returned to America to enlist the Baptists of the United States in the support of foreign missions. In April, 1814, the Baptist general convention, called since 1845 the American Baptist missionary union, was formed at Philadelphia, and immediately appointed Mr. and Mrs. Judson its missionaries. Established in Rangoon, the field left to them by the closing of the English Baptist mission, they applied themselves with great zeal to the acquisition of the language, without grammar or dictionary, or teachers who could speak English. Mrs. Judson first attained the power to converse; Mr. Judson's habits of thorough philological inquiry rendered his progress less rapid, but made his mastery of the language equal to that of native scholars.
In three or four years he published a "Summary of the Christian Religion," a catechism, and a translation of the Gospel of Matthew. In March, 1817, an intelligent Burman, accompanied by his servant, presented himself to Mr. Judson as an inquirer; in April, 1819, the first zayat (an edifice which is both a caravansary and a place for public meetings) was opened for Christian worship; and on June 27 in the same year the first native convert was baptized. At the close of the year 1820 the number of baptized converts was 10. Meanwhile the mission had been re-enforced by the arrival of additional missionaries, and the impression which it was making had in 1819 excited the displeasure of the new viceroy. Mr. Judson determined to appeal to the king for toleration, and, with his colleague Mr. Colman, ascended the Irrawaddy to Ava for that purpose. He was admitted to an audience, but the plea was unavailing. Believing that they had made a mistake in appealing to the king, and fearing that this measure would bring upon the converts the vengeance of the government, they had well nigh formed the purpose of removing to a safer place in Ara-can, but were deterred by the steadfast courage of the native Christians. In 1821 the continued ill health of Mrs. Judson compelled her to return for a time to the United States, where, after a short stay in England, she arrived in September, 1822. While in this country she published her "History of the Burman Mission," and by her presence and her personal appeals contributed largely to increase the missionary zeal of the American churches.
In the spring of 1823, with her health but partially restored, she reembarked for Calcutta, accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Wade as recruits to the mission, and rejoined her husband at Rangoon in the autumn of the same year. During her absence the number of converts had been nearly doubled, and Mr. (now Dr.) Judson had completed a translation of the New Testament, as well as an epitome of the Old. Their residence had been transferred to Ava by request of the king, who was anxious to command the medical services of Dr. Price, a missionary physician who was colleague with Dr. Judson. The sudden breaking out of war however between the East India company and the Burman government brought upon the missionaries, and other foreign residents at Ava, the severest privations, perils, and sufferings. For nearly two years no tidings came of the fate of the missionaries. Three Englishmen residing at Ava having been arrested by the native authorities and examined, it was found that the accounts of one of them showed considerable sums of money paid to Drs. Judson and Price, and, ignorant of the methods of transmitting funds by bills of exchange, the government saw in this fact proof of their complicity with the English in the war.
On June 8 Dr. Judson was arrested at his dwelling by a posse of officers, thrown into the "death prison" with all the other white foreigners, and loaded with chains. Mrs. Judson was kept a prisoner in her own house, under the guard of ten ruffianly men; but on the third day a message to the governor of the city, expressing a desire to appear before him with a present, resulted in an order for her release. Further gifts secured the promise of an amelioration of her husband's sufferings, and permission to visit him in prison; and by the same means all the prisoners were delivered from their suffocating confinement, and placed in an open shed within the prison enclosure. Hither she sent food and mats for them all, commencing those angelic ministries to the sufferers which have rendered her name immortal. Seven months thus passed away, during which she employed her time in devising and executing measures for the comfort of the prisoners, and especially for the release of her husband, scarcely a day passing in which she did not visit some member of the government, or some branch of the royal family; with no other effect, however, than that she and the objects of her solicitude were kept from despair by the encouraging promises of a capricious court. New miseries were still in store.
The hot season had arrived, and the sufferings of the prisoners had become intolerable. The birth of a child suspended for a brief period these ministries of Mrs. Judson. Twenty days after this event she was again at the prison, and again in the presence of the governor pleading for ameliorations. Returning to the prison from an interview which the governor had requested, she found the white prisoners all removed. She learned from an old woman that they had gone toward Amarapura, the old capital, distant six miles. She obtained a passport, and set off for Amarapura, where she learned that the prisoners had just left for Oungponla. Here she found them, chained two and two, and almost dead from fatigue and suffering. They spent the next six months at this place, subjected to continual oppression and extortion. The king was at length forced to ask conditions of peace of the British, and in February, 182G, Mr. and Mrs. Judson were released through the demand of Gen. Sir Archibald Campbell. Descending the river to the territories ceded by the Burman government to the English, they commenced missionary operations at Amherst, a new town designed to be the British capital.
Scarcely, however, were they fixed in this abode, when urgent overtures were made to Dr. Judson to accompany an embassy to Ava, to negotiate a new treaty. In the hope that an article providing for religious toleration might be incorporated, he yielded to the wishes of the commissioner, and parted with Mrs. Judson on July 5, never to see her more. Her constitution, broken by the intense sufferings and cares of the long imprisonment, yielded to an attack of fever, and she died after 18 days1 illness. Returning to Amherst, Dr. Judson applied himself with diligence to missionary labors. The number of native converts was increased, many new missionaries arrived, and new branches of the mission were established, that among the Karens starting at once into importance as among the most successful of modern times. Dr. Judson was chiefly employed in the translation and revision of the Scriptures, and in the preparation of a Burmese-English dictionary. In January, 1834, he completed the translation of the Bible. In April of the same year he married Mrs. Sarah H. Boardman, widow of a missionary, the Rev. George Dana Boardman. For eleven years he continued his missionary labors, to a large degree Biblical and philological, till 1845, when the failing health of his wife compelled a voyage to the United States. Mrs. Judson died in the harbor of St. Helena, Sept. 1, and was buried on that island.
Dr. Judson arrived at Boston, Oct. 15. The emotion excited by his return spread over the whole country, and was shared by every denomination of Christians. He was received with distinguished marks of respect and veneration by public meetings in many chief cities and towns of the United States, and especially by his Baptist brethren assembled in their missionary conventions at New York and Richmond. On July 11, 1846, he reembarked for Burmah, having married Miss Emily Chub-buck. Arriving at Maulmain in December, he resumed his work with ardor, assuming the pastorship of the Burman church, and carrying forward the dictionary on which he had been so long engaged. In the autumn of 1849 a severe cold, followed by a fever, withdrew him from his work. His disease refused to yield to remedies, and on April 3, 1850, he left his wife in a state of health which forbade her accompanying him, and departed with a single attendant for the isle of Bourbon. He suffered much while descending the river, but rallied for a time on the open sea. On April 12 he sank quietly to rest, and was buried in the ocean.
The Burmese and English dictionary, on which he was engaged at the time of his death, was compiled from his papers by E. A. Stevens and printed at Maulmain in 1852'. - A memoir of his life was written by the Rev. Francis Wayland, D. D. (2 vols. 12mo, Boston, 1853). See also a memoir by J. Clement (12mo, Auburn, N. Y., 1852);, "Records of his Life, Character, and Achievements," by the Rev. D. T. Middleditch (12mo, New York, 1854); and "The Earnest Man: a Sketch of the Character and Labors of the Rev. Ado-niram Judson," by Mrs. H. C. Conant (8vo, Boston, 1856). II. Ann Hasseltine, first wife of the preceding, daughter of John and Rebecca Hasseltine, born in Bradford, Mass., Dec. 22, 1789, died at Amherst, Burmah, Oct. 24, 1826. She was educated at the academy of her native town. Her mind was well disciplined, and her acquisitions were unusually large. Mr. Jud-son's acquaintance with her commenced in 1810, and resulted in an invitation to share with him the responsibilities and perils of missionary life. They were married at Bradford, Feb. 5, 1812, and on Feb. 19 embarked for Calcutta. Her subsequent history will be found in connection with that of her husband.
A memoir of her life was written by the Rev. James D. Knowles (2d ed., Boston, 1829; many times reprinted). III. Sarah Hall (Boardman), second wife of Adoniram Judson, born in Alstead, N. H., Nov. 4, 1803, died at the island of St. Helena, Sept. 1, 1845. She was the eldest child of Ralph and Abiah Hall. While she was a child her parents removed, first to Danvers, Mass., and then to Salem. On July 4,1825, she became the wife of the Rev. George Dana Boardman, and on July 16 they embarked for Calcutta, arriving there Dec. 15. The Burman war still raging, Mr. Boardman accepted temporarily an invitation to preach at the Circular Road Baptist church in that city. Here they remained till the spring of 1827,. when they embarked for Bur-mah, where arrangements were made for the establishment by Mr. Boardman of the mission station at Maulmain, which subsequently became the chief seat of Baptist missions in that country. Here Mrs. Boardman made rapid progress in the acquisition of the language, and availed herself of every opportunity and method in her benevolent work.
This mission being fairly established, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman were transferred to Tavoy for a similar service, where was commenced the remarkable work of the propagation of the gospel among the Karens, the inhabitants of the interior jungles. In two years Mr. Boardman died. His widow continued her missionary labors, and besides managing a school with great success, and giving religious instruction in various ways at Tavoy, she was accustomed to make long and toilsome journeys among the mountains. In these excursions, assemblies of hundreds gathered around her, and notwithstanding her reluctance to assume what seemed like the office of a public teacher, she was obliged to conduct their worship, and instruct them more perfectly in the Christian faith. In April, 1834, she became the wife of Dr. Judson. Her subsequent life was less eventful, but it was filled with steady, quiet usefulness. She was perfectly familiar with the Burmese language, and skilful in the use of it. She translated into it the first part of Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress," and various tracts, prepared a hymn book, several volumes of Scripture questions for Sunday schools, and, as one of the last works of her life, a series of Sunday cards.
Before the Peguans had a missionary, she acquired their language, and translated or superintended the translation of the New Testament and the principal Burman tracts into the Peguan tongue. In these useful labors she continued till 1845, when her shattered health compelled her to attempt a voyage to America in the hope of its restoration, but she sank before its completion. A memoir of her life was written by Mrs. Emily C. Judson (18mo, New York, 1850). IV. Emily Chubbuck, third wife of Adoniram Judson, born in Eaton, Madison co., N. Y., Aug. 22,1817, died June 1,1854. Though her opportunities of early culture were extremely limited, she made much progress in learning. At the age of 14 she took charge of a district school, and continued teaching, with very brief intervals, until the age of 23, contributing in the mean time a number of pieces in prose and poetry to the village newspapers. In 1840 she entered the Utica female seminary as a pupil, but was soon transferred to the office of teacher. She began her career of formal authorship by writing several Sunday school books ("Charles Linn," "Allen Lucas," &c), which, however, yielded little pecuniary remuneration.
Charged with the support of her aged parents, she turned to other sources, and in 1844 addressed a playful letter, under the assumed name of Fanny Forester, to Messrs. Morris and Willis, editors of the New York "Evening Mirror," proposing contributions to that journal. She soon after became a regular contributor to several periodicals, and a brilliant literary career was opening before her, when a new direction was given to her destiny by her marriage with the Rev. Dr. Judson, in June, 1846, and their departure for India in July following. She remained in Burmah until January, 1851, when, learning the death of her husband, she returned to America. While in Rangoon she wrote the memoir of Mrs. Sarah B. Judson, and in Maulmain composed some of her best poems connected with her personal history. She returned with a broken constitution, but devoted herself to the care of her children and of her aged parents, and to her literary labors. She prepared and arranged the papers for Dr. Wayland's life of Dr. Judson, and collected her poems, which were published under the title of " Olio of Domestic Verses." Her other works are " The Kathayan Slave," a collection of missionary writings in prose and verse, and " My Two Sisters." Her magazine tales and sketches had been collected and published before she left America, under the title of " Alderbrook." A memoir of her life was written by Dr. A. C. Kendrick (12mo, New York, 1858). The " Lives of the Three Mrs. Judson," by Mrs. A. M. Wilson, was published in New York in 1851-'5.