I. Francois Christophe, duke of Valmy, a French soldier, born in Strasburg, May 30, 1735, died in Paris, Sept. 12, 1820. Enlisting as a private in 1752, he served during the seven years' war and obtained the rank of captain. In 1771 he was among the French officers sent to Poland to assist the confederates of Bar, and fought bravely. In 1785 he had reached the rank of brigadier general. On the breaking out of the revolution he espoused the popular cause, and in 1791 was appointed to the command of the army in Alsace. He succeeded in keeping the Austrians from that province and Lorraine; and having joined Du-mouriez, he shared in the victory of Valmy (Sept. 20, 1792), by which the Prussians were expelled from the French territory. In 1793 he commanded the army of the Alps, and defeated the Piedmontese, thus bringing about the surrender of Lyons. Becoming unacceptable to the commissioners of the convention, he was dismissed from his command, arrested, and imprisoned for 13 months. After the 9th Thermidor, being reinstated in command of the army of the Alps, which amounted to but 47,000 men, he successfully opposed the repeated attacks of 150,000 Piedmontese and Austrian troops.

In the following year he received an appointment in the military bureau at Paris. Bonaparte, after the 18th Bru-maire, made him a senator; and on the establishment of the empire he was made a marshal, received the title of duke of Valmy, and held important commands from 1804-to 1813. On the restoration he evinced his readiness to serve the Bourbons, and took a seat in the chamber of peers, where he favored liberal measures. II. Francois Etienne, son of the preceding, born in Metz in 1770, died June 2, 1835. He early received a commission in a cavalry regiment. In 1791 he was attached to the embassy of the chevalier de Ternant in the United States, where he spent two years. He returned to France to become aide-de-camp to his father, and lost his post after the siege of Lyons; but his well known patriotism saved him from imprisonment, and he reentered the army as a private. On the 9th Thermidor he resumed his former rank, served as adjutant general under Bonaparte in 1796, and afterward, under Massena, distinguished himself at Bassano, Arcole, and elsewhere, was sent to Paris to present the standards taken from the enemy to the directorial government, and was appointed brigadier general.

In 1800 he accompanied the first consul to Italy at the head of a brigade of cavalry, and participated in the battle of Marengo, where by a well timed charge he decided the victory; he was rewarded by promotion to the rank of general of division. In 1805 he fought brilliantly at Auster-litz, where he was severely wounded. He served in Portugal and Spain from 1807 to 1812, in Germany in 1813, and in France in 1814, and finally distinguished himself in the engagements that preceded the battle of Waterloo. On the return of the Bourbons he withdrew from the service.' He succeeded his father as a peer, and like him inclined to liberal opinions. He wrote two pamphlets about the battle of Marengo, and left Memoires, upon which his son constructed a history of the campaign of 1800.