I. Charles, an English clergyman, born at Holne, Devonshire, June 12,1819. He is the son of the Rev. Dr. Kingsley, rector of St. Luke's, Chelsea, and formerly vicar of Holne. In his 14th year he was placed under the care of the Rev. Derwent Coleridge, at Ottley St. John, and at the age of 20 was sent to King's college, London, whence in 1840 he removed to Magdalen college, Cambridge. He took his bachelor's degree in 1842. After a few months' study of the law he entered the church, and in 1844 was presented to the living of Eversley in Hampshire, of which parish he had previously been curate. From the commencement of his labors in the ministry he has taken part in various efforts to ameliorate the condition of the working classes, and his " Twenty-five Village Sermons " (1844), addressed to the rustic people who formed the bulk of his parishioners, won the sympathies of those for whose benefit they were intended. His " Saint's Tragedy" (1848), a dramatic poem founded on the history of Elizabeth of Hungary, attracted attention not less from its literary merits than from its supposed enunciation of the doctrines of what was known as " Christian socialism." The revelations subsequently made by Mr. Henry Mayhew in his series of papers on " London Labor and the London Poor" caused him to join the Rev. Mr. Maurice and others in a series of interviews with artisans and laborers, the result of which was the establishment among them of cooperative associations, for the purpose of undertaking work in common and sharing the proceeds.
Under the influence of these investigations he published in 1850 " Alton Locke, Tailor and Poet," a novel dealing with the social and political abuses of the day with a vigor and earnestness which gained for the author the title of the " chartist parson," and fully identified him with the theories of the " Christian socialists." In a pamphlet entitled " Cheap Clothes and Nasty," published just before " Alton Locke " appeared, he had urged that public hygiene and political economy demanded that no individual man should be condemned from his birth to physical disease and moral despair. The story of "Alton Locke" was an elaboration of this plea. In like manner his romance, "Westward Ho! or the Voyages and Adventures of Sir A. Leigh, Knt." (3 vols. 8vo, 1855), is an expression of his belief that a religious soul can be truly developed only in a healthy body. His prose publications, in addition to those mentioned, include "Yeast, a Problem" (1851); "Hypatia, or New Foes with an Old Face " (2 vols., 1853); " Sermons on National Subjects preached in a Village Church " (2 vols., 1852); "Phaethon, or Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers" (1852); "Alexandria and her Schools" (1854); "Sermons for the Times " (1855); "Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore," a little treatise on marine zoology and botany; "The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales" (1856); "Two Years Ago" (1856); "Sir Walter Raleigh and his Times; " "Good News of God" (1859); "The Water Babies," a fairy story (1863); "The Roman and the Teuton," lectures delivered at Cambridge (1864); "Hereward, the Last of the English" (1866); "The Hermits" (1867); "How and Why?" (1869); "At Last: a Christmas in the West Indies " (1871); "Plays and Puritans," and "Prose Idyls" (1873); " Westminster Sermons," and " Health and Education" (1874); and a variety of miscellaneous sermons and magazine articles.
As a lyric poet he has attained a high rank by a number of pieces scattered through his prose writings and contributed to various periodicals. A collection of them, including "The Saint's Tragedy." was published in Boston in 1856, and republished in London in 1857, followed in 1858 by a volume containing "Andromeda," a hexameter poem, and other pieces. He was appointed professor of modern history at Cambridge in 1859, and after resigning his chair was made canon of Chester in 1869, and subsequently of Westminster, and chaplain to the queen. In 1872 he became editor of " Good Words." In 1873-4 he visited and lectured in the United States.
An English Author II. Henry, brother of the preceding, born at Holne in 1824. He studied at Oriel college, Oxford, and passed many years in Australia. Returning to England in 1858, he published a novel of Australian life entitled "The Recollections of Geoffrey Hamlyn." Since then he has written "Ravenshoe" (1861); " Austin Elliot " (1863); "The Hillyars and the Burtons" (1865); "Leighton Court" (1866); "Mademoiselle Mathilde;" "Stretton, Hetty, and other Stories;" "Old Margaret" (1871); and "Reginald Hetheridge" (1874). He was for a time editor of the "Daily Review," and its correspondent in the Franco-German war.