I. Richard Payne, an English author, born at Wormsley Grange, Herefordshire, in 1750, died in London, April 24, 1824. Being a sickly child, he was not put to school, nor allowed to study either Latin or Greek at home. In 1764, however, upon the death of his father, he was sent to a grammar school, and in the course of a few years obtained a thorough knowledge of Latin and Greek. In 1771 he came into possession of a large property, and from 1780 to 1806 held a seat in parliament, during the last 22 years as member for the borough of Ludlow, in which he owned a large estate. In 1814 he was appointed a trustee of the British museum, to which institution his unique collection of antiquities, consisting chiefly of ancient bronzes and Greek coins, and valued at £50,000, was bequeathed. His admiration of Greek art having directed his attention to those subjects which illustrate it, he published in 1786 "An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus lately existing at Isernia, in the Kingdom of Naples, to which is added a Discourse on the Worship of Priapus, and its connection with the Mystic Theology of the Ancients" (4to). This work was privately printed, and was attacked on the score of its indelicacy, notwithstanding the author's object was simply to elucidate an obscure point in Greek mythology.
In 1791 appeared his " Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet" (4to), in which he broached some opinions of questionable value on the use of the digamma, and also exposed the forgery of certain inscriptions claimed to have been found by Fourmont in Laconia, and which had deceived Winckelmann, Heyne, and some of the best scholars of the age. He next attempted poetry, and published in 1794 a didactic poem entitled "Landscape," followed by "The Progress of Civil Society" (4to, 1796), "A Monody on the Death of the Right Honorable C. J. Fox " (1806-'7), and " Alfred, a Romance in Rhyme " (1823). In 1805 appeared his " Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste," a work characterized by refinement and acute-ness of thought, and which proved the most popular of all his publications. His edition of the Iliad and Odyssey, with prolegomena, in which he attempted to restore the digamma, and to relieve the text of the interpolations of later rhapsodists and poets, is now considered of little authority. The prefaces and descriptions of " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture selected from different Collections of Great Britain by the Society of Dilettanti" (fob, 1809-'35) were also written by him.
II. Thomas Andrew, brother of the preceding, a vegetable physiologist, born Oct. 10, 1758, died in London, May 11, 1838. He graduated at Bal-liol college, Oxford, and subsequently devoted much time to experiments in vegetable and animal physiology. Some suggestions as to the means of propagating fruit trees, communicated to the royal society in 1795, brought him into great repute. In 1797 he published "A Treatise on the Culture of the Apple and Pear, and on the Manufacture of Cider and Perry," in which the same subject is further developed; and in 1811, "Pomona Herefordi-ensis, or Natural History of the Old Cider and Perry Fruits of the County of Hereford." After his death appeared a collection of his physiological and horticultural papers (8vo, London, 1841).