I. A Central Government Of European Russia, bordering on the governments of Vologda, Viatka, Nizhegorod, Vladimir, and Yaroslav; area, 30,812 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 1,101,099. It is traversed by the Volga, which here receives the Kostroma and the Unzha. It consists of wide plains, little varied by gentle acclivities or river banks. There, are numerous lakes, of which the largest, the Galitch and the Tchukhloma, measure about 5 m. across. The northern part is comparatively swampy and cold. Extensive woods abound. The soil is generally fertile. Agriculture, the rearing of cattle and sheep, hunting, and fishing are the chief pursuits of the inhabitants. Cloth, leather, and iron are manufactured to some extent.
II. A City, capital of the government, on the Volga, 190 m. N. E. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 23,453. It is one of the most interesting cities of E. Russia, is the seat of a Greek bishop, and has about 40 churches, a number of convents, a gymnasium, a seminary, and a monument of the czar Michael Fedorovitch, the founder of the Romanoff dynasty.