I. Paul

I. Paul, a French novelist and historical and philological writer, born in Paris, Feb. 27, 1806. Under the pseudonyme of Le bibliophile Jacob, he wrote a number of historical tales and novels, in which he displayed much curious erudition. In 1834-'5 he published Histoire du 16e siecle en France, d'apres les originaux manuscrits et imprimis (4 vols. 8vo). He then produced in rapid succession an extraordinary number of novels, translations, and historical, philological, bibliographical, and polemical works. He has also been the editor of or a contributor to many periodicals. Since 1854 he has edited the Revue universelle des Arts, published simultaneously at Paris and at Brussels. He was appointed in 1855 keeper of the arsenal library, and is a member of historical committees connected with the ministry of public instruction. Among his later works are: Dissertations bibliographiques (1864); Un mobilier historique des XVII et XVIIIe sie-cles (1865); L'Histoire de la vie et du regne de Nicolas ler, empereur de Russie (4 vols., 1864-'8); Arts cm moyen age et d l'epoque de la Renaissance (1868; translated and illustrated, London, 1873; supplement, 1870); Mceurs, usages et costumes au moyen age et d l'epoque de la Renaissance, with 440 plates (1871); and La vie militaire et la vie religieuse au moyen age (1872). - His wife, Apolline Biffe, who was once an actress under the name of Pauline Derfeuille, gained some reputation as a novelist.

Among her works are Fleur de serre et fleur des champs (1854), Falcone (1856), and Madame Berthe (1857).

II. Jules

II. Jules, a French poet and novelist, brother of the preceding, born in Paris, May 7, 1809. In 1830 he published a translation of Shakespeare's "Macbeth," which was highly praised by literary critics. He subsequently applied himself to novel writing, in which line of composition he is more remarkable for bitterness of sentiment, satirical power, and intricacy of plot, than morality and chaste-ness of style. His five-act tragedy, Le testament de Cesar, was performed with success in 1849, at the Theatre Francais. In his Valeria (1851), another five-act play, written in conjunction with Auguste Maquet, Rachel filled two different parts. His literal version of Sophocles's CEdipus Rex was performed with marked success, Sept. 18, 1858, and obtained in 1862 from the French academy the grand prize of 10,000 francs. In 1868 his Le roi Lear, in five acts, in verse from Shakespeare, was successfully presented at the Odeon.