I. A S. E. County Of Pennsylvania, bounded S. W. by the Susquehanna river and S. E. by Octorara creek; area, 928 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 121,340. The surface is uneven, South mountain extending along the N. W. frontier, and Mine ridge passing through the S. E. part. The surface between these mountains is undulating and traversed by many small streams. Blue limestone, roofing slate, marble, chrome, and magnesia are found in the county. The soil is a rich calcareous loam. The Reading and Columbia and the Pennsylvania Central railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 2,077,413 bushels of wheat, 88,245 of rye, 2,820,825 of Indian corn, 1,943,577 of oats, 419,755 of Irish and 33,821 of sweet potatoes, 2,692,584 lbs. of tobacco, 20,092 of wool, 2,462,376 of butter, 82,614 of cheese, and 124,185 tons of hay. There were 21,409 horses, 2,504 mules and asses, 31,368 milch cows, 1,142 working oxen, 32,249 other cattle, 11,821 sheep, and 50,070 swine; 1,616 manufacturing establishments, having an aggregate capital of $9,504,162, and an annual product of $14,034,180. The most important were 24 manufactories of agricultural implements, 31 of brick, 90 of carriages, 9 of cotton goods, 13 of woollens, 32 of iron in various forms, 45 of lime, 13 of machinery, 2 of printing paper, 6 of patent medicines, 47 of saddlery and harness, 44 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 143 flour mills, 26 tanneries, 18 currying establishments, 12 breweries, 5 planing mills, and 11 saw mills.
II. An E. County Of Virginia, on Chesapeake bay and on the N. side of Rappahannock river; area, 161 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,355, of whom 3,157 were colored. The surface is nearly level, and the soil is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 12,978 bushels of wheat, 108,940 of Indian corn, and 22,544 'of oats. There were 560 horses, 716 milch cows, 1,473 other cattle, 700 sheep, and 2,913 swine. Capital, Lancaster Court House.
III. A N. County Of South Carolina, bordering on North Carolina, and bounded E. by Lynche's creek and W. by Catawba river; area, 690 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,087, of whom 5,924 were colored. The surface is diversified. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,872 bushels of wheat, 100,113 of Indian corn, 16,135 of oats, 7,933 of sweet potatoes, 30,292 lbs. of butter, and 3,414 bales of cotton. There were 642 horses, 725 mules and asses, 1,539 milch cows, 2,848 other cattle, 2,366 sheep, and 4,247 swine. Capital, Lancasterville.
IV. A S. E. County Of Nebraska, watered by Salt creek and the Little Nemaha river; area, 864 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,074. The surface is diversified and the soil fertile. Salt springs are found. It is traversed by the Atchison and Nebraska, the Burlington and Missouri River, and the Midland Pacific railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 133,187 bushels of wheat, 134,400 of Indian corn, 73,239 of oats, 32,118 of potatoes, 94,018 lbs. of wool, and 7,974 tons of hay. There were 1,614 horses, 3,022 cattle, 905 sheep, and 2,205 swine. Capital, Lincoln, which is also the state capital.