Language And Literature Of China. I. THE Colloquial Language. On the first access of Europeans to some knowledge of the language of China, the most exaggerated notions were formed of its eccentricity and of the difficulty of its acquirement. A more intimate acquaintance, however, tended to dispel the illusion, and to show that much of the singularity that appeared to attach to it was really due to the fact that the written medium preserved the key to that agglutination or word-building, the traces of which in other languages disappeared before those who used them began to put their thoughts on record. It is true the language has very marked peculiarities, as the following observations will show; but these are merely a special phase of the universal development of human speech, arrested to some extent at an early stage by the use of a written character. The neglect of most writers on the language of China to distinguish clearly between the spoken and written forms, has resulted in the most confused notions entertained by those who are not familiar with the subject.
That a close analogy exists between the oral and written media of communication cannot be denied; and yet it is equally true that their respective peculiarities are too distinctly marked to admit of the identification of one with the other. It is difficult indeed to believe that people ever spoke in the curt and sententious style of the books, and we have no evidence to prove a closer approximation of the two forms in any preceding age than we find at the present day. Be that as it may, it is easily demonstrable that in the oral medium as we now find it we have to do with a polysyllabic language. That a contrary view should ever have obtained, appears due to the confusion of ideas above referred to. It has been said, and not without a show of reason, that English is nearer a monosyllabic tongue than the Chinese. The fact that Chinese happens to be written in monosyllabic symbols does not really affect the question. English might be syllabically written with similar phonograms; and were these to a certain extent at the same time ideographic, the analogy would be perfect.
The following sentence is taken at random from Thorn's "Chinese Speaker:" "When a man goes forth to take a walk, his com-pan-ions may be pulling and haul-ing at him." Merely separating the syllables in this manner shows the whole theory of Chinese monosyllabism. Now look at the Chinese equivalent of this sentence: Jin chuh-lai tsow-taou, pang-yew-mun Ia-la-chay-chay. Here the groups connected by hyphens are as inseparable in sense as are those in the English version; and to dissever one of the syllables of pdng-yew-mun, for instance, would do as much violence to the sense as a similar operation on the corresponding English term com-pan-ions. In the various dialects there are many polysyllabic words for which there are absolutely no characters. The number of syllables in the language is, as might be expected, variously estimated by different authorities. Morrison, basing his system on that of the native dictionary Woo chay yun foo, gives 411 simple vocables; but taking into consideration the varieties produced by the aspirates, they amount to 533; and by the further distinctions of the tones, the number is swelled to nearly 1,600. Premare, in his No-titia Linguae, Sinicce, gives a list of 1,331 as the complete catalogue.
Gtitzlatf estimates the whole number at 1,781. Mr. Wade, who has given uncommon attention to the subject for more than ten years, makes the whole number of simple and aspirated vocables in the Peking dialect 420, while by the application of tones the number is increased to 1,454. Probably the number of syllables in the Nanking and western Mandarin dialects may be somewhat in excess of this. The Fun yun, a native dictionary of the Canton dialect, gives the number of syllables when affected by the tones and aspirates as 1,582. Drs. Maclay and Baldwin, in their Foochow dictionary, which is based on the native work Ts'eih lin pa yin ho ting, a dictionary of the Foochow dialect, gives a list of 495 syllables that may be formed without aspirates or tones; but that is considerably more than the number in actual use. Even admitting that a perfectly accurate estimate could be made, it would doubtless be found that the numbers vary considerably for different parts of the empire. Mr. Edkins, who has given more attention to the sounds of the Chinese language than almost any one else, tells us that there has been a considerable secular transformation going on in the pronunciation from ancient to modern times; many relics of the older language being still preserved in the local dialects.
The Mandarin or general dialect of China, which is that of the official class everywhere, is also the common language, with slight modifications, of several of the northern and western provinces. This is marked by the almost entire absence of consonantal terminations, n, ng, and rh being the only ones admitted. The provincial dialects of the south, however, have largely preserved the finals 1c, m, p, and t, and in one or other of them nearly all the letters of our alphabet may be found, either as initials or finals. It would be almost impossible to give even an approximation to the number of words in any of the dialects, made up with these syllables. In Stent's vocabulary of the Peking dialect, the most recent work of that class, the author says: " It does not contain all the combinations of characters, but a selection only of useful ones (amounting to upward of 20,000) sufficient for the use of beginners." It should be remarked, however, that while a large proportion of these are polysyllabic words, there are a great number of them also formed by combining two or more words. - No attempt having been made, even by foreign students, to reduce colloquial Chinese to an alphabetic system, the nearest approach has been to lay down two series of letters to represent the initials and finals, by which every syllable may be spelt.
The following two lists, with one slight modification, are those adopted by Medhurst in his Chinese dictionary, and are used throughout this article: 20 initials - ch, ch\ f g, h, j, k, k' l, m, n, p,p' s, sh, t, t' ts, ts' y; 55 finals - a, a, ae, an, an, ana, any, aou, ay, e, ea, eae, eang, eaou, eay, ee, een, el, eih, en, eo, eu, eue, euen, euh, eun, eung, ew, ih, in, ing, o, o, oo, ow, ue, uen, uh, un, ung, wih, uy, wa, wa, wae, wan, wan, wang, wang, wei, wo, wo, wuh, wuy, ze. One of the most important elements in Chinese orthoepy, and one upon which it is admitted to be most difficult to make one's self understood by a stranger, is the tones. These are certain modulations of the voice, which, applied to a vocable, determine respectively the different meanings of the word so spoken. The tones of the language have a history which shows a gradual change from ancient times to the present. According to Edkins, there was a time when the Chinese did not differ from other languages in the matter of tones. In the time of the Chow dynasty (12th to 3d century B. C.) there were but three, the even, long, and short, or 1st, 2d, and 4th of the present series. During the Han period (206 B. C. to A. D. 237) another tone began to make its appearance, the receding, or 3d of the category.
At some period not earlier than the 10th century, the first was divided into an upper and lower, thus forming a 5th tone; and so was completed the system we find in use now in the midland and western Mandarin-speaking regions. The 1st or even tone is the musical monotone, neither admitting of inflection in the tone nor variation in the volume of voice. The 2d or long tone is that rising inflection which is heard in our own language, in every question that indicates some degree of surprise, and in the common expressions ah! indeed! The 3d or receding tone is a monotone like the even, with this difference, that it is an inverted swell, and dies away upon the ear like the tones of receding music. The 4th or short tone may be regarded as an abrupt monotone, like the a in the English word rat, omitting the final consonant. In Canton all the four tones are divided into upper and lower, forming eight in all. In the Shanghai dialect there are also eight. In Foochow there are theoretically eight tones, but practically only seven. In the neighborhood of Amoy there are seven; and in the Hakka dialect in Canton province there are only six.
The most recent change among the tones is the abandonment of the short in the Peking dialect, where the words of that class are distributed among the other three classes, leaving only four tones now in that region. Gutzlaff thus divides the syllables of the language among the four tones: 1st tone, 533; 2d, 501; 3d, 519; 4th, 221. Besides the aspirates and tones, accent is also to be taken into account, as modifying the utterance of a word; particular members of a sentence, according to the dialect, being subject to this modification. - Chinese possesses a grammar, in which all the parts of speech are nearly as well defined as in that of any other language; but depending as it does so much on the value of position among the members of a sentence, it is less flexible than that of inflected tongues. Polysyllabic nouns are formed in various ways, among which are the following:
1. The combination of a root noun with a final particle, as yin-tsze, silver, where yin is the root and tsze the particle; jih Vow, sun, where jih is the root and Vow the particle. 2. Combination of a root noun with a personal suffix, as chob jin, master, composed of choo, master, and jin, man; nung-foo, agriculturist, from nung, farmer, and foo, person; fob-hob, butcher, from foo, butcher, and hoo, resident; muh-ts'edng, carpenter, from muh, wood, and tseang, mechanic; shwuy-shbw, water-carrier, from shcily, water, and show, hand. 3. Combination of a specific noun with a generic, as pih-shob, the cypress, from pih, cypress, and shoo, tree; le-yu, the carp, from le, carp, and yu, fish; td-le-shih, marble, from ta-le, the name of a place, and shth, stone. 4. Combination of a number with a root noun, giving a special meaning, as sze-pabu, writing materials, from sze, four, tmdpabu, precious objects (i. e., ink, pallet, pencil, and paper); pih-sing, the people, from pih, a hundred, and sing, surnames.
5. Combination of two substantives of allied meaning, asfvng-suh, custom; e-sze, meaning.
6. Combination of two antithetic roots, as tung-se, thing, from tung, east, and se, west; ta-seabu, size, from ta, great, and seabu, little.
7. Combination of two roots in construction, as swan fa, arithmetic, from swan, calculation, and fa, laws of; shoo-fang, library, from shoo, books, and fang, room. 8. Combination of an adjective and a substantive, as labu-shob, rat, from laou, old, and shoo, the genus mus; le&ng-sin, the conscience, from leang, good, and sin, heart. 9. Combinations of three, four, and more syllables are not uncommon, as mae-mae-jin, a trader, from mae, buying, mae, selling, and jin, man; wae-kwo-jin, foreigner, from wae, foreign, kwo, country, and jin, man. Adjectives are chiefly distinguished by the addition of the syllable teih to a qualifying root, as hadu-teih, good; pih-teih, white. Sometimes they are formed by the combination of two roots of allied meaning, as lan-to, lazy, from Ian, idle, and to, indolent. Ordinal numbers are formed by prefixing te to the cardinal, as san, three, te-san, third. The personal pronouns are wo, I; ne, thou; fa, he or she. The plural is formed by the addition of the syllable man, as wo-niim, we.
Verbs are formed by the combination of two or more syllables: 1. By a root and an auxiliary, as nd-lae, to bring, from nd, to take, and lae, come; ke-tih, to remember, from ke, to remember, and tth, obtain.
2. By two verb roots, as he-hwan, to rejoice, from he, to be pleased, and hwan, to be delighted. 3. By a verb and a noun root, as shwb-hwd, to talk, from shwo, to say, and hud, words. Adverbs are formed in various ways, by the combination of two or more syllables, as le-meen, inside, i. e., inner face; wae-t'ow.
Outside, i. e, outside head; ch' a-puh-to, nearly, i. e., differ not much; tsung-tseen, formerly, i. e., from before; mdn-man-teih, slowly; chang-chang-teih, constantly; ping-ping-gan-gan, comfortably; yih-tse, altogether, i. e., one arrangement; yih-ting, certainly, i. e., one fixed. Prepositions are sometimes monosyllabic, sometimes dissyllabic, as tung, with; choo-leaou, besides. Postpositions are of very frequent occurrence, as shang, above; hea, below; tseen, before. Most of the conjunctions of other languages are found in Chinese. They are either disjunctive, as hwo-she, or; or adversative, asjen-iirh, however; or causative, as ke-jen, since; or conditional, as jo-she, if. Interjections are very numerous in Chinese. To express aversion, they say pa-leaou-pa-leada; for sorrow, ko-seih-leaou; for commiseration, ko-leen; for surprise, a.e-ya. etc. In composition the adjective precedes the substantive, and the genitive precedes the nominative. The antecedent precedes the consequent; the verb is preceded by the subject and followed by the complement. The gender of persons is generally expressed by nan, male, and neii, female, followed by the syllable jin, person. For the lower animals tsze is used for the female and heung for the male.
Sometimes also kung is used for the male and mod for the female. For persons, grammatical number is generally expressed by the plural affix, mun, but it is frequently indicated by some expression in the phrase. Such terms as chung, a multitude, too, all, keae, altogether, tseuen, the whole, and to, many, indicate the plural number, rendering any affix to the noun unnecessary. The genitive case is generally expressed by the affix teih; for the dative, keih is prefixed; the instrumental takes the prefix pe; for the ablative fating is prefixed; for the vocative o is affixed; for the locative, tsae is prefixed. There are many other syllables used with the same powers. The moods and tenses of verbs are generally understood by the context. Sometimes for the present indicative joo-kin, now, may be introduced between the pronoun and the verb. An indication of former time, as nd-she, at that time, will express the imperfect. The perfect may be expressed by the postfix ko, or leaou, or wan-leaou; the negative is formed by placing mah-yeir before the verb. The pluperfect is formed by putting e-king before the verb and ko after it. A future is made by placing tseang-lae before the verb; yaou is also used.
The second person of the imperative mood is made by affixing pa to the verb; the third person may be made by placing yaou-tlng between the pronoun and verb. The optative is formed by proposing pa-ptih-tih or han-puh-tih. A negative imperative is made by placing pee before the verb. A salient feature in the language is the use of a class of words that are interposed between a number and the substantive with which it is connected, in the same manner as we use the word head in speaking of so many "head of cattle;" but whereas this phraseology is rare and exceptional in English, it is on the contrary of almost universal occurrence in Chinese. It is difficult to render such terms literally into English; but, to take an example for the sake of illustration, a Chinese, instead of saying yih-taou, a knife, or one knife, would say yih-pa-taou, one handle knife, pa being used for most instruments held by a handle. Again, san-t'eaou shay, three serpents, t'eaou being generally applied to objects where length is the characteristic. Chang is applied to objects of the sheet kind, as paper, mats, etc.; keen is applied to houses, leang to carriages, wei to persons, and ko, which is of most general application, is used with human beings and inanimate objects indefinitely.
There are 20 or 30 such words in extensive use, and a much larger number of restricted application. By European writers they have been variously named, classifiers, numerals, distinctive numeral particles, numeratives, auxiliary substantives, etc. II. The Book Language. A knowledge of colloquial Chinese is doubtless an important step toward understanding the written language, as theoretically and in the great leading features they are identical. Yet it is found that, even to a person well versed in one or more of the dialects, it is still necessary to make a special study before he can see his way through the native literature. Not only must he gain a familiarity with a considerable number of the characters, but the grammatical details have so much that is peculiar, that the application required is little if any less than what has been already spent in acquiring the spoken dialect. The more remarkable characteristics are conciseness of diction, the substitution of monosyllables for polysyllables, the employment of special particles, the absence of classifiers, and the more or less extensive use of stereotyped phraseology, consecrated by the usage of antiquity, and in many cases covering some recondite allusion, the resulting idea being such as nothing but the traditional explanation could unfold.
The S/wo-wan dictionary, which was completed early in the 2d century of our era, contains 9,353 different characters and 1,163 variants. This number has gone on increasing from age to age since that time, so that a recent edition of that work gives the number of characters in the language as 52,325; and even that number might be considerably increased were all the technical characters and variants included. Buddhism alone, we are told, has added 26,430, but most of these are confined to the works of that religion. The imperial dictionary of Kang-he, the most recent work of the class, gives 43,496; but when the obsolete forms and those to which no sound or meaning is attached are subtracted, the number remaining and in actual use is reduced to 32,873. It is not to be supposed, however, that the profoundest scholar is master of anything like this number; 10,000 or 12,000 would probably suffice to make an accomplished graduate. An official historiographer under the Han dynasty was required to know 9,000 characters. In the "Canonical Four Books" there are altogether about 2,400, and with the five classics inclusive the number only amounts to about 4,(500. With a ready command of 2,000 or 3,000 a person may assume a very respectable status in the literary scale.
Giitzlaff gives a computation of 24,235 as the number now in use. - Had we no historical data to guide us, an inspection of the structure of this vast mass of characters would naturally lead to the conclusion that they were not the result of a simultaneous effort; and it becomes a question of some interest to know by what incipient stages the system began to shape itself, and on what principle the gradual accretions have been going on from age to age. In reply to such questionings many of the natives have occupied themselves in the most profound researches regarding the characters; and according to the generally received theory, the whole system may be classed in six categories, i. e., the luh shoo, or six classes of characters. The first of these is called l'eang-hing, or hieroglyphs. These were termed wan, or figures, being the simplest forms, and were intended to represent visible objects, as jih, the sun; muh, eye; k'ow, mouth. The earliest efforts of this kind are probably all lost sight of for many ages past; .but the most ancient examples that have come down to us, in the grotesque figures on the bronzes of the Shang and Chow dynasties, give some faint resemblance to the objects they are intended to represent. The second class is termed che-sze, or indicatives, and these! show the first tendency toward the expression of abstract ideas, pointing to some property or condition; as__shang, above; hea, below; san, three. In the third class, hwuy-e, or composites, the first attempt appears to represent figurative ideas, by the combination of two or more hieroglyphs; as ming, bright, formed by the combination of sun and moon. These were termed tsze, or derivatives, in contradistinction to the simpler wan, or figures. In the fourth class, called heaeshlng, or phonetics, we have a still further development of the graphic art, and the first approach toward an alphabetic symbolism. In this division one part of the character is hieroglyphic or ideographic, and the other merely represents the final sound, as in keang and ho, both signifying river. The same hieroglyph, shwuy, or water, is the generic idea in both, and gives no clue to the sound; while in the first the accessory kung, work, and in the second ko, can, are simply phonetic elements, and add nothing to the meaning. The very inadequate resources of the three previous classes to supply the necessities of a moderately developed literature, may be seen in the fact that this class is reputed to contain no fewer than 21,800. These four classes indeed include the whole of the written characters, and the two remaining divisions are merely special applications of already existing forms. The fifth class, called chuen-choo, or defectives, includes characters which have come to be used for others of the same sound, as used for ; yue, pleased.
The sixth class, called kea-ts'ay, or substitutes, contains those characters which, besides the primary and obvious meaning, have acquired a secondary and metaphorical sense, as . cWang, long and a superior; king, warp of a texture and classic. These classes, the tradition of which dates back to a considerable antiquity, are not always arranged in this order, which is adopted, with the explanations, from Twan Yuh-tsae, one of the most erudite scholars of the present dynasty. Some authors, however, only make the first three classes to affect the forms of the characters, and the other three the sounds. Others again consider all the six classes as referring to the forms. - Apart from the elementary composition of the characters, there has been a great diversity in the modes of writing the same, from ancient to modern times. Some native authors enumerate as many as 30 different styles of writing; and the Yu-che-sMng king foo, an ode by the emperor Keen-lung, in praise of his ancestral city Mookden, is printed in 32 different forms of Chinese seal characters, and as many of the Mantehoo; but the greater part of these are fanciful or imaginary. Some seven or eight will include nearly all the styles that have been in general use.
The invention of the earliest known, termed hod-wan, or ancient figures, is attributed to a sage named Tsang-hee; and under this term are included the semi-pictorial forms found on the ancient bells and vases. In the 8th or 9th century B. C. this was replaced by a different style, invented by one Chow-she, termed the ta-chuen, or greater seal character; and this in its turn gave way to the seaou-chuen, or lesser seal character, accredited to Le-sze, the minister of the famous Che-hwang of the Tsin dynasty (227 B. C). In these two latter styles much of the pictorial had disappeared. The Shwo-wan is a dictionary of the lesser seal character. With the spread of literature, however, and the gradual adoption of silk for writing on in place of bamboo tablets, the seal characters with their curved lines were found to be too cumbersome. About the end of the same dynasty (200 B. C), the Ie-shoo or official character was invented by Ching Mo. As the name implies, this was probably used in governmental documents; it is still sometimes employed for prefaces to books.
The hing-shoo or running-hand is an elegant form of manuscript, especially suited to the hair pencil, which was already in general use at the time of its introduction during the Eastern Han dynasty (A. D. 56-220). The invention is ascribed to Lew Tih-shing. The ts aou-shoo or cursive character is an extremely abbreviated hand, much used in rough draughts and daily transactions. It was introduced about the same date as the preceding, by a scholar named Chang Pih-ying. The k'eae-shoo or typographic character is the square form generally used in books and printed documents, which was introduced about the 11th century. The three latter kinds are in general use at the present day. Great pains are taken by the Chinese to secure the correct and graceful form of their characters, and the most minute rules are laid down for their formation, both as to the order of sequence and proportions, which are carefully enforced by the teachers. All the characters in the language are reckoned to be made up of the eight elementary parts contained in the character yung, signifying eternal, i. e., a dot, horizontal line, perpendicular line, hook, spike, sweep, stroke, and dash. There is a small native work containing 92 short rules for writing, illustrated by examples. These examples, with a partial translation, have been published by Davis, in the "Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society," vol. i., under the title Eitgraphia Sinensis. - Dictionaries of the characters are numerous, and, as may be supposed, it was necessary to adopt some artifice in the arrangement of these, in order that by a fixed method any character might be easily discovered in the mass. To effect this, a certain number of distinguishing characters were at an early age selected, to which all the others might be respectively referred. These are termed poo by the Chinese, which has been variously translated elements, kevs, and radicals. The latter is probably the most convenient term. The number of these radicals has varied in different ages.
The Shwo-wan has 540; the Yuh-peen, completed in 5.23, has 542; the Luy-p'een, by Sze-ma Kwang, has 544; in the Luh shoo pun e, which appeared early in the Ming dynasty, the number of radicals is reduced to 360; in the Clung yun wuy peen, published about the beginning of the 17th century, there are 239, and a supplementary class of characters at the end, not referable to any radicals; the Tsze wuy, which was published at a later period of the same dynasty, contains only 214; and the two principal dictionaries that have been published during the present dynasty, Ching tsze tung and kang he tsze teen (which latter forms the basis of Medhursfs "Chinese and English Dictionary"), have both adopted the number fixed by the Tsze wuy. These are divided into 17 classes, according to the number of their strokes. In the 1st class are 6 radicals, each composed of a single stroke; the 2d class has 23 radicals of 2 strokes each; the 3d class has 31 of 3 strokes; 4th class, 35; 5th, 22; 6th, 29; 7th, 20; 8th, 9; 9th, 11; 10th, 8; 11th, 6; 12th, 4: 13th, 4; 14th, 2; 15th, 1; 16th, 2; 17th, 1. These for the greater part represent elementary hieroglyphs, and are probably as judicious a selection as could have been made.
Goncalvez has reduced the number of the radicals to 127 in his Diccionario China-Portuguez, but it is doubtful if his system will ever extend beyond the work in which it first appeared. Most of the radicals represent generic ideas, and have been classed by Kidd under the following 10 categories: 1st, celestial objects, as sun and moon; 2d, atmospheric phenomena, as wind and rain; 3d, human properties and relations, as head and father; 4th inferior animals, as tiger, bird, and fish; 5th, elements of nature, as fire and water; 6th, terrestrial productions, as wheat and rice; 7th, abstract qualities, as black and bitter; 8th, weapons and utensils, as lance and dish; 9th, verbs, as to walk and to follow; 10th, miscellaneous terms, as error and garments. Under one or other of these heads every character in the language is to be found, and in very many instances the radical gives the generic idea of the special character sought. The radicals do not hold any uniform position in the characters. Some are placed on the right side, some on the left, some at the top, some at the bottom, some in the middle, some on both sides, some surrounding the supplementary part, some embracing the top and right side, some the top and left side, some the left side and bottom, some at one of the corners, and a number of others promiscuously placed; all which must be learned from practice.
Many of them are very much abbreviated and altered in form when used in composition, so as scarcely to bear any resemblance to the isolated figures. Under each radical in the dictionary, the related characters are arranged seriatim, according to the number of additional strokes; so that having discovered the radical and counted the number of extra strokes, it is in most cases a very simple process to pick out the character in question. There is a great difference in the number of characters attached to the various radicals. According to the Tsze way, which contains about 30,000 characters, the 140th radical, ts'aou, herb, has 1,423 under it; the 85th, shwuy, water, has 1,330; the 75th, muh, tree, has i,230; the 64th, show, hand, has 1,012; the 30th, kow, mouth, the 61st, sin, heart, the 38th, neu, woman, all have large numbers connected with them; and so on through the whole list, the numbers gradually decreasing till we come to the 138th, kan, a limit, which has only 5 characters under it.
The character having the greatest number of strokes is ping, the sound of thunder, the last under the 173d radical. yd, rain, being a quadruplicate form of My, thunder. In some works of a higher class, pedantic authors are in the habit of using strange and obsolete forms, in place of the ordinary characters. In novels and books of light reading many of the characters are so much abbreviated that a special practice is necessary to enable one to read them off with ease. In epistolary correspondence and other writings by the partially educated, it is a very common practice to replace the proper character by another of the same sound without regard to the meaning, thus moving unconsciously a step in advance toward phonetic writing. As it is a point of etiquette to refrain from mentioning the private name of an emperor, it has become customary to avoid writing the characters; and when one occurs, it is replaced by another of the same meaning. Thus the T^ung-teen, a work of the Tang, speaking of the famous Buddhist traveller Fa-been, changes the last character heen, meaning brightness, for the synonymous character ming, because heen happened to be part of the private name of the emperor Chung-tsung. Sometimes the character is abridged by one or more strokes, as in the name of the Kin dynasty Tartars, who were formerly named Xeu-chin; but the private name of the emperor Hing-tsung of the Leaou dynasty containing the character chin, the Chinese historians of the period omitted the two lower strokes, thus forming the character chih, and they have retained the name of Neu-chih ever since. Sometimes the character is mutilated without changing the sound, as in the case of Ning, part of the private name of the emperor Taou-kwang, which is now commonly written ning, with the same sound and meaning. In more formal documents it is replaced by a homophonous synonyme.
A curious illustration of the same practice is found in the K'ang-he dictionary. The character heuen, which formed part of the name of the reigning monarch, having been the 90th radical in the Tsze way and Ching tsze t'ung dictionaries, was promoted to the 95th place in the new dictionary, being the first in the five-stroke class. In common use, as in the name of the idol Heuen-te, it is often replaced by yuen.
The private name of Confucius was Kew, which in reading the Chinese avoid pronouncing, by saying mow ("such a character") instead. In like manner it is considered a mark of filial piety to refrain from writing the name of a parent; and some invariably omit one or two strokes when such characters occur. - The Chinese write in vertical columns, following from right to left, and it is customary in the better class of works to raise the name of the dynasty a character above the other columns; even should it occur anywhere in the middle of a column, that column is abruptly broken off, and the imperial character carried up to commence another, while the sense of the passage is continuous, as if there were no break. The title or functions of the emperor are raised two characters above the other columns, and the titles of the imperial ancestors are raised three characters. In inscriptions and documents, the mention of an emperor is frequently preceded by a blank of two characters' length, as may be seen in the famous Nestorian inscription at Se-gan. The Taiping rebels, jn their proclamations, were accustomed to elevate the title of the heir apparent one character, the designation of Jesus Christ, and also the chief Hung Sew-tseuen, two characters, and that of God the Father three characters above the other columns. - The prevalence of monosyllables in the written language has been referred to.
Thus, for the word silver, instead of yin-tsze of the colloquial, yin alone is used; for sun, instead of jih-tow, the syllable jih is used; instead of choo-jin for master, choo is used. For the verb ke-tih, to remember, he is employed; and hwan, to rejoice, takes the place of he-hwun of the colloquial. Another peculiarity of the written language is the capability of some of the characters assuming the role of different parts of speech, according to the positions they occupy in a sentence. Thus the same character represents the verb shih, to eat, and the noun sze, food; another represents yd, music, and lo, to delight in; e in the first tone signifies garments, while the same character pronounced in the third tone means to dress. In classical books we find a character undergoing an analogous change of meaning even without any alteration in the pronunciation; as laou, meaning old and to treat one as due to age; also yew, young and to treat one as due to youth. This peculiarity extends to other parts of speech also, as e, strange and to be astonished. - All the cases of nouns may be indicated by position, and the oblique cases also by certain particles. The genitive is preceded by che. The dative is preceded by yu or hoo following a verb. The accusative is preceded by e, yu, or hoo.
The vocative is followed by hoo. The ablative is preceded by yu, hoo, tsze, or tsung. The locative is preceded by yu, or followed by chung, nuy, keen, che-chung, che-nuy, or che-Tc'een. The instrumental is preceded by e. Moods and tenses of verbs are generally indicated by the general construction of a sentence, though particles also are sometimes used. Past time is indicated by the prepositions tsung, chung, he, Icing, and e. Occasionally ts'eung is employed to mark the future. Pronouns are sparingly used, unless the sense or the rhythm actually requires them. The first person is often replaced by a term of humiliation, as yu, the stupid one; while a term of exaltation is used to replace the second person. When the pronoun yu, I, has to be written or printed, it is often put in smaller type than the other characters, as a mark of humility; just the reverse of our English practice. III. Literature. It has been said that the Chinese have the most extensive literature of any nation in the world; and it is certain that in no other are the records so continuous and complete for a period ranging over 2,000 years.
The very earliest fragments that have any claim to genuineness do not extend higher than the first thousand years B. C., and it is not till the latter part of that period that we meet with any noticeable list of authors. The works of Confucius then come before us; also several of the great writers of the school of Taou, some famous moralists and writers on the military art. The mechanical appliances in aid of literature at that time, however, must have been sorely discouraging to authorship. Even several centuries subsequent to Confucius slips of bamboo Mere still used, on which the characters were scratched or engraved. These were gradually superseded by the silk texture, and in the beginning of the 2d century of our era paper was invented, the pencil having already been brought to a considerable degree of perfection. More than two centuries before Christ, history speaks of an effort made by the first monarch of the Tsin dynasty to destroy the great body of the existing literature, his decree exempting only writings on medicine, divination, husbandry, and the annals of his own house. The decree was supposed to be executed, and entailed at the same time the death of a great number of scholars.
In 190 B. C. the law for the suppression of literary works was repealed by the emperor of the Han then reigning, and a stimulus was given to learning. The historian of the Western Han, which came to an end in A. D. 24, gives a catalogue of works in the imperial library, comprising classics, philosophy, poetry, military tactics, mathematics, and medicine, consisting of 11,292 sections, by more than 500 authors. Works were then written on scrolls, and continued to be so down to the 10th or 11th century, when printing came into general use, and the huge piles of manuscript rolls gradually dwindled down to the dimensions of a few antiquarian curiosities. It has frequently been asserted that there is nothing in Chinese books to repay the trouble of learning to decipher them; and in view of the protracted study necessary to acquire a competent familiarity with the subject, there is a certain amount of truth in the statement. It should, however, be noted that the books of the Chinese have not had fair play at the hands of Europeans; and too frequently it happens that, either from want of the requisite attainments on the part of the translator, or from a desire to hold up to ridicule a subject uncongenial to his taste, translations and quotations have been little better than caricatures.
At the same time, it must be admitted that some translations have been very favorably received by western scholars, and give the earnest of much that may yet be discovered in this unexplored mine. - In taking a rapid review of the literary productions of the empire, it will bo convenient mainly to follow the order and classification generally adopted by native writers, and to commence with what are termed the King, or "Classics," which are supposed to have been written by or to have passed under the revising hand of Confucius, These are held in the highest reverence, and looked upon as the standard from which there is no appeal. They are five in number, and four of them at least, there is good reason to believe, passed through the hands of the sage in one form or another. One, the history of his native state, is said to be his own composition; but another, the "Book of Rites," appears in such a fragmentary state, that it is thought by critics to be a compilation by some scholar during the Han dynasty. The earliest of these, the Yih-king, is a veritable mystery. The nucleus of the work is a series of figures composed of whole and bisected lines. These were at first eight in number, and attributed to the legendary sage Fuh-he, each consisting of three lines.
Ranged in octagon form, these eight trigrams are very extensively used as decorative objects, on dishes, vases, bells, utensils, the lintels of doors, the gables of houses, the ceilings of rooms, and a numberless variety of other positions, being rated to comprise a vast amount of hidden wisdom. Their names are keen, heaven; t'uy, vapor; le, fire; chin, thunder; sun, wind; Van, water; kan, mountain; kwan, earth. These are variously looked upon, as the heads of categories, the rudiments of written language, or symbols of philosophic systems. By squaring the number, 64 were produced, each formed of two of the original trigrams, superposed one on the other, and each one having a separate name. These hexagrams, which are assigned to a later hand, form the themes of so many separate sections in this famous book. Wan-wang, the founder of the Chow dynasty, while in prison for a state offence, employed his time in studying these symbols, and appended a short text to each, under the name of T'wan. These are followed by remarks in detail on the several strokes of each hexagram, which are called seang (figure), and are said to have been added by Chow-kung, the son of Wan-wang. The additional portion of the work tradition ascribes to Confucius, being a kind of commentary, reflections, and apparently irrelevant remarks on the texts of Wan-wang and Chow-kung. Although more than 500 commentaries and treatises have been written to elucidate this strange book, it is scarcely saying too much to assert that none of them have succeeded in bringing an intelligible meaning out of it.
If there be any meaning at all, it is probably a work on divination or some occult art. There is a Latin translation of the Yih-Mng by Pere Regis and other Jesuit missionaries (edited by Julius Mold, 2 vols., Stuttgart and Tubingen, 18;34). The second classic, named the Shoo-king, contains a sketch of the ancient history of China, from the 24th century B. C. down to the emperor Ping-wang of the Chow dynasty, 721 B. C. It appears to have been compiled by Confucius, from the historical remains of the Yu, Hea, Shang, and Chow dynasties; but in the vicissitudes of the earlier aires it has evidently suffered much in its integrity. Tradition asserts that it consisted of 100 chapters as it left the hand of Confucius, but nearly all the existing copies having been consigned to the flames by Che Hwang-te, the book burner, the now existing copies are the outcome of the mutilated fragments and half-suspected versions bequeathed to posterity by the first three or four centuries of the Christian era. Even in its imperfect state, however, it is a most interesting document, and apart from its historical character, and description of the great flood, it supplies more than hints regarding the principles of government, astronomy, music, agriculture, and other subjects of great importance to our knowledge of those ancient times.
About 150 treatises, exegetical and illustrative, have been written about the Shoo-Tcing as a whole or in particular portions. It has been translated into French by Gaubil (edited by De Guignes, Paris, 1770; also in Pauthier's Litres sacres de l'Orient, 1841), and into English by W. H. Medhurst (Shanghai, 1846) and James Legge, D. D. (vol. iii. of "The Chinese Classics," Hong Kong, 1865). The third member of this pentateuch, the She-king, consists chiefly of a collection of ballads used by the people of the various petty states of China in ancient times, selected and arranged by Confucius, to the number of 311, of six of which, however, nothing but the name remains. The book is divided into four parts: 1, odes of the various states; 2, minor odes of the kingdom; 3, higher odes of the kingdom; 4, temple hymns. From these stanzas we get more insight into the life and manners of the people in the early ages than from any other work extant. They are simple in composition, frequently descriptive of rural and domestic life; many are martial odes, with covert political allusions, and hints at the prevailing state of society. Upon this also about 150 illustrative works have been written.
It has been translated into Latin by Pere Lacharme (edited by Mold, Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1830), and into English by Dr. Legge (vol. iv. of "The Chinese Classics," Hong Kong, 1871). The evidence for the Le-Tce, or "Book of Rites," seems less satisfactory than that for the others. Subsequent to the book burning merely scattered fragments of the original work were to be found, till Tae Tib. a scholar of the 1st century B. C., made a collection of miscellaneous pieces, to the number of 214 sections, only a small proportion of which, however, are believed to have belonged to the work of Confucius. He reduced the collection to 85 sections, which has since been known as the Ta tae Je. This was revised by his nephew Tae Shing, who reduced the whole to 49 sections, in which form it has been called the Seaou tae le, and has been transmitted from age to age as the Le-he, and by imperial authority ranks as one of the five classics, though secondary in grade. It is the most bulky of the whole, and is replete with lessons and rules for daily conduct, public and private, bearing throughout the theory that true etiquette is but the manifestation of rectitude of heart. More than 70 works are to be found illustrative of this book.
There is a French translation by Callery (Turin, 1853). The Ch'un-ts'ew, the last of the five, is the only one actually written by Confucius, being the history of Loo, his native state, from 722 to 484 B. C. As an incipient effort in the art of history making, it appears to have called forth much admiration and eulogium in early times; but, consisting as it does of a very bald detail of state occurrences, it can scarcely maintain a high position in the judgment of unbiassed critics. There are about 250 works illustrative of this text. (English, "The Ch'un-ts'ew, with the Tso chuen" vol. v. of "The Chinese Classics, by Legge.) Besides the special commentaries on the separate classics before referred to, there are about 80 exegetical works treating of all the five. In 1270 a work was published, called Choo tsze yu luy, in 140 books, consisting of the discourses of Choo He, as recorded by several of his disciples. From this Ching Chuen extracted and arranged the philosopher's elucidation of the five classics, which he published in 1725, under the title Choo tsze iroo king yu luy, in 80 books. The name of Choo naturally gives much weight to this compilation.
A sixth classic, under the title Yo-Tcing, or "Book of Music," is spoken of in ancient times as also the work of Confucius; but it is now lost, and the only vestiges on the subject extant are a section in the Chow-le and another in the Le-ke. - During the T'ang dynasty a compilation was made under the name of the Shih san king, or "Thirteen Classics." In this collection three of the commentaries on the ch'un-ts'ew were also admitted to the rank of secondary classics. Of these, the most important and best known is the Tso-chuen, by a scholar named Tso, supposed to have been a disciple of the sage. This is a narrative of events contemporaneous with the Ch'un-ts'ew, but so fully developed, and so much superior to the latter, that it has been said, "In no ancient history of any country have we such a vivid picture of any lengthened period of its annals, as we have from Tso of the 270 years he has embraced in this work." The other two commentaries, named after their respective authors Kung-yang chuen and kuh leang chuen, are much less known and read than that of Tso. The substance of both was handed down orally for centuries, but that of Kung-yang was put into writing about the beginning of the Han dynasty, and the Kuh leang chuen more than a century later.
They consist chiefly of scholia and expositions of the Text of the classic. A number of works have been written in elucidation of these three commentaries. Besides the "Book of Kites " above noticed, there are two other works of the same order, reckoned among the secondary classics. The Chow-le, or " Ritual of the Chow Dynasty," claims a very high antiquity, and has been at various times repudiated, and again accepted as genuine. The evidence now seems to be in its favor. It contains a full account of the government organization during the Chow dynasty, giving a catalogue of the officers with the functions of each. It is divided into six sections, entitled respectively by the names of heaven, earth, and the four seasons, the last of which, the winter section, was never recovered after the burning of the books, and has been supplied by another ancient document, called the k'aou kung Ice, or "Artificer's Record." In the Chow-le is found the type of the present six administrative boards at Peking. About 60 works have been written in reference to this book. (French by Biot, Paris, 1851; English by Gingell, "The Ceremonial Usages of the Chinese, B. C. 1121," London, 1852.) The E-le appears also to be of very remote origin.
The subject matter consists of rites of a more private and domestic character. The book is now little studied or read, although there are about 40 works on record treating it in detail. The Sze-s/too, or "Four Books" par excellence, having long held their place as secondary classics, are now far better known and incomparably more read than any of those above mentioned, being the class books of the schools all over the empire. Foreigners frequently designate them the "Canonical Four Books." The first of these, named the Ta-heo, originally formed part of the Le-Jce, but was separated from it by Choo He, who arranged the collection as it now stands. It consists of 11 chapters, the first of which is called the classic text, being the words of Confucius on the fundamental principles of ruling a kingdom, which he traces to the source of personal self-government. The remaining 10 chapters are by his disciple Tsang Ts'an, amplifying by quotations from history the sententious text of the sage. Several versions of the Ta-h'eo have been published, generally in collections: in Latin, by Ignatius a Costa (with the Chinese text, Keen-chang-foo, 1662; without, Paris, 1C)87); in English, by Morrison (London, 1812), by Marshman (with the Chinese and a praxis, Serampore, 1814), and by Leuge (in "The Life and Teachings of Confucius/' London, 1869)); and in French, by Pau-thier (Paris, 18:37). The Chung-yung is the work of Tsze-sze, the grandson of the sage, and is the most profoundly philosophic of the four.
It treats of the moving principles of human action, and illustrates the practice of virtue by an ideal perfect man. When all the passions and affections are held in perfect equilibrium, the heart is said to be correct. Besides other editions and translations, the Chung-yung has been published by Remusat in Chinese and Mantchoo, with Latin 'and French versions (Paris, 1817); and in English by Legge (London, 1869). The Lun-yu consists of a collection of pithy sayings and detached dialogues between Confucius and his disciples and others; apparently reminiscences of the sage and his teachings. There is much in the doctrines laid down calculated to fortify men in the practice of virtue, and we even find the golden rule of Christ expressed by Confucius more than once, though in a negative form. There are some things in it, however, sanctioned by this great teacher, to which a Christian cannot assent. There is a Latin translation in Confucius Sinarum Philosophies (Paris, 1687); German, in Schott's collection (Halle, 1826); English, by Marshman (first half, Serampore, 1809), and by Legge (London, 1869). The fourth of the " Four Books " is known by the title of Mang-tsze, that being the name of the author, which in European works is Latinized into Mencius. He is said to have been a pupil of a disciple of Tsze-sze, the author of the Chung-yung, and flourished during the 4th century B. C. He had much intercourse with the princes and grandees of his time, and appears to have been lively in his character and ready-witted in conversation, ever ready to frown down oppression and tyranny by cutting sarcasm and well-timed parables.
His work, which is larger than the three others put together, contains a record of his sayings and dialogues with various characters with whom he had come in contact; the main object of his teaching being to commend the practice of benevolence and integrity. He takes occasion also to aim his shafts at several of the heresiarchs of his time. Although, like many other philosophers in that age, he had a numerous company of disciples, he does not appear to have occupied that high position in the mind of his contemporaries which subsequent generations have accorded him. His work is said to have escaped the general burning, as being considered extra-classical; and it was not for several centuries that it was promoted to the honored rank it now holds. The Chinese text, with a Latin translation by Julien, was published at Paris in 1824. It has been translated into English by Legge (Hong Kong, 1861). There are 170 or more exegetical works on the " Four Books," and by far the most popular is Choo He's commentary, which is read in the national college of Peking. There is a Latin version of the whole, together with the Heaou-king and the Seaou-Jieo, by Noel (Prague, 1711; translated into French by Pluquet, Paris, 1784). The " Four Books " have been translated into English by Collie (Malacca, 1828), and into French by Pauthier (Paris, 1841). The Heaou-Tcing is a tract extolling the virtue of filial piety and inculcating its practice, and is reckoned one of the secondary classics.
It professes to be a conversation between Confucius and his disciple Tsang Ts'an, recorded by another disciple. Grave doubts are entertained as to its authenticity by many scholars. They say neither the style nor the doctrine is in keeping with its pretensions. Thirty or more exegetical works have been written on it. Besides the Latin and French translations before mentioned, there is a French one in Memoires concernant les Chinois (Paris, 1770), and an English one by Bridgman in the "Chinese Repository" (Canton, 1836). The Urh-ya, the last of the thirteen classics, is a kind of dictionary of terms used in the classical and other writings of the early ages. Tradition ascribes the authorship to Tsze-hea, the disciple of Confucius, and the nucleus of it is even said to have come down from Chow-kung, regent of the empire in the beginning of the Chow dynasty. The work is divided into 19 sections, according to subjects, as - 1, Ancient Terms; 2, Words; 3, Phrases; 4, Kindred Relations; 5, Houses; 6, Utensils, etc.; each term being found with a brief explanation in its own special category. The oldest commentary, by Ko Po, a scholar of the 4th century, is generally published with the text. Other works have been written on the Urh-ya, but none of equal reputation with this.
This is the type of a class of works which, though admitted as appendages to the classic division, are yet put in the lowest grade. Another work of some reputation, arranged on the same principle as the Urh-ya, is the Lull shoo koo, written about the close of the Sung dynasty. Although there are many cyclopaedias arranged on this principle, there are comparatively few works that we should call dictionaries. A more, general plan is to arrange the characters under a fixed number of radicals. Several of the best known lexicons on this plan have been already mentioned. The Chinese were first initiated into the science of analyzing sounds by the Hindoo missionaries in the 5th century, and the Yah peen is the earliest extant work in which we have the system of syllabic spelling applied. This system consists in the employment of two characters to represent the pronunciation of a third, the exponent characters being followed by tsee, implying bisection. The initial of the first exponent is then to be prefixed to the final, including the tone of the second. The result is the sound of the character required. From that time began the practice of indicating the sounds of characters in the dictionaries. A third class of dictionaries is those in which the characters are arranged throughout according to the sounds; a certain number of symbols being selected as finals, to which all others with the same finals respectively are referred. These dictionaries are first divided into four parts, corresponding to the four tones, and subservient to these is the arrangement of the finals. The earliest of this class extant is the T'ang-yun, a production of the 8th century, with a system of 200 finals. The Tsee yun che chang too, a small work by the historian Sze-ma Kwang, is the first of this class in which the Hindoo system was adopted. He employs 36 initials, under which are arranged, according to the four tones, 3,130 characters. The Le poo yun lea was issued under imperial patronage in the. 11th century, to rectify the disorders that were creeping into the rhymes at the examinations.
The original copy had only 9,590 characters, but in an augmented edition subsequently published the number amounted to 13,047. The Woo yin tselh yun, which appeared about the end of the 12th century, contains 53,524 characters, and reduces the number of finals to 100, under each of which the characters are referred in order to the 36 initials. In the 13th century, Lew Yuen of Ping-shwuy again reduced the number of finals to 107, and his system with slight variations has continued in use to the present time. The Hung woo citing yun, which was published under the immediate patronage of the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, reduces the number of finals to 76. Although this work is well known, it never came into general use. About the commencement of the present dynasty, Koo Yen-woo, a scholar of great talent and acquirements, wrote several small works of this class. P'Wan Luy, one of' his pupils, was the author of the Luy-yin. In this he makes a selection of 147 finals, and increases the number of initials to 50. He treats largely of the modern changes in pronunciation. The Woo chay yun suy, published in 1592, is arranged according to the 100 finals. The Yin yun thing go is a concise work of modern date, arranged according to 05 finals.
The Woo chay yun foo, published early in the 18th century, has 30 initials and 128 newly selected finals. The Woo fang yuen yin, a dictionary of the Mandarin dialect, published in 1710, has 12 initials and 20 finals. The Pei wan yun foo, compiled under the special superintendence of the emperor and published in 1711, is arranged according to 106 finals distributed among five tones. It is usually bound in 110 thick volumes, and is probably the most extensive lexicon ever published. The quotations from preceding works are extremely numerous and complete, far exceeding anything of the kind that had been done before. Works of this class are very numerous, and much more used by students than the radical division. - In the number and extent of their histories the Chinese stand unrivalled. Their dynastic history alone is a marvel. During the Sung dynasty the "Seventeen Histories," including so many dynasties, were published in a single work. Under the Ming a corresponding work was issued, with the title of the "Twenty-one Histories;" and during the present dynasty the "Twenty-two Histories" and "Twenty-four Histories" have successively appeared.
These are the work of nearly as many authors, the history of each dynasty being generally written in the period of its successor, with all the advantages of access to the national archives; and several of the authors stand high in the literary scale. The last named collection, beginning with the She ke, and ending with the Ming she, or "History of the Ming dynasty," numbers in all 3,204 books or sections, and averages probably two or three of these books to a volume. The whole are written on a generally uniform plan, though each differs somewhat in detail, and there is much diversity in the style of execution; Pan Koo's Ts'een han shoo, or "Book of the Former Han," for instance, being looked up to as a model, while scholars are lavish of their censures on the historian of the Sung. As a rule, each history is divided into three sections: 1, "Imperial Records,*' containing a succinct chronicle of the several reigns of the dynasty; 2, "Memoirs," consisting of a succession of articles on astronomy, rites, music, jurisprudence, political economy, state sacrifices, uranography, meteorology, geography, and literature, giving the state of these various subjects during the dynasty; 3, "Narratives," in which are included biographies of all persons of eminence, and short historical statements regarding foreign countries.
The She ke, by Sze-ma Ts'een, in 130 books, the first of the series, is much praised for its style, and is exceptional in its arrangement. Commencing with the mythical period of II\vang-te, it reaches down to the emperor Woo-te of the Western Han. A great part of the materials had been collected by Sze-ma T'an, the father of the author. It is divided into five sections: 1, imperial records; 2, chronological tables; 3, eight treatises on rites, music, harmony, chronology, uranography, sacrificial service, watercourses, and weights and measures; 4, genealogical history of the princes; 5, narratives of persons and countries. Much of the original work is lost. There are double histories, the old and the new, of the Tang dynasty, and also of the five dynasties succeeding, both of which are admitted into the standard collections. The new histories of both these are by Gow-yang Sew, a scholar of established reputation early in the Sung. In the Sin woo tae she, or " New History of the Five Dynasties," he has departed somewhat from the beaten track, both as to style and arrangement. He omits the memoirs altogether, and divides his work into five sections: 1, imperial records; 2, narratives; 3, researches; 4, genealogical registers; 5, appendix.
It was printed by orders from the emperor, after the author's death. Another class of histories may be termed annals, giving the consecutive run of events as a whole chronologically arranged. The Ch'un ts'ew of Confucius is undoubtedly the earliest example of this kind; and the next in pretension is the Chuh, shoo ke n'een, or " Bamboo Annals," which we are told was found in the tomb of one of the Wei princes, A. I). 284, supposed to have been there for several centuries. The record, which was on slips of bamboo, began with the fabulous reign of Hwang-te, and extended to 299 B. C. It is the general conviction that the original text has been long lost, and that the book now bearing that name is a fabrication. There are some things however that favor a belief in its genuineness. (French by Biot, Paris, 1842; English by Legge, Hong Kong, 1865.) The records of several of the dynasties have been written separately in this fashion, but the most celebrated production is the great work of Sze-ma Kwang, entitled Tsze che t'ung keen, on which he was engaged for 19 years, in the latter part of the 11th century.
This, with the various appendices, comprising 320 books, embraces a period from the commencement of the 4th century B. C. down to the end of the five dynasties preceding the Sung. A prefix to this history, entitled Thing keen wae ke, in 10 books, was composed by Lew Shoo, the associate of Sze-ma Kwang; beginning with the myths of the fabulous period of Filh-he, it ends at the place where the T'ung keen begins. About a century after the time of Sze-ma Kwang, the T'ung keen kang muh, which is a reconstruction and condensation of the T'ung keen, was drawn up under the direction of the celebrated Choo He. The first book only, on the principles of the work, is from the hand of Choo himself, the remainder being compiled by his pupils under his guidance. The whole is compressed into 59 books. An elucidation of this was afterward published by Yin K'e-sin in 59 books. Lew Yew also wrote a treatise on the principles adopted in the composition, in 50 books, on which he was occupied for 30 years. Wang K'ih-k'wan, in the early part of the 14th century, wrote an examination of the discrepancies connected with Choo's work. During the Yuen dynasty, Wang Yew-hed published his researches on the Tung keen kang muh. In 1359 Seu Chaou-wan completed a critical examination of the same.
Early in the Ming, Ch'in Tsie published his correction of errors, being the result of a minute investigation of the Kang-muh. In 1465 Fung Che-shoo published his illustrations of the Kang-muh drawn from other sources. About the close of the 15th century, Hwang Chimg-chaou dissected these last mentioned seven works, placing each paragraph under the corresponding part of the Kang-muh, when the work assumed the form it has retained to the present day, a very valuable compendium of history, the result of a vast amount of erudition. There is a French translation by De Mailla (Histoire generale de la Chine, 13 vols., Paris, 1777-85). During the Sung, Kin Le-tseang wrote an additional section, carrying the history back to the time of the monarch sage Yaou, and from that down to 431 B. C, where Choo's work commences. A further portion was afterward composed by Ch'in King, extending back to the fabulous era of Fuh-he. These two last portions were combined into one by Nan Heen in the Ming dynasty. In accordance with an imperial rescript issued in 1476, a supplement to Choo's history was composed by a committee of 15 scholars. Near the close of the Ming, these several sections were revised and published as a single work, by Ch'in Jin-seih, the national historiographer.
It was divided into three parts, known respectively as the introductory, principal, and supplementary sections. Having been again revised and submitted for imperial inspection, it received the imprimatur in 1708, and a new edition was issued in 91 books, under the title Yu p'e thing keen kang muh. The Fung-chow hang keen tseuen p'een is an abbreviated history in 32 books, by Wang Fung-chow, and embraces the period from Fuh-he down to the end of the Ming dynasty. Morrison drew his historical information from this work, when composing his "View of China for Philological Purposes" (Macao, 1817). The Kang keen e che luh, by Woo Shing-keuen, is an abridgment of the T'ung keen kang muh, from the commencement of history to the close of the Ming dynasty. A considerable portion of this work, from the time of the monarch Yaou to B. C. 722, has been translated by Med-hurst, and printed as an appendix to his Shoo-king. In this class of books, every year, besides being headed by the year of the monarch's reign, or some portion of his reign with a special designation, is also marked by two characters of the sexagenary cycle, thus providing a double check against error in the chronology.
This cycle is formed by the combination in pairs of two series of characters, one numbering 10 and the other 12. In the most ancient works the cycle of GO is never used for the years, but only for the days. In the dynastic histories it is used for both the years and days. In the Kang-muh it is very sparingly employed for the days. - A third class of histories may be designated "complete records," deviating as they do from the formal divisions of the dynastic histories, and paying little regard to the restraints of mere chronological technicalities. Dealing with every historical event per se, they bring all kinds of incident and information to bear on the matter in hand, regardless of contemporary questions which have no immediate bearing upon it. The histories of several of the dynasties have been written on this plan; but one of the principal works of the kind is the Yih she, a chronicle by Ma Suh of the present dynasty, in 160 books. The subjects treated extend from the creation down to 206 B. C. The T'ung che is a historical work belonging to still another class, which has been termed "separate histories." The plan is very much the same as that of the dynastic histories, but they are not limited as to the stretch of time they embrace, whether it include a great number of dynasties or merely one.
The work just named is a history of the empire from Fuh-he down to the Tang dynasty. The division of the work is into imperial records, biographies of empresses, registers, compendiums, and narratives. Matters of much interest are found in the compendiums. It was composed in the Sung dynasty by Ch'ing Tseaou, and is in 200 books. The Thing teen is a work not unlike the preceding in character, though some native writers place it in a different class. It also consists of 200 books, and was composed by Too Yew, a scholar of the. Tang. It is divided into eight sections, on political economy, literary graduation, government offices, rites, music, military discipline, geography, and national defences. It extends from the earliest period of history to the middle of the 8th century, and is a work highly esteemed by the Chinese. The Wan heen t'ung k'aou, by Ma Twan-lin of the Sung, is a work well known to European scholars, from the frequent quotations and extracts made by sinologues. It consists of 348 books, which include a period from the commencement of history to the early part of the 13th century, very near the author's time. He has expanded the eight sections of the Thing teen into 19, and added five more, on bibliography, imperial lineage, appointments, uranography, and phenomena.
It has been wrongly named a cyclopedia by Europeans. These three works are looked upon as a set by the natives, who call them the San teen, or " Three Canons." A supplement to Ma Twan-lin's work was completed by Wang K'e in 1586, consisting of 254 books, bringing it down nearly to the end of the Ming. This continuation was revised by imperial commission, and an order issued in 1767 for the composition of analogous supplements to the Thing teen and Thing che, which were completed, bringing the whole down to the close of the Ming. A second supplement to all the three was also executed by imperial commission, extending the details to the 18th century. These contain a great fund of valuable and interesting matter, but unfortunately the text is very full of typographical errors. - There is a class called "Miscellaneous Histories," as a specimen of which may be mentioned the Nan keang yih she, a work in 30 books, composed about the end of the last century, under imperial patronage. The subject is the unsuccessful efforts of the last three descendants of the Ming family, Fuh-wang, Tang-wang, and Yung-ming-wang, to reestablish the falling dynasty. It contains records of the princes and biographies.
Many eventful episodes find a place in this class. - Biographies, including autobiographies, personal adventures, and travels, form a very numerous and interesting class, and extend over the whole range of Chinese history from several centuries before the Christian era. The Kaon sze chuen, composed about the 4th century, contains the biographies of 96 scholars. The Thing tsae tsze chuen, the work of a foreigner from the west during the Yuen dynasty, contains the biographies of 397 authors and authoresses during the T'ang and succeeding five dynasties. The Mwan chow ming chin chuen is an imperial work in 48 books, containing biographical memoirs of all the famous Mantchoo ministers up to the middle of the last century. There is a similar record of the Chinese ministers of the present dynasty, entitled Han ming chin chuen. The Koo lee neu chuen is a biography of famous women, written by Lew Heang in the 1st century B. C. There are a great many female biographies published at various times. The Ta tsze gan sze san tsang fa sze chuen is a history of the life and travels of the famous Buddhist priest Heuen-chwang, but the book is very rare. (French by Julien, Paris, 1853.) The Se she he is a short but interesting sketch of the progress of the Mongol army under the conqueror Hulagu, through central Asia, as far as Bagdad, from the year 1252 to 1259. The narrative is given by Oh'ang Tih, an envoy from the camp to the Tartar court at Karakorum. This has been frequently reprinted, sometimes in a separate brochure, and sometimes forming part of a collection. (French by Remusat, Paris, 1829; and by Pau-thier, 1805.) The E yih lull is an account of an embassy through Siberia and Russia to the Tartar settlements on the Volga. (English by Staunton, London, 1821.) The Tsing hae fun ke is a narrative of the adventures of a notorious pirate fleet in the China seas. (English by Slade, in the "Canton Register," 1829; and by Neumann, London, 1831.) The Ch'ow jin chuen, a biography of philosophers in 46 books, appeared in 1799, from the pen of the well known scholar Yuen Yuen, formerly governor of Canton. Recently a supplement of six books has been added.
Besides memoirs of all the celebrated men of science in China, the last three books form an appendix, treating altogether of foreign astronomers and mathematicians; among whom are found Meton, Aristar-chus, Euclid, Clavius, Newton, and Cassini; and the Jesuit missionaries Ricci, Ursis, Aleni, Longobardi, Diaz, Terence, Rho, Schall, Ver-biest, Stumpf, Smogolenski, Kogler, Pereyra, etc. There are also a number of Buddhist biographies, some giving an account of the Indian founders and luminaries of the faith, as the Che yue luh; and others recording the lives of those who have attained distinction in China in the same body, as the Kaou sang chuen, and the supplement to the same. When it is remembered also that more than half of the dynastic histories are occupied with personal memoirs, it may be imagined how much reading of this kind is included in the national literature. - "Historical Excerpts'1 also form a distinct class, and although it includes some tolerably voluminous works, they are not so numerous as most of the other classes. As an example may be noticed the She wei, in 330 books, published early in the present dynasty, consisting of choice extracts from the national history.
As the term king was above explained to mean originally the warp of cloth, and metaphorically classic literature, so here the word wei, which is the counterpart of king, means originally the woof, and in its metaphorical sense implies the equal necessity of this to complete the great web of history. - "Contemporary Records " as a class includes the histories of various states holding an independent status beside the central government of China. Such is the Shih luh kwo ch'un ts'ew, a history of 16 dynasties that existed contemporaneously with the Tsin and Sung. The names of these states are the Former Chow, After Chow, Former Yen, Former Tsin, After Yen, After Tsin, Southern Yen, Hea, Former Leang, Shuh, After Leang, Western Tsin, Southern Leang, Western Leang, Northern Leang, and Northern Yen. The original work of this name, in 102 books, written about the 5th or 6th century, is lost; and the present work, composed during the Ming, is one of the most ingenious literary frauds on record. The Gan nan cite led, in 19 books, is an account of Anam, by a native of that country who sought refuge in China after having surrendered a city to the Mongol troops in the reign of Kublai Khan. A small class consists of "Chronicles of the Seasons," such as the Suy she kwang he, a work of the Sung, detailing the natural indications of the months throughout the year, with the particular duties attaching to each. - Geography is a very voluminous class, if we include topographical works in the designation.
The Shan hae king, or "Classic of Hills and Seas,1' is a small work full of monstrosities, and only claims notice on account of its great antiquity, as it is thought by some competent critics to be at least as old as the Chow dynasty. The Ta ts'ing yih fung che, in 500 books, is a carefully compiled geography of the empire, comprising an amazing amount of statistical information. The general plan of the work is to describe in succession the several provinces of the empire, noting the astrological division, limits, configuration of the country, officers, population, taxes, and renowned statesmen belonging to each. Under each prefecture and department there is a more detailed description of the various districts, descending to additional particulars regarding the cities, educational institutes, hills and rivers, antiquities, passes, bridges, defences, famous tombs, temples, men of note, travellers, remarkable women, religious devotees, and productions of the soil. A considerable section at the end is devoted to a description of the extra-frontier dependencies and foreign nations. This in itself is a huge work, but it sinks into insignificance when compared with the mass of topographical writings, which number thousands of volumes.
For each of the 18 provinces there is a Thing die, or "Provincial Topography," which may be considered a greatly amplified development of the headings in the last named work. As an example take the Che Iceang fung che, or "Topography of Che-kiang Province," in 72 books, which, although scarcely above half the size of some of them, is considered a very favorable specimen as to the general plan and execution. In this province there are 11 foo or prefectures, each of which has its foo che, or prefectural topography. Take as one of these the N'ing-pofoo che, or "Topography of Ningpo Prefecture," the first edition of which appeared in 1730, in 36 books. In this prefecture are 0 he'en, or districts, to each of which there is a he'en che, or district topography; as for instance the Yin he'en che, or "Topography of Yin District," in 30 books. These are by no means the most voluminous of the series, and when it is remembered that there are 207 prefectures and 1,473 districts in the empire, and that each of these with rare exceptions has its record, some idea of this mass of detailed minutiae may be formed.
But even this does not include the whole; for there is a very extensive series also of similar accounts of famous hills, lakes, rivers, and places of note, such as the Bohea hills, Pootoo island, Silver island, the Western lake at Hangchow, and others far too numerous to refer to. There are many accounts of neighboring countries also; as the Ch'aou seen che, a description of Corea written by a native of that country. The Chin la Jung t'oo ke is a description of Cambodia, written by a member of a Chinese embassy to that country in 1295-'7, and is now the only authentic account in any language of the state of that country in the ancient days of its prosperity. (French by Remusat, with a map, in Noutelles annales des voyages, vol. iii.; without the map, in Nowveaux melanges asia-tiqxes, 1829).) The Wei tsang t'oo shih is an account of Thibet. (French by Klaproth, Paris, 1831.) The Hae taou yih che is an account of Java and the Malayan archipelago. (English by Medhurst, "The Chinaman Abroad."Shanghai, 1S49.) The Se tsang ke is a record of the country and customs of Thibet, with an itin-erary at the end. There are a number of interesting accounts of central Asia by Chinese Buddhist travellers in different ages.
The Fuh kwo ke contains an account of the travels of the priest Fa-heen through Turkistan and India in the 5th century, where he went to investigate the state of Buddhism. (French by Remusat, Paris, 1836; new ed., with illustrations, in Charton's collection, 1802.) In the Lo yang kea Ian ke, a description of the temples in Lo-yang, the metropolis of the Northern Wei dynasty, is a similar account of a mission of Buddhist priests in the 6th century. (German by Neumann, Berlin, 1833.) The Ta t'ang se yih ke is an account of 138 kingdoms of central Asia, translated chiefly from the Sanskrit, by Heuen-chwang, a Chinese priest who had travelled through most of these countries, during an absence of 16 years from his native land. (French by Julien, 2 vols., Paris, 1857.) The geography of Commissioner Lin, Hae kwo too che, in 50 books, is a description of the world, first issued in 1844. The latest edition is enlarged to 100 books. A later production, the Ting hwan che leo, by Seu Ke-yu, formerly governor of Fo-kien, and now (1873) holding a high official post in the capital, though less bulky, is on the whole a much better account of the nations of the world. The maps, though very sparsely filled with names, are correct in the general outlines.
The Kicang yu le, a geography of the empire in 24 books, written about the commencement of the 17th century, is very useful as giving the ancient names of places at ditferent periods. - A small number of books have been classed together as "Official Repertories," treating of the numbers and duties of various classes of officers of the empire, such as the Leih tae chih kican peaou, in 63 books, which consists of a series of tables of the officers of the several departments of government, and the changes that have taken place in the names and duties of the respective offices, from the earliest times to the present dynasty. - "Works on the Constitution" comprise some very formidable productions; as the most voluminous of which may be named the Ta ts'ng hwuy teen, in 80 books, giving a development of the general principles of the government under the present dynasty. There is an accompanying section of illustrative plates in 132 books; and a very imposing supplementary section in 020 books, consisting of a historical detail of the changes that have taken place in the several departments of the government since the commencement of the dynasty. Separate works also exist on the governmental regulations of each of the six supreme boards, and also of several of the subsidiary ones.
A code of laws of the empire is published in 47 books, with the title Ta ts'ing leuh le, a book remarkable for the clearness of its phraseology, the reasonableness of its stipulations, and the general consistency of its ordinances throughout. (English by Staunton, London, 1810; French by Sainte-Croix, Paris, 1812.) - "Catalogues," under which head are included books on inscriptions, are also tolerably numerous. The catalogue of the Sze koo tseuen shoo library, with the historical and critical information appended to each title, forms one of the finest specimens of bibliography possessed by any nation. The Wan yuen ko shoo muh is a catalogue of the imperial library of the Ming dynasty. It was republished in 1800 in 20 books, a bare list of titles. The Wuh gan leih swan shoo muh is a catalogue of the mathematical and astronomical works written by Mei Wuh-gan, compiled by himself, containing much curious information on the state of the science in China. The Kin shoo muh lull is an index exjmrgatorius, in two parts, the first containing works of which parts only are objectionable and forbidden; the second consists of books that are condemned in toto. There are several ten thousands of volumes in all, chiefly written about the close of the last dynasty, and nearly all of a political tendency.
Other lists are in circulation comprising a long array of novels and light reading, forbidden in consequence of their licentious tendency. The most complete work on inscriptions is the Kin shih tsuy peen, in 160 books, a comprehensive collection from nearly 2,000 before Christ to the beginning of the 13th century of our era. The texts are given in extenso, and much critical addenda. - Although native scholars altogether exclude novels from a place in their literature, yet they are in fact a very important and influential class of reading, forming as they do the views and opinions of the large mass of the people on the history of their own country, being almost the only source from which they gather any ideas on the subject at all. They are not so numerous, however, as might be expected under the circumstances; nor do they to their readers lose any of their freshness with age. They are more or less colloquial in language, and are studied by foreigners as exercises in the Mandarin dialect. From one and another a tolerably connected view of history may be obtained. In the Fung shin yen c we have the adventures of Woo-wang, son of the founder of the Chow dynasty, about the 12th century B. C. The Lee kwo che embraces the last five or six centuries of the same dynasty.
The Se han yen e covers the first two centuries B. C, being the story of the Western Han popularized; and the Tung han yen e, which is a corresponding tale of the Eastern Han, includes the first two centuries of our era. The universally read and most popular story of the San-kwo che yen e turns altogether on the troubles that followed on the overthrow of the Eastern Han, when the country was divided into three states, embracing the period from 168 to 205. (French translation of the first 44 chapters, by Pavie, 2 vols., Paris, 1845.) The Nan pih chaou yen e describes the succeeding period, when the empire was divided between the northern and southern dynasties. The Suy t'ang yen e is a popular record of the Suy and Tang dynasties. The Tseen t'ang relates the downfall of the Tang dynasty. The T\ing woo tae chuen gives the latter part of the Tang with the succeeding five dynasties. The Shwuy hoo chuen is a tale of brigandage about the close of the 11th century; and the Shwo yo tseuen chuen is founded on the history of Yo Fei, a famous general of the 12th century. The Se yew ke is a mythical account of the adventures of Heuen-chwang, the Buddhist priest who went to India in search of Buddhist books in the 7th century.
The Kin ping mei is a picture of the dissolute manners of the age at the beginning of the 12th century. As a literary work it stands high, but is condemned for its immoral character. The Se yang ke is an apocryphal history of the expedition of the eunuch Ching Ho to subdue the refractory nations of the southern ocean, at the commencement of the 15th century. The Ching tih hwang yew kcang nan chuen recounts the adventures of the emperor in a supposed incognito journey through Kiang-nan province in the 16th century. (English by Tsin-shen, Malacca, 1840.) Life in the metropolis during the present dynasty is depicted in the Hung low mung, written in a very colloquial dialect. The Haou kew chuen (" The two Fair Cousins ") is a tale of social life. (English by Percy, London, 1701; French, Lyons, 1766; German by Marr, Leipsic, 1766.) The Yuh keaou le is also a picture of domestic manners. (French by Remusat, Paris, 1820; by Julien, 1804; English, London, 1827.) The Ping shan tang yen is more admired for the language than the plot. (French by Julien, Lea deux jeunesJilles lettrees, Paris, 1800.) The Leaou chae che e is a popular book of fairy tales, or rather stories of elfin foxes and such like, by P'oo Sung-ling, and published by his grandson in 1740. There are in all 300 of these legends, collected by the author chiefly from the mouths of the people, among whom there is a strong belief in the possession of foxes by these ethereal sprites.
The Kin koo Tee kwan is a small collection, as the name implies, of marvellous tales of fiction relating to ancient and modern times. The Lung t'oo hung yan is a series of causes celebres in the Chinese courts of justice, giving a curious insight into some of the more tortuous cases of jurisprudence among them. - In contrast with the preceding, there is a class of authors termed orthodox writers, who are deeme.d the special upholders of the doctrine of Confucius, and whose works are assumed to be the proper objects of study for all who aspire to eminence in the government or the school of the literati. Every age has had its men of mark in this school, and, comparing the writings of various authors, we find considerable latitude of views among them. Before the Christian era we have such names as Seun Hwang, the opponent of the views of Mencius regarding the original rectitude of human nature, whose writings are known by the title Seun tsze; Kea E, the author of the Sin shoo; Lew Heang, author of the Sin seu and Shwo yuen; and Yang Heung, author of the Fa yen and other works.
It would be easy to go on from age to age, quoting such scholars as Han Wan-kung, Lin Shin-sze, and a host of others; but the period that calls for special notice is the 11th century, which forms an epoch in the history of the orthodox school. The philosophic views first propounded by Chow Leen-ke were followed up by Chang Ming-taou and the two brothers Ch'ing Haou and Ch'ing E. The renowned philosopher of China, Choo He, was the pupil of Ch'ing Haou, and by his writings gave a lustre to that school of teaching, that has been able to bear down all opposition. These men thought out for themselves a system of the universe, and formed a theory according to which all nature was developed by a process of evolution from a primal monad, or even something beyond that. The writings of Choo on natural and ethical philosophy have had a wonderful influence over the native mind. In 1713 the emperor ordered a collection to be made of the principal of Choo's philosophical works, which were published under his immediate supervision, with the title Choo tsze tseuen shoo.
One of his most widely popular productions is a small work for the instruction of youth, entitled Seaou heo. (Latin by Noel, Prague, 1711; French by Pluquet, Paris, 1784; the first two out of six books in English by Bridgman, in the "Chinese Repository," Canton, 1837-'8.) It was one of Choo's pupils, Ch'in Chun, who first introduced the term Sing le as the designation for mental philosophy, and a number of works have been since written on that science. The third emperor of the Ming had a collection made of all the principal writings on this subject, embracing the productions of 120 scholars, which was published in 1415, with the title Sing le ta tseuen shoo, in 70 books. This was revised by an imperial commission in the last century, and compressed into 12 books, with the title Sing le tsing e. Several of the monarchs of the present dynasty, as preceptors of the people, have written hortative and didactic works, enforcing Confucian ethics. In 1655 a treatise of this kind, under the title King sin luh, was issued by the first emperor. It is divided into seven parts, and directed against heart vices. The Shing yn kwang heun, or "Homilies on the Sacred Edict," consists of 16 maxims by Shing-tsoo, the second emperor of the present dynasty.
A short homily was added to each of these by the succeeding emperor in 1724, and orders were issued to have one of these read and explained to the people of every district, on the 1st and 15th of each month. (English by Milne, London, 1817.) Several elementary school books may be mentioned as belonging to this class, small in size, but widely known and read. The San tsze king or "Trimetrical Classic," is a tract written in columns of three characters each, the subject matter including the elements of history, morals, and relative duties. Of this and the next there are several translations in English, French, and German. The Tseen tsze wan, or "Thousand-Character Classic," is a small work consisting of 1,000 different characters, said to have been thrown together pro-miscuouslv, from which the author formed this rhyme, in lines of four characters each, in a single night. (Latin by Hoffmann, Leyden, 1840.) These two tracts form the preliminary studies of the school room, and are memorized by the scholars.
Another little book which is in very common use is the Yew heo she, or "Odes for Children." (English by Bridgman, in the "Chinese Repository," Canton, 1836.) "The Pih kea sing is a mere catalogue of 454 of the family names of China, and is one of the elementary school books. - Works on agriculture form an important though not a very numerous class. Under this head native writers include the art of grazing, breeding cattle, rearing silkworms, and a variety of collateral branches of industrial science. A famous work of this kind is the Nung ching tseuen shoo, a cyclopaedia of agriculture, as it has been termed, in 60 books. It is the production of Seu Kwang-ke, an early disciple of the Jesuits in the 17th century, better known to Europeans by the name of Paul Seu. After a scries of pertinent quotations from the classics, he treats of the division of land, processes of husband- ry, hydraulics, including European methods, agricultural implements, rearing silkworms, planting trees, breeding stock, manufacture of food, and provision against dearth. A still more comprehensive work was compiled by imperial order in 1742, with the title Show she tfung kaou. - Medical treatises are exceedingly numerous and various in their subjects.
Medical practice in China, it is true, stands very low in comparison with European science; yet, considering the attention that has been given to the subject for 2,000 years, it is scarcely reasonable to condemn in toto their medical literature till we know something more about it. The medical art is divided by them into nine branches, relating respectively to the main arteries and blood vessels, their ramifications, fevers, female complaints, cutaneous complaints, cases of acupuncture, eye complaints, throat, mouth, and teeth complaints, and bone diseases. Each of these departments has its literature, while there are also very many works of a general character. The Tung epaou keen, a large work of Corean origin, embraces the whole compass of medicine, and has been several times republished in China. Books of prescriptions are very numerous. Materia medica has also received a considerable share of attention, as may be seen by the large work of Le She-chin, the Pun ts'aou kang muh, in 52 books, on which the author was engaged for 30 years, having made extracts from upward of 800 preceding authors.
It is in fact a kind of natural history, embracing the three kingdoms of nature, the subjects being arranged under the several divisions of water, fire, earth, minerals, herbs, grain, vegetables, fruit, trees, garments, and utensils; insects, fishes, Crustacea, birds, beasts, and man. It was written toward the end of the Ming, and several editions have been published during the present dynasty. The nucleus of the work is traditionally ascribed to the half-mythical Shin-nung. - Works on astronomy and mathematics, though tolerablv numerous, have a somewhat limited circle of readers, yet these are among the elite of Chinese intellects. The oldest work on this subject is the Chow pe swan king, a tract on the elements of trigonometrical observation and the rudiments of astronomy. It is thought to be a relic of the Chow dynasty. (French by Biot, Paris, 1842.) The Sin e seang fa yaou was written by Soo Sung at the close of the 11th century. The author had constructed a large celestial globe, with machinery to represent the mechanism of the heavens and illustrate the seasons, the whole set in motion by water power. The work named was written specially to explain the theory of these movements.
The Kih seang sin shoo, by Chaou Yew-k'in, appeared during the Yuen dynasty, and differed in several particulars from the orthodox views of the time. It ascribes the length of the day, not to the distance of the sun, but its altitude, and the heat of the atmosphere to the accumulation of air. The planets are made to circulate round the earth in parallels of declination, while they revolve round the pole of the ecliptic in tortuous paths. It ascribes the apparent increase in the size of the sun near the horizon to its nearer approach to the earth than when in the zenith. In other matters also it deviates from the received doctrines. On the arrival of the Jesuit astronomers in the 17th century, a great revolution took place in the native theories; the result of which was the compilation of the Sin fa swan shoo, in 100 books, about the year 1634, by an imperial commission consisting of natives and Europeans. It is divided into 11 parts, treating respectively of the elements of the system, standard numbers, calculations, instruments, general operations, sun's course, fixed stars, moon's path, nodes and conjunctions of sun and moon, five planets, and nodes and conjunctions of the five planets.
The Ptolemaic theory is still adhered to, but Tycho Brahe's discovery of the variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic is stated, and his numbers adopted for that and other elements, as also his solar and lunar tables. The European astronomers were received even more favorably on the establishment of the present dynasty than they had been during the Ming, and their influence is apparent in the great thesaurus entitled Leuh leih yuen yuen, compiled under the direct superintendence of the emperor in the first half of the 18th century. This is composed of three parts; the first, entitled Leih seang k'aou ching, on astronomy, has several points of divarication from the great work of the Ming. The obliquity of the ecliptic is given from native observation as 23° 29' 30", being two minutes less than Tycho Brahe's statement. In the correction for the sun's velocity, the new work takes account of the minute motion of the perihelion, and the epoch is changed from 1628 to 1683, but the Ptolemaic theory is still retained. In a supplementary portion, however, the elliptic orbits of the planets ,are suggested, and Kepler's law of equal areas in equal times is stated. The sun's parallax is given as 10 seconds, instead of 3 minutes, the old number.
The circulation of Mercury, Venus, and Mars about the sun is also named, but the whole are still made to revolve about the earth as a centre. The second part of the great work, entitled Soo le tslng yun, is on pure mathematics, treating of the theory and use of numbers, geometry, and mensuration, with a description of the European system of algebra, and tables of the numbers of trigonometry and logarithms. The third part, entitled Leuh leu clung e, is on music, including a description of the European system, by Thomas Pereyra. The Tsih yuen hac king is a work on trig mometry by Le Yay, finished in 1248. This is remarkable as being the earliest book containing the Teen yuen, a native system of algebra, about which a great deal has been written during the present dynasty. - Although nearly all the dynastic histories Have a portion specially allotted to divination, there are few separate works on the subject extant earlier than the Tang dynasty. From that time on there has been no lack of a constant supply, every age having added to the accumulating mass. Under this head are included works on astrology, geomancy, divining by the tortoise, by straws, by diagrams, and in a variety of other ways.
The Hee he peen fang shoo is the authorized guide to astrology, published under imperial patronage in 1741. The astrological portion of the almanac is composed according to the principles laid down in this treatise. - Cyclopaedias as a class embrace a variety of bulky works, combining to some extent the characteristics of our cyclopaedia and concordance. So early as the 2d or 3d century we find it was the custom to make digests of the national literature for the emperor's inspection, and thus originated the class under consideration. Methodically arranged according to subjects, under each heading extracts from former works on the topic are given. Some of the more important of these thesauri were compiled by imperial commission during the Sung dynasty, as the Sze luy foo, in 30 books, composed in anomalous verse with a running commentary by the author, Woo Shuh; the Tae ping yu Ian, in 1,000 books; and the Tsih foo yuen kwei, also in 1,000 books. The Yuh hae, in 200 books, was also published under imperial patronage in the 12th century. Even these voluminous collections, however, are but pigmies compared with the work that was carried through by the second emperor of the Ming dynasty.
With a printed library of 300,000 books, and more than double that number in manuscript, he conceived the idea of resolving the whole into a monster cyclopaedia. A commission was appointed to dissect the whole of the existing volumes, classical, historical, philosophical, and literary, embracing astronomy, geography, the occult sciences, medicine, Buddhism, Taouism, and the arts. Three presidents of commission were appointed, under whom were 5 chief directors and 20 sub-directors, besides 2,169 subordinates. The work was completed about the end of 1407, numbering in all 22,877 books, besides 60 books of contents, and was entitled Yung lo ta teen. A copy was made from the original draught, but the government was deterred from printing by the great outlay that would be necessary. Two other copies were made in the 16th century, but during the troubles that ensued at the close of the Ming, or previously, the original draught and two of the copies were consumed by fire. On the restoration of peace only one of the copies was to he found, and that was deficient 2,422 books. By this manuscript collection 385 ancient and rare works have been preserved, which otherwise would have been irrecoverably lost.
Many of these have been since reprinted. - Under the term "Minor Authors" are included a host of works, chiefly miscellaneous narrations, records of marvels, traditions, and anecdotes. A good specimen of the class is the Yew-yang tsd tsoo, in 20 books, written in the 8th century. It treats largely of the strange and the supernatural, but it is useful in the investigation of many archaeological questions. The Chue Kang luh, in 30 books, was written at the close of the Yuen dynasty, and contains a number of notices regarding the downfall of the Mongol empire. There is a good deal of miscellaneous information about the affairs of that dynasty, and some few notices relating to countries in the west. The books of the Buddhists alone would form a tolerably extensive library. The translation of Sanskrit works into Chinese was commenced in the 1st century, and continued almost without interruption till the 9th, during which period they added from 2,000 to 3,000 works to the literature of China; and some of these translations are now the only examples of the works to be found in any language, the originals being lost.
By far the greater portion of these belong to the three classes King, " Classic," Leuh, "Discipline," and Lun, "Metaphysics;" corresponding to the Sanskrit Sutra, Vinaya, and Shastra, including the Dhd-rani, or " Charms." The remaining are chiefly biographical and descriptive, including the Avadanas and Agamas. The Lalita vistara, a life of Buddha, has been four times translated into Chinese, with as many different titles, about the years A. D. 70, 308, 652, and one subsequent. An abstract has also been published under the title Ching taou ke. Besides the translations, there is a considerable body of native Buddhist literature, among which may be mentioned the Fa yuen choo lin, in 120 books, completed in 668, a comprehensive cyclopaedia of the Buddhist religion, detailed in 100 sections. - Among the writings of the Taouists, the Taou tih king of Laou Keun, the reputed founder of the sect, will ever stand preeminent. Written in classic diction, and embodying as it does some profound speculations, it has attained an exceptional reputation, and even the fastidious literati think it no shame to study the treatise of the old philosopher. (French by Julien, Paris, 1842; English by Chalmers, London, 1868; German by Planckner and by Strauss, both Leipsic, 1870.) Leih tsze and Chwang tsze are two works of the same school, named after their respective authors, who wrote several centuries before the Christian era; and the very age of their productions has insured them a certain degree of deference as ancient writers.
Later down in the stream of time we find a great deterioration in Taouism. Gradually its professors gave themselves up to the study of alchemy, the search after the philosopher's stone, the use of charms and amulets; rituals were introduced and images set up in the temples. Thus we have the Ts'an t'ung k'e, a treatise on alchemy written in the 2d century; and the well known work of Ko Hung in the 4th century, under the title Paou po tsze, is a treatise chiefly on the immortals, alchemy, charms, exorcism, etc, with a section on government and politics. Leu Tnng-pin, who flourished during the Tang dynasty, one of the reputed eight immortals, is also a name recognized in the world of letters. His original compositions are published under the title Leu chin jin wan tseih, literary and poetical, colored by Taouist views. The T'ae shang kan ying peen, or "Book of Rewards and Penalties," professing to be the work of the founder, appears really to be a production of the Sung, but the author is not known.
The object of the book is to elucidate the doctrine of future retribution, and it has attained a greater popularity than any other Taouist production. (French by Remusat, Klaproth, and Julien, 1816, 1828, and 1830; English in the " Canton Register," 1830.) - In poetry and polite literature, the writings of the Chinese are very voluminous. Their poems are most frequently descriptive of nature and natural scenery, domestic life, or the cares of the world. Martial odes are not infrequent. Epic poetry is almost unknown in China; but we find occasional details of historical events. Somewhat singularly, the Tsoo sze, or "Elegies of Tsoo," form a class by themselves. These are a series of plaintive poems mainly written by K'euh Yuen, a minister of the kingdom of Tsoo and relative of the prince. Distinguished by probity of character, he was the victim of slander by his envious colleagues, and ended his existence by throwing himself into a river. His fate is still commemorated in the dragon boat festival. His principal piece, Le saou, is a justification of his public character. (German by Pfizmaier, Vienna, 1852; French by Saint-Denys, Paris, 1870.) A good many commentaries have been written on the collection.
One of the best editions of the leading piece is the Le saou keae, published in 1741, by Koo Ching-t'een, with an original exposition. - Another class is termed "Individual Collections," containing the original productions of single authors. Writings of the kind made their appearance at an early period in the Christian era, consisting generally of postmortem compilations. In the 6th century these began to be divided into several sections according to time or subject. This has been a most prolific class, but one in which comparatively few authors find a place in the ranks of fame. In the bibliographical catalogues of the Sung dynasty there are not found a tenth part of the names of authors in this class contained in those of the Suy and Tang dynasties; and the catalogues of the present day scarcely contain a tenth part of the titles of those recorded as extant during the Sung. Among the most famous is found Le t'ae pih tscln, the productions of Le Tae-pih, the renowned poet of the Tang dynasty; also Tung p'o tseuen tseih, in 115 books, from the pen of the scarcely less celebrated Soo Tung-po, the Sung poet. Both these have been frequently republished with commentaries.
The writings of Luh Kew-yuen, a contemporary and friend of the renowned Choo He, were arranged by his son, and edited by his pupil Yuen See in the 13th century, with the title Seang shan tscih, in 28 books. This holds a prominent place among the elegant writers of the Sung dynasty, and consists of letters, memorials to the throne, records, prefaces and dedications, miscellaneous pieces, poems, sacrificial documents, epitaphs, and sepulchral inscriptions. The emperors of the present dynasty have distinguished themselves in this class more than in any other; and we have a bulky series from the different monarchs. Thus there is a literary collection of 17G books, besides another of poems in 28 books, by the second emperor of the line. His successor has left a collection in 30 books, and the fourth monarch has left collections to the amount of 166 books. Single poems should also come within this category, such as the Hwa tseen he, a love tale written in metrical stanzas. (English by Thorns, "Chinese Courtship," London, 1824.) - In the 6th century a new class of works appeared, which may be termed anthologies. The first of these was compiled about 530, by the son of the founder of the Leang dynasty.
It is named Wan seuen, and is still one of the best known, the contents being selections from all preceding writers of fame. The subjects into which it is divided are anomalous verse, poems, elegies, sevens verse, decrees, appointments, orders, instructions, essays, manifestations, statements, declarations, accusations, documents, memorials, epistles, notifications, replies, rejoinders, farewells, prefaces, eulogiums, commendations, contracts, historical relations, commendatory historical narrations, discourses, literary gems, admonitions, monumental legends, obituaries, laments, inscriptions, epitaphs, memoirs, dirges, and sacrificial orations. A notable work of this kind, with the title Koo wan wen keen, in 64 books, was published by imperial commission in 1685. It gives an uninterrupted succession of choice literary selections, from the time of the Tso chuen down to the end of the Sung dynasty. The annotations of five eminent scholars are appended. A huge compilation of the poetry of the Tang dynasty, under the title Tseuen fang she, in 900 books, was issued in 1703, by imperial commission.
Upward of 2,200 people were employed in making the collection, which they gathered from private histories, miscellaneous works, monumental records, and every available source, making altogether 48,900 pieces. The writings of Le T'ae-pfh and T'oo Foo hold a prominent place in the collection. In the 4th or 5th century, when poetry and composition began to be more under the restraints of fixed and conventional laws, critiques on poetry and literature first made an appearance; and to this class we are indebted for a fund of information on the history, changes, internal mechanism, and chief aim of this much cultivated branch of art. As an example of these works may be noticed the She heo yuen he hwo fa ta ching, in 18 books, by Yu Seang, issued in 1697. The various objects of the themes of poetry are detailed in the order of a cyclopaedlia. The theme is first explained, then its various applications, followed by quotations from the poets, the ideas embodied, and the application in the successive parts of a poem.
This is followed by a kind of rhyming dictionary, in which a number of quotations are given under each rhyme, and notes for the artistic management of the same. - In the last class are placed the "Rhymes and Songs." The tsze, or rhyme, is a composition between prose and poetry, in which the rhyme is repeated at the end of lines of indeterminate length, unfettered by the laws of versification. It first began to be used in the Tang dynasty, but is much more common in recent times, being generally applied to light and trivial subjects. A large work of this class is the Yu ting leih tae she yu, in 100 books, published by imperial commission in 1707. This is a comprehensive collection of the choicest rhymes, from the commencement of the art in the Tang dynasty down to the end of the Ming, comprising 1,540 articles, making upward of 9,000 verses. A list of rhymers is included. The Feuh, or songs, embrace dramatic compositions, these being in great part choral effusions. These are barely acknowledged by literary men as forming a part of the literature of the nation, although they are to be found in every book store.
A much valued work of the kind is the Yuen jin pih chung k'euh, or "Hundred Plays of the Yuen Dynasty," being a selection from the productions of more than 200 dramatists who wrote about that period. As a dramatic composition the Se seang he, or "Record of the Western Pavilion," holds the highest place in native estimation; and next to it ranks the Pe-pa-he, or "Tale of a Guitar." A well known collection of recent date is entitled the Chuy pih k'ew, numbering several tens of dramatic pieces. - It has long been the custom in China to publish large collections of separate works, under the name of Ts'ung shoo, sometimes confined to specialties, but very often ranging over the whole field of literature, and containing some choice or rare treatises in each department, according to the compiler's taste or fancy. These may consist of few or many volumes, some collections extending to hundreds. By this means many works are preserved, which would otherwise probably be lost sight of altogether. As an example of these, the Han wei ts'ung shoo is a collection of 96 works written during the Han and Wei dynasties, and republished in the Ming dynasty by Ch'ing Yung in the above form.
IV. Printing. There is reason to believe that printing by wooden blocks was known to the Chinese in the 6th century, though we scarcely hear anything of its application for four centuries later, till the advantages of the art became so manifest that we are told that in 932 Fung Taou and Le Yu, two ministers of the Later Han, memorialized the throne to have the "Nine Classics" revised and printed. The monarch complied, and in about 20 years the copies were in circulation. From that time, so rapidly did this stereotypography advance, that by the end of the 13th century the greater part of the manuscript literature of former ages was already in print. Some few specimens of the Sung dynasty typography are still to be found in libraries, but they are very rare. The mounted manuscript rolls seem to have been immediately succeeded by long strips, printed on one side, and doubled up in a succession of folds to a book size. This practice is still continued for the sacred books of the Buddhists. The next step in advance was the folded sheets stitched together in volumes, as is the practice at the present day.
In the 11th century a scheme for printing by movable clay type was invented by a mechanic named Peih Shing; we have a minute detail of the process, but there is no account of its having been brought into use; and it is not till the 17th century that we hear of movable type being actually employed in printing. A font of copper types was then made in the imperial printing office, and the Koo kin t'oo shoo tseih ching, a gigantic collection of books in 6,000 volumes, was printed with them. The types, however, having fallen out of use, a large proportion of them were purloined by untrustworthy officials, and the remainder melted up to conceal the fraud. In the following century a set of wooden types was made in the same establishment, for the purpose of printing another collection, the Sze koo tseuen shoo, noticed above, the printed catalogue of which contains about 3,440 separate works, comprising upward of 78,000 books or sections. The use of these types, however, has been very limited. At present the "Peking Gazette," the daily official organ of the government, is printed with movable wooden type; but both the type and the manipulation are of the clumsiest order, and the impression is one of the rudest specimens of typography that can be found.
The printing press has not yet been introduced there. Some private firms have used movable copper types for printing for nearly a century past, and in 1850 we are told of a bookseller in Canton who had cast 150,000 tin types from clay matrices. The specimen of them given in the " Chinese Repository " is very creditable to the artist. About 40 years ago the Rev. Samuel Dyer, of the London missionary society, initiated the use of movable type for China according to the European method. The same work was carried on to perfection by Mr. Cole, and subsequently by Mr. Gamble of the American Presbyterian mission; and so great has been the success of the latter, that not only are his types used by several European firms, but a considerable number of Chinese have also commenced printing with movable types after the western fashion. Some of the natives have also commenced type founding, and even the making of electrotypes. Books are thus being printed and newspapers put into circulation, and it is difficult to foretell what may be the result of this new impetus. V. Sinology. The study of the Chinese language and literature in Europe is almost entirely a growth of the present century, previous to which very few besides the Roman Catholic missionaries had any knowledge of the subject.
The first grammar we hear of was printed at Canton in 1703, in the Mandarin dialect, with the title Arte de la lengua mandarina, by Father Francis Varo. Bayer published his Museum Sinicum in 2 vols, at St. Petersburg in 1730. This contains a short Mandarin grammar, and another of the dialect of Chinchow in Fokien; also a Chinese vocabulary. Four-mont in France was engaged on kindred studies, and in 1742 published his Lingum Sinarum Mandarinicae Hieroglyphicae Grammatica duplex, which proves to be a slightly modified translation of Varo's grammar. Five years later he published his dissertation on the written language, Meditationes Sinicae, a work full of errors. Little else of a philological character appeared in the last century, and any slight interest that might have been created seemed to be on the decline, when Remusat was appointed professor of the Chinese language in Paris in 1815. The lectures and writings of this distinguished sinologue began to draw the attention of Europeans to China as a great fact, and to invest the literature of the nation with a new interest. His successor, M. Julien, has fully sustained the reputation of the chair.
The following are the principal works of a philological character that have appeared: Dictionaries. 1. In Latin. Dictionnaire fran-cois et latin, composed by Father Basil de Glemona and edited by De Giiignes (Paris, 1813). The first part of a supplement to this, by Ivlaproth, was issued in 1819, containing scarcely a quarter of the whole, but no more was published. De Guignes's was republished at Hong Kong in 1853, without the French, as Dictionarium Sinico-Latinum. Goncalvez, Vocabularium Latino-Sinicum (Macao, 1836), Lexicon Manuale Latino-Sinicum (1839), and Lexicon Magnum Latino-Sinicum (1841). Gallery, Systerna Phonetico-scripturae Sinicae (Macao, 1841), arranged on a peculiar phonetic system of his own device. Perny, Vocaoula-rium Latino-Sinicum (China, 1861). 2. Portuguese. Goncalvez, Diccionario Portuguez-China (Macao, 1831), and Diccionario China-Portuguez (1833). 3. French. Perny, Diction-naire francais-latin-chinois de la langue mandarine parlee (Paris, 1869), with an appendix as large (1872). 4. Russian. Grafitchcskaya sistema kitaiskikh ieroglifov (St. Petersburg, 1867); Esaiya, Rusko-kitaiski slovar (Peking, 1867), and Predovlenie k' rusko-kitaiskomu slovariu (1870). 5. English. Morrison, "Dictionary of the Chinese Language" (6 vols. 4to, Macao, 1815-'23); 2d part, "Alphabetic Chinese and English" (republished-at Shanghai, 2 vols. 8vo, 1865); "Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect" (Macao, 1828); Medhurst, "Chinese and English Dictionary" (Batavia, 1842-'3), and "English and Chinese Dictionary" (Shanghai, 1847-'8); Lobscheid; "English and Chinese Dictionary " (4 vols., Hong Kong, 1869), and "A Chinese and English Dictionary"
(1871); Doolittle, "Vocabulary and Handbook of the Chinese Language " (2 vols. 4to, Foochow and Shanghai, 1872-3); Kwong Tsiin-fuh, "English and Chinese Lexicon" (Hong Kong, 18(58); Williams, "English and Chinese Vocabulary, in the Court Dialect" (Macao, 1844), and "Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in the Canton Dialect" (Canton, 1856); Chalmers, "English and Cantonese Pocket Dictionary" (Hong Kong, 1859); Stent, "Chinese and English Vocabulary, in the Pekinese Dialect" (Shanghai, 1871); Med-hurst, "Dictionary of the Hokkeen Dialect" (Macao, 1832); Maclay and Baldwin, "Alphabetic Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in the Foochow Dialect" (Foochow, 1870). - Grammars. 1. Latin. Premare, Notitia Linguai Sinicce (Malacca, 1831). 2. Portuguese. Goncalvez, Arte China (Macao, 1829). 3. French. Remusat, Elemens de la grammaire chinoise (Paris, 1822); this has been republished, edited by De Rosny; Bazin, Memoire sur les principes generaux du chinois vulgaire (Paris, 1845), and Grammaire mandarine (1856); Rochet, Manuel pratique de la langue chinoise vulgaire (Paris, 1846); Ju-licn, Syntaxe nouvelle de la langue chinoise (Paris, 1869-70). 4. German. Endlicher, Anfangsgrunde der chinesischen Grammatik (Vienna, 1845); Schott, Chinesische Sprach-lehre (Berlin, 1857). 5. Russian. Hyakinth, kitaiskaya grarnmatika (St. Petersburg, 1838). 6. English. Marshman, Clavis Sinica (Seram-pore, 1814); Morrison, "A Grammar of the Chinese Language" (Serampore, 1816); Gutz-laff, " Notices on Chinese Grammar " (Batavia, 1842); J. G. Bridgman, "The Notitia Linguae Sinicae of Premare, translated into English" (Canton, 1847); Summers, "Handbook of the Chinese Language" (Oxford, 1863), and "The Rudiments of the Chinese Language " (London, 1864); Lobscheid, "Grammar of the Chinese Language" (Hong Kong, 1864); Edkins, "A Grammar of Colloquial Chinese, as exhibited in the Shanghai Dialect" (Shanghai, 1853; 2d ed., 1868), and "A Grammar of the Chinese Colloquial Language, commonly called the Mandarin Dialect" (1857; 2d ed., 1864); Baldwin, "Manual of the Foochow Dialect" (Foochow, 1871). - Among the phrase books and manuals we may notice Morrison's "Dialogues and Detached Sentences in the Chinese Language" (Macao, 1816); Shaou-tih's "English and Chinese Student's Assistant" (Malacca, 1826); Legge's "Lexilogus of the English, Malay, and Chinese Languages" (Malacca, 1841); Bridgman's "Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect" (Macao, 1841); Williams's "Easy Lessons in Chinese" (Macao, 1842); Medhurst's "Chinese Dialogues" (Shanghai, 1844; revised ed. by his son, 1863); Edkins's "Chinese Conversations" (Shanghai, 1852); "Doty's Anglo-Chinese Manual, with Romanized Colloquial in the Amoy Dialect" (Canton, 1853); Hernisz's "Guide to Conversation in English and Chinese" (Boston, 1854); Lobscheid's "Beginner's First Book, or Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect" (Hong Kong, 1858); Wade's "Hsin-ching-lu, or Book of Experiments" (Hong Kong, 1859); Macgow-an's "Collection of Phrases in the Shanghai Dialect" (Shanghai, 1862); Thoms's "The Chinese Speaker" (Ningpo, 1846); Edkins's "Progressive Lessons in the Chinese Spoken Language" (Shanghai, 1862); Martin's "The Analytical Reader" (Shanghai, 1863); Lob-scheid's "Select Phrases and Reading Lessons in the Canton Dialect," and "Tourist's Guide and Merchant's Manual" (Hong Kong, 1864); Rubery's "Easy Phrases in the Canton Dialect" (Canton, 1866); Lobscheid's "Household Companion and Student's First Assistant" (Hong Kong, 1867); Wade's "Yu-yen Teu-erh Chi, a Progressive Course designed to assist the Student of Colloquial Chinese," and "Wen-chien Tzu-erh Chi, a Series of Papers selected as Specimens of Documentary Chinese" (London, 1867); Macgowan's "A Manual of the Amoy Colloquial" (Hong Kong, 1869); and Wylie's "Notes on Chinese Literature" (Shanghai, 1867).