Language And Literature Of Italy. The term Italian language is applied in literary history to what is at present the universal vehicle of official communication, religious instruction, epistolary correspondence, and general literature throughout Italy. But it is only in Tuscany and parts of the adjacent provinces that this is the household speech of even the educated classes. In Piedmont, Lombardy, the Venetian and Ligurian territories, in a great part of the former States of the Church, and in the Neapolitan provinces, as well as in Sicily and Sardinia, all alike employ local dialects in ordinary oral intercourse. Persons of even moderate culture are, indeed, able everywhere to use Tuscan freely, though always with local peculiarities of pronunciation and expression; but the vernacular is the habitual medium of thought, and, as Biondelli emphatically states, the written productions of non-Tuscan authors are translations. The parentage and formation of this Tuscan or Italian constitute a much discussed and most interesting linguistic problem.
According to Giuseppe Micali, ancient Italy most probably had a common language of many dialects, which were divided into two main branches, the dialects of Etruria and Umbria, represented chiefly by the Iguvian, and the Sabine, Samnian, and Oscan, which included the Marscian, Volscian, and Hernician. Greek was spoken in the south, in Magna Graecia. The Latin was the dialect used by the mixture of Pelasgian Siculi and Osci from the Abruzzi, who together formed the historical Latini on the lowlands about the Tiber. Their idiom became in time the official language of the Roman republic and empire. This supremacy of the Latin, apart from any intrinsic excellence of its own, may have contributed to the neglect and debasement of the cognate dialects. In this debasement the Latin itself must have shared during the occupation of Italy by the barbarians. Whether the local dialects recovered their old popular ascendancy while the governmental language of Rome was in disfavor with the conquerors, is a matter of conjecture.
It is certain that the Oscan became extinct in the 1st century B. C, and that the Etruscan continued to be spoken under the republic and the empire down to the middle of the 2d century A. D., as attested by Aulus Gellius. But in Cisalpine Gaul and along the shores of the Adriatic, as far at least as Ancona, the Celtic was spoken at the epoch of the Gothic domination, and contributed, according to O. M. Toselli, more elements to the Italian than did the Latin itself. Thus many of these local dialects survived through the middle ages, were modified by the influence and literature of the church, and are more or less faithfully represented by the vernacular idioms of modern Italy. The common roots of all of them are traced to an Indo-European stem; but the formation and growth of the modern Italian has not been conclusively shown to be derived from any known parentage, as the pedigree of English is carried back to Anglo-Saxon and Norman French. Three theories have been advanced on this subject. The first asserts the Italian to have anciently coexisted with the Latin; the latter being the language of the learned, of public oratory, and of legal documents, while the former, as the Romana rustica, was the language of the common people and of ordinary conversation, and maintained its ground after the other had died with the aristocracy.
Such is the theory of Leonardo Bruni, Cardinal Bembo, Saverio Quadrio, and others. The second maintains that the primitive dialects lived in spite of neglect and proscription, and, modified by time, concurred with the Latin to form the basis of modern Italian. This hypothesis has the authority of Muratori, Fonta-nini, Tiraboschi, Denina, Ginguen6, and Sis-mondi. A third theory, which is that of Maffei, affirms that Italian is merely a corrupt Latin, without any admixture of foreign tongues. But no facts are adduced to support this theory of a gradual change of Latin into modern Italian speech. Latin died like Moeso-Gothic, and, in Italy at least, left no lineal descendant, though the present speech of Rome, as it is nearest in lineage, is probably nearest also in character of all the modern Italian dialects to the vernacular language of old Rome at her best period. Mediaeval Latin, it is true, became corrupt, and was often mixed with words borrowed from the vulgar idioms; but it still remained essentially Latin, and as yet no well authenticated remains have been found of a transitional stage from the old classical to the modern Italo-Romance dialects.
When the modern Tuscan was first used in literary composition in the 13th century, it was in idiom, grammar, and structure what it is to-day. The writers of that age used the familiar speech of their firesides; and Italian was full-grown, ripe, and perfect when the first native poet embodied his inspiration in it. If we trace it up chronologically, we find that Isidore of Seville in the 7th century mentions the lingua Italica as distinct from the Latin. Ciampi finds that it was in use in the 5th century; and in 960 Gonzo attests its use among the educated classes, while Wittekind mentions its being spoken under the name of lingua Eomana by the emperor Otho I. (936-'73). Pope Gregory V. (996-9) delivered his instructions to the people in the same. It was spoken at the court of the emperor Frederick II. (1212-50) as the lingua Siciliana, of which the oldest authentic specimen is a rude song by Ciullo d'Alcamo (about 1195). The Sienese idiom of Folcachiero is more chaste, but somewhat later in date.
Thus, already in the 13th century the Italian language had attained its regular forms in the north, centre, and south of Italy. While other modern European languages, with the exception of the Icelandic, were still in their infancy, Dante (1265-1321) did most of all in developing and consolidating the native elements, legitimating the exotic accessions, and polishing the whole language. In the 14th century the language was still further perfected by Petrarch and Boccaccio. To the latter part of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th belong the works of artists and scientific men like Leonardo da Vinci, who enriched the language with a new terminology, and those of Machiavelli, the father of Italian prose. Pietro Bembo, Giovanni Rucel-lai, Jacopo Sannazaro, Trissino, Ariosto, Tasso, Guarini, and others followed, raising it in refinement and melody above all other European languages. Angelo Beolco di Ruzzante, a Pa-duan (1502-'42), wrote six comedies, in which each person speaks his native dialect: a method analogous to the use of Prakrit in Indian dramas. Benedetto Varchi, a Florentine (1502 -'65), reformed the orthography and established the grammar.
Grazzini with Leonardo Salviati founded, in the accademia della Crusca at Florence, a tribunal of the language (1582). The influence of French on European languages during the 17th century began to be exerted on the Italian, especially on its syntax. Algarotti was the chief fosterer of this influence. But Monti and Perticari strenuously and successfully resisted this denationalization, and restored to their cherished tongue the direction imparted to it in the 14th century. - The following details relate to the illustre favella of Dante, unless a dialect be mentioned. The comparative harmony of intonation of the Italian and Spanish languages is a matter of individual preference. We place the Italian first with respect to music, but prefer the Spanish as to the numerus or euphony of speech. Only five Italian words end in consonants (three liquids), viz.: il, in, con, non, per. By dropping e and o after liquids only, other words are made to end in them, thus: parlarono, or parlaron; dropping n, parlaro; also parlar, which is also the infinitive (from parlare) or the negative imperative.
Too many words end in i (plural from e, o, and from a masculine, and second person singular of verbs); for instance: Sapete, amici miei, che tutti i celebri poeti italiani sieno stati colmi di allori ed onori, nei secoli passati. The sound of h exists only in the lingua toscana. The Spanish has only one rough sibilant, ch (as in our church), whereas the Italian has this, written ce, ci, as well as the sound of our sh (in ship), written sce, sci; moreover, ge, gi (as in English gem), the double consonants ts and dz (both written z), of which the former supplants the melting sound of the Latin tia, tie, tio, as in tristezza, pazienza, na-zione (for tristitia, patientia, natio), etc. Oggi, fuggire, uccidere, and the like, exaggerate the harshness by a preceding sound of d and t. The ratio of initial and medial consonants to the vowels is as two to one in Latin, while they are about equal in number in Italian. Besides the above mentioned sounds, there are b, d, f, I, m, n, p, q, v, as in English; c like k in the same positions as in English, and g hard (written ch, gh, before e, i); j medial sound, like our y in yes, but as final it is a long i; r always rolling; t always hard (in old writings also like z); s as in English sun, rose, never as in vision, mission, the i retaining its distinct sound, as in m-si-o-ne. The letters k, w, x, and y are not used, and ph, th are represented by f, t, as in filosofia, teatro.
H only occurs in ho, hai, ha, hanno (Latin habeo, habes, habet, habent, which Metastasio wrote d, di, d, anno), and combined in ch, gh. The l and n mouilles of the French are written with gli and gn. The vowels sound as in the words father, pat; fete, pet; marine, pin; note, not; too, put The Italian accent is strongly marked, and affects one of the four last syllables of words; hence its adaptability to pentameter and hexameter verse, and its singularly musical prosody. Rhyme is only accessory. The mark (') is only used for the sake of instruction; the sign of the grave accent is written on the finals of abbreviated words, such as citta, merce, di, virtil, cio (for cittade, mercede, die, virtude, Lat. quod), etc. - In richness of augmentatives and diminutives, both of endearment and aversion, the Spanish is equal and the Karalitic (in Greenland) superior to the Italian. The definite article is more multiform than in the cognate languages. This is due to its contraction with prepositions and also with non, thus: del, dalla, al, nello, coi, pel, frai, sugli, nol, etc. There are two forms of the masculine: il, Jo, plural i, gli.
The auxiliary verbs are due to the influence of the Teutonic tongues, though faint traces of a similar use of esse and habere may be found in ancient low Latin. Conciseness of expression is obtained by the following means: a, by using the infinitive of a verb as a substantive, thus: il parlar vezzoso, genteel speech; b, by joining pronouns, when regimens, to the imperative, infinitive, or gerund, thus: datemelo, give it to me; il pensarne mi consola, the very thought of it consoles me; raccontandoglielo, in telling it to him, etc.; c, by dropping the final e or o after liquids, mostly before words commencing with consonants (see above); d, by dropping final vowels or syllables before both consonants and vowels, with or without the sign of the apostrophe, even of initial vowels, as in the following from Dante: and Quando i' udi' nomar se stesso il padre (mio), Io vo' con vol della mia donna dire (for io udii, voglio). The construction is direct, inversion frequent, and the whole phraseology freer, bolder, and more variable than in French. On the other hand, some terminations are fatiguingly long, unless the writer be master of his style, and ornaments of speech often superfluous.
The poetic idiom differs more from the prosaic than in any other living language of Europe, not only on account of great licenses in the alteration, addition, and omission of sounds, but also by a multitude of exclusively poetic words. - The area of the Italian language comprehends the whole peninsula and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, etc.; the Swiss canton of Ticino, and parts of the Grisons and Valais; south Tyrol, some cities of Istria and of Dalmatia, and partly the Ionian islands. A rough idiom of Mediterranean navigators, and a jargon known as the lingua franca, are spoken in the Levant. Many of the dialects differ as much from the cultivated Italian as it differs from Spanish, and some even more. This is owing to the ancient local varieties of the Romana rustica and of others, as well as to the tongues of foreign invaders. While some words have many significations, as for instance cassa, which has 25 in Milanese, other objects have very many names devoid of analogy of any kind, as for instance turkey (meleagris gallopavo), which has about 20 Italian provincial names. Dante (Be Vulgari Eloquio) speaks of 14 dialects, one class on the west, the other on the east of the Apennines. Those on the north approach the Provencal language.
K. L. Fernow (Romische Studien, Zurich, 1808) distinguishes in the Toscana alone, though considered as the most homogeneous, 8 sub-dialects. Dante's classification has been somewhat modified. In the " North American Review " for October, 1832,17 principal dialects are noticed. All the varieties of idioms amount to nearly 1,000. There are German-speaking communities in the north of Italy, viz., the sette and the tredlci comuni; Greek-speaking villages in Calabria; and Albanian (Skipetar) settlements in both Sicilies. - The Toscano had the principal part in forming the volgare nobile, all great writers of the 13th and 14th centuries having been Tuscans. Machiavelli's Discorso asserts that the idiom of Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch, or la lingua fiorentina, is the genuine Italian. Other Italians rebel against this autocracy; and the decrees of la Crusca have often been unrecognized. The Florentine and Sienese emasculated utterance of the c, ch, g, and gh, is extremely unpleasant to an unspoiled ear; but this is in part compensated by a great regularity and uniformity in the pronunciation of the vowels, for which there are fixed and acknowledged standards in Tuscany, while elsewhere there seem to exist no authoritative rules for vowel sounds.
In the suburbs of Rome there are at least three patois. In Tuscany the sub-dialects of Siena, Pisa, Arezzo, Leghorn, Lucca, Fucecchio, and Volterra are worthy of mention. The Bolognese drops many medial and final vowels, as for instance: Acqsi va st nostr mond; o prest o tard al bso murir (for Cost va questo nostro mondo, al bisogno, &c). Those of Norcia and Spoleto, on the contrary, have lost many consonants. The Perugino, Loretano, and Camerinese are among the most noticeable in the old papal legations. The Venetian softens consonants effeminately, thus: Lassate dar un baso a boccoletto (for Lasciate dar un bacio, &c). The Paduan, a transition from this to the Lombard, is one of the least intelligible. The high Lombardic and the Tanzi Milanese drop final vowels, and often medials; they share with the Piedmontese and Genoese in the use of the French vowels eu, u, the nasals an, in, on, and also of French j. These, however, are wanting in the low Lombardic, the Mantuan, and Cremonese. The Bergamask is the rudest of all, from contractions, thus: Za Giove l'hiva fatt el grand decret; Da colocat o gatt la su in di steli, insem col cd (for Gid Giove aveva fatto il gran decreto; Di colocar il gatto fra le stelle, insieme col cane). The Piedmontese also contracts much, and has many almost French sounds, thus: bsogne, mange (besoin, manger), etc.
The Genoese approaches the Provencal, but has some rough sounds; it often uses r for I. The Neapolitan transposes many sounds, and rejects many syllables, but is very rich in literature. There are several forms of patois in the city of Naples. The dialects of the Abruzzi, Apulia, Calabria, etc, are very rude. The Sicilian is very mild and graceful, has many Arabic words (from the 9th century), and vestiges of Greek, Punic, Norman, French, and Spanish domination. In the Sardinian dialects there occur many Greek, Latin, French, and Catalan words intact, and many roots without known filiation. (See Nov, dizionariu universali sardu-italianu, compilau de su sacerdotu benefiziau Vissentu Porru, etc, Casteggio, 1832.) The Corsican is more akin to the Tuscan than to the idioms of the isles of the gulf of Genoa. In the Friulic there are many Slavic and old French words. This and the Tyrolese most differ from the favella illustre. The study of the Italian dialects is now receiving much attention, and the recent labors of Ascoli and Caix, as well as various contributions of Mussafia, and the earlier essays of Biondelli and others, deserve special notice.
The linguistic interest of these dialects is great; but though several of them have been reduced to writing, and many lyrical, satirical, humorous, and dramatic compositions of merit have been published in them, yet in no case are these productions sufficiently numerous and comprehensive to constitute a body of literature; they are rather dilettantisms than serious efforts. - Italian, though practically wordy, is not necessarily periphrastic and diffuse. Da-vanzati boasts that his translation of Tacitus is more concise than the original. Nor is it by any means so deficient in the power of self-development as is generally supposed. Giuliani has shown that the unlettered Tuscan peasants are very happy in the enrichment of their speech; the use of the privative s is extending, and it is often employed with new and striking effect; and new words are not merely introduced from abroad, but freshly formed from Latin or provincial roots. The involution of periods is by no means an inherent defect in the language.
Villari, in his life of Savonarola, employs a style of remarkable clearness, logical exactness, and directness, which, if not Tuscan, is, at least according to general principles of criticism, something better than Tuscan; and the Spagna of De Amicis is a specimen of light, lively, fluent, and correct composition, of which the literature of our day cannot boast many examples. One of the points which first strike a foreigner who seeks to become acquainted, through the native medium, with the new life which pulsates in united Italy, and especially with the physical character of the country and the material interests of the people, is the poverty of the language of common speech in descriptive terms and epithets. As he advances in a knowledge of Italian general literature, he will find the written dialect almost equally inadequate to express sensations, images, and thoughts which every hour brings to the lips of an American. For the absence of a descriptive and picturesque nomenclature in conversational language, and in poetry and other imaginative compositions, there are several reasons.
First, the culture of Italy is to a great extent fashioned after classic models, and of course its tongue partakes of the poverty of the Latin in the material vocabulary; in the next place, the Italian literature known to foreigners belongs chiefly to a period anterior to the development of the sense of landscape beauty and the love of nature in modern life; and finally, in England and America, and in a less degree in northern continental Europe, the diffusion and importance of physical science, of foreign commerce, and of agricultural and mechanical art, have made the vocabularies of all industries a part of the common speech of all classes, and have consequently entered far more largely into the diction of social life, of poetry, and of all belles-lettres literature, than they have done in Italy. - The helps to the study of the Italian language are very insufficient. Pesavento has lately published a valuable comparative view of the structure of Latin and Italian, under the title Metodo comparative; but few good practical Italian grammars, and only one or two tolerable bilingual dictionaries of Italian and other modern languages, exist; and many hand dictionaries with Italian explanations are very deficient in fulness and incorrect in definition, in the department of which we have just spoken.
These defects are beginning to be felt by the Italian people. Carena's Prontuario and Palma's Vocabo-lario dell agricoltura supply many a term not found in general handbooks; and a series of technical dictionaries now in preparation under the patronage of the government, of which Canevazzi's excellent Vocabolario dell agricoltura is the first, will soon bring Italian lexicography, at least in the material department, to a level with that of the other European tongues. - Literature. The example of the emperor Otho I. and Pope Gregory V., before mentioned, while it attested the universal prevalence in the peninsula of the Italian or lingua comune, contributed also not a little to its being further used and cultivated by all classes in church and state. Thenceforward it became the language of the palace and the pulpit, of deliberative assemblies and law courts, and of all commercial and legal transactions. The Provencal troubadours, who were to be found everywhere in the 12th century from Sicily to the Alps, were superseded by sweeter and better singers in the native tongue of Italy; and the romantic exploits of chivalry and the annals of the courts of love were written in the popular idiom. Thus the growth and polish of the Italian language were the work of religion and patriotism.
Frederick II. made it the language of his court at Palermo (1212), of the schools he founded in that and other cities, and of the university of Naples (1224), which owed to him its existence. He, his sons Enzio and Manfred, and his secretary Pietro delle Vigne, wrote verses in it. A sonnet of Pietro's is the earliest known specimen of the kind, but several written by the Sicilian Giacopo da Lentino (about 1250) manifest a much greater perfection. Frederick's literary tastes excited emulation in the cities of central and northern Italy. Guido Guinicelli, who died in 1276 and is called by Dante "the father of me and of my betters," advanced this poetic form to still higher perfection, as is evidenced by his canzone styled " The Gentle Heart" in Dante Rossetti's " Early Italian Poets " (now entitled "Dante and his Circle"). Contemporary with or immediately succeeding him were Guido Ghislieri, Fabricio, and Onesto; Guittone d'Arezzo, in Tuscany (died 1294), whose forty letters to a friend furnish the earliest specimens of the epistolary style in Italian; other Tuscans, among them Bonagiunta da Lucca, Gallo Pisano, and Brunetto Fioren-tino; the Neapolitan chronicler Matteo Spinelli, who wrote the earliest Italian prose work of importance, a history of events from 1247 to 1268; and the Florentine historian Ricordano Malespini (died 1281), the genuineness of whose works has been questioned by recent critics.
Brunetto Latini (died in 1294), the teacher of Dante, author of the cyclopaedic work Il Tesoro and the collection of didactic rhymes called the Tesoretto, also belongs to this time; and finally Guido Cavalcanti (died 1300), the friend of Dante, who surpassed all his predecessors in the learning and polish of his philosophic poems, and did much in preparing the way for the great writers who followed him. These authors, of whom little but the names is now familiar to the ordinary student, brought Italian literature to the beginning of its most brilliant and most glorious period, in which Dante (1265-1321) was the great master spirit. Brought up, like all the scholars of his age, in the familiar use of medieval Latin, his two earlier works (De Monarchia and De Vulgari Eloquid) were written in that tongue. But he soon forsook it for the Italian, which he cherished as the main instrument of that national unity which was a dream of his life. His earliest poem, the Vita nuova, was written about 1294; the rest were produced in the following order: the De Monarchia, the Convito, the De Vulgari Eloquio, and finally his crowning masterpiece, beside which all his previous works become insignificant, the Di-vina Commedia (probably 1300-'20), comprising the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. It would be impossible to exaggerate the influence of Dante upon the literature of Italy. Though he did not positively re-create the language in which he wrote, he displayed for the first time, and with a power that has not since been equalled, all its capabilities, and its fitness for the highest form of epic poetry and the expression of the noblest thought.
The Divina Commedia, one of the greatest poetical creations of any age, had an incalculable effect on the scholarship, the taste, and the literary products not only of Dante's own time, but of all succeeding periods. It was as much the basis and foundation as the master work of Italian literature. Chairs for the exposition of the Divina Commedia were established in the 14th century in many'Italian universities, Boccaccio being appointed to the first, that of Florence, in 1373; and from that time it has never ceased to exercise a paramount influence over Italian writers. Francesco Stabile, called Cecco d'Ascoli, a contemporary of Dante, was almost the only writer who ever endeavored to detract from the poet's fame. His satire, the Acerba, a witty but ill-grounded attack, had little permanence. Dante had barely completed his great work when Petrarch and Boccaccio came to share and confirm his literary supremacy, and to form with him that great triumvirate which gave to the 14th century its glory in Italian literary history.
Petrarch (1304-74), distinctively the poet of love, was still more, like Dante, the poet of a united Italy. His chief celebrity consists in his being the father of Italian lyric poetry; in this he outstripped all his predecessors, and has been surpassed by no poet of his country. He sang all the passions, hopes, and memories of love, and lamented all the divisions and miseries of Italy. He, like Dante, preached to his countrymen mutual forgiveness, peace, and union. His compositions, embracing sonnets, songs, and " triumphs," abound in favorite quotations. And yet his principal philosophical treatises, like his first poem, Africa, are in Latin, and afford evidence of his great learning, just philosophical thought, and perfect mastery of the language. But great as is the praise due to Petrarch for the intrinsic excellences of his writings, he deserves still more for his lofty patriotic purpose, and the great services rendered in promoting the revival of sound learning. Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-'75), the third in this great literary triumvirate, was the ardent admirer and sentimental biographer of Dante, the warm friend of Petrarch, and had the good fortune of being the protege of the accomplished and luckless queen Joanna I., granddaughter of Robert of Anjou, king of Naples. Like Frederick II., Robert had been the munificent protector of Italian art and literature, and like him cherished the Tuscan dialect, in which he left several compositions.
Boccaccio's Teseide was written in ottava rima, which was known in Sicily before him, and which he perfected. This and a prose romance were his earliest compositions. Several works in Latin followed. In 1352 appeared his Decamerone, or "Ten Days' Entertainment," so called because each of the seven ladies and three young men introduced into it relates a story each day, thus producing 100 stories in 10 days. This work is regarded as the purest specimen of prose of which the Italian language could boast until that day; but its graces of composition too often adorn the most licentious descriptions. Boccaccio's stories must not be confounded with the Cento novelle antiche, "A Hundred Ancient Tales," which are partly written from the Decamerone, and partly from older popular stories, but all free from indelicacy, and narrated with great simplicity. Franco Sacchetti of Florence (died about 1500) emulated the style of Boccaccio, and composed in a pure and elegant diction 300 tales, of which 258 are still extant, published in the beginning of the 18th century. Another Florentine, Ser Giovanni, left the Pecorone, a collection of 50 similar stories. The Storia fiorentina of Dino Compagni, embracing the annals of Florence from 1280 to 1312, is considered by modern critics as of doubtful authenticity.
Of the work of Giovanni Villani, which embodied the history of Florence from its foundation till a few years before the author's death in 1348, only that part is considered trustworthy winch treats of the author's own time. This work was continued by Giovanni's brother, Matteo, down to 1363, and to 1365 by Filippo, Matteo's son, who also wrote biographies of illustrious Florentines. Of ascetic works in the Italian language, the first known example is the Specchio delta vera penitenza of Giacopo Passavanti (died in 1357), which is comparable for purity and grace of diction with the Decamerone. Passavanti's was followed by similar treatises of equal excellence, written by Domenico Ca-valca of Pisa, Bartolommeo da San Concordio, and Agnolo Pandolfini. - Most of the men who flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries were not distinguished like Dante and Petrarch for creative genius, but delighted rather in reproducing and commenting on the authors of antiquity. The printing press, invented in Germany, was most usefully employed in Venice, Bologna, and Rome, in multiplying copies of the ancient authors, corrected by learned scholars. To the passion for discovering and publishing new manuscripts was joined that of finding and interpreting ancient monuments, medals, inscriptions, and sculptures.
Only the first steps toward a new civilization had been taken by Petrarch and Boccaccio. The introduction of the mariner's needle by Flavio Gioja had opened the ocean to the Europeans; the travels of Marco Polo had awakened that curiosity concerning the way to the East Indies which led Columbus to the discovery of the new world; the Arabic numerals had been substituted in Italy for the Roman; academies were established to nurture the love of letters, and courts became an asylum for the most distinguished men; and the popes in Rome, the Medici in Florence, the houses of the Visconti and the Sforzas in Milan, and of the Gonzagas and Estes in Mantua and Ferrara, became protectors of literature and the arts. Pope Nicholas V. is especially distinguished for the encouragement which he gave to every branch of learning. It was under his liberal protection that Francesco Filelfo translated the Iliad and the Odyssey into Latin verse. His example was followed by numerous courts in Italy; hundreds of authors found employment and support; and the advantages of literature were to some degree extended among the people. Alfonso of Aragon, king of Naples, is eminent among these Mecaenas-like patrons.
Montefeltro of Urbino, the house of Bentivo-glio in Bologna, Filippo Maria Visconti, and Francesco Sforza vied with the Medici and the house of Este in protecting letters and giving an asylum to those exiled Greeks who brought to Italy their learning and advanced culture. Lodovico Sforza, surnamed il Moro, invited to his court in Lombardy many learned men, painters, and architects, among whom were Leonardo da Vinci and Bramante, patronized the university of Pavia, granting it many privileges, and opened schools in Milan, to which most renowned professors gave distinction. Gian Francesco Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua, invited Vittorino da Feltre to instruct his sons, and the school which he opened was frequented by young men from Greece, Germany, and France. The example of the houses of Este and Gonzaga was imitated by the dukes of Savoy, who in the beginning of the 15th century founded the university of Turin. But the most illustrious of the patrons of letters was Cosmo de' Medici, who rose to preeminence among the noble families of Europe. He founded one library in Venice (the Laurentian) and three in Florence, and established the first academy for the study and promulgation of the Platonic philosophy.
Pico della Mirandola and Cristoforo Landino exercised the happiest influence in advancing and creating a popular esteem for knowledge, and especially in exci-ing the Florentine youth to an enthusiasm for it. The former was almost unrivalled in erudition, being profoundly versed in numerous languages, in metaphysics, and in mathematics. Lorenzo de' Medici (died in 1492) greatly and variously increased the glory which his grandfather had acquired in the culture of learning. But the taste for Latin composition again became predominant, and Italian was at this period hardly used at all in writing; it was even disdained for legal documents, and its development was arrested by a boundless reverence for antiquity. But Lorenzo the Magnificent may be considered the reviver of Italian literature, and was even called its father. Most esteemed for his virtues and manners, he enriched libraries, aided in founding a Platonic academy in Florence, reopened the university of Pisa, collected numerous remains of antiquity, promoted the study of the popular poetry, and wrote himself many admired pieces for the improvement of the public taste.
His Nencia da Barberino is the first example of Italian rustic poetry, and his Compagnia del Mantellaccio seems to have given the first idea of Italian satire in terza rima. Under him Florence became a new Athens. Angelo Poliziano (1454-'94) enjoyed the friendship of Lorenzo, attained to great erudition, and was an elegant writer both in Italian and Latin. His most celebrated works are the Oiostra and the Orfeo (the first regular and consistent Italian drama), which were imitated even by Ariosto and Tasso. Contemporary poets of less note were Burchiello, Girolamo Benivieni,and Giusto de' Conti. To the various kinds of composition which have thus far appeared must now be added some epics. Of the brothers Bernardo, Luca, and Luigi Pulci, only the last (1431-87) achieved lasting eminence in poetry. His Morgante Maggiore, burlesque and fantastic, opens the brilliant Italian series of romantic poems of chivalry. It belongs to the circle of legends concerning Charlemagne and his paladins, but degrades the primitive simple faith in them by persiflage.
The Mambriano of Cieco da Ferrara deserves to be mentioned and compared with the Morgante. The best of the romantic poems of the 15th century is the Orlando in-namorato of Boiardo, which introduced materials so beautiful and so vast as to induce Ariosto to follow in the same path. To sustain the marvels of his subject, he employed magicians and fairies in connection with the classic divinities, and beneath the veil of poetry he represented the most useful truths of philosophy. The Orlando innamorato was left incomplete, and the original has become rare even in Italy, on account of its rude and antique diction. Its tone is much modified in the elegant version of it by Francesco Berni, which has enjoyed the most general favor. The prose literature was enriched by the writings of two artists: Leone Battista Alberti, the author of a dialogue Delia famiglia, containing philosophical precepts for domestic life and the education of children, and of treatises on painting and architecture which gained him the name of the Italian Vitruvius; and the renowned Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), at once painter, sculptor, architect, mathematician, musician, the best extemporaneous poet of his time, and the author of a Trattato della pittura, which reveals both his scientific and artistic knowledge, and is a classical authority on the use of terms pertaining to the arts and sciences.
Numerous historians also belong to this age. Pandolfo Collenuccio was the first to write an esteemed history of the kingdom of Naples, revived and corrected the taste for comedy, founded the first museum of natural history in Europe, and wrote dialogues after the manner of Lucian, and the solemn Inno alla morte. Historians of travels were the Genoese Giorgio Interiano and the Venetian Cadamosto, who give the oldest narratives of the Portuguese discoveries, and the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci. Aldo Mannzio (Aldus Manutius) rendered signal services to letters, and gained a European repute by the care and taste with which he published the classics. - The 16th century, the cinquecento of the Italians, is known as in many respects the golden age of Italian literature and art. Leo X. was on the papal throne what his father Lorenzo the Magnificent had been in Tuscany, the munificent patron of artists and men of letters; and the other sovereigns of Italy vied with the popes in this liberal patronage. But if the writers patronized by them, and breathing the atmosphere of their courts, gave evidence of improved taste and more exquisite perfection of form, they manifested also not a little of servility.
The native literature of the two preceding centuries had sprung up and flourished amid free institutions, and was the expression of the popular mind and heart. Men of letters in the 16th century were for the most part the hirelings of princes, and literature became a courtly exercise. In poetry Ariosto (1474-1533) stands preeminent. The protege of the dukes of Ferrara, he aims at describing in his romantic epic, Orlando furioso, the origin of the house of Este. Tasso praises him for fertility of invention and propriety of treatment. Ariosto wrote also satires on the rulers and politics of the age, and two comedies, for the performance of which a theatre was constructed by the poet's patrons. A number of other writers, carried away by his success, attempted epic compositions, among which are Alamanni's Girone il cortese and Avarchide, Valvasone's Angeleide, which is thought to have suggested to Milton the conception of the "Paradise Lost," Trissino's (1478-1550) Italia liberata dai Gotti, a poor imitation of Homer, Brusantini's Angelica innamorata, the Guerino meschino of Tul-lia d'Arragona, and the Amadigi of the Berga-mesjB Bernardo Tasso. But nearest in excellence to Ariosto comes Bernardo's son, Tor-quato Tasso (1544-195), who aimed at combining in his Gerusalemme liberata the epic grandeur of Virgil with the lighter graces of the romantic muse.
His Rinaldo and Aminta are also full of poetic beauty. The success of Ariosto in comedy had awakened zeal for dramatic composition. Trissino produced Sofonisba, the first Italian tragedy of high merit, and Rucellai his Rosmunda and Oreste, represented at the expense of Leo X. Superior in merit to these are the tragedies Tullia by Martelli, Canace by Sperone Speroni, Torrismondo by Torquato Tasso, and Edipo by Andrea dell' Anguillara, all moulded on the Greek drama. In comedy the Italian authors of this century were the servile imitators of Plautus and Terence. In high comedy (commedia erudita) the best examples are the Calandra of Cardinal Bibbiena, the Cassaria and Suppositi of Ariosto, and the Madragola and Clizia of Machi-avelli. To the Florentines belongs the invention of the opera, Daphne, the first ever written, having been represented in 1597; the words were from the pen of Rinuccini, and the music from that of Peri. The melodramas of the Modenese Orazio Vecchio are considered by Muratori as the beginning of modern opera.
In pastoral poetry, besides the Aminta of Tasso, this age boasts of Guarini's Pastor fido and Sannazzaro's Arcadia. The chief didactic poems are the Api of Giovanni Rucellai, the Namgazione of Bernardino Balbi, the Coltiva-zione of Alamanni, and the Caccia of Valva-sone. A school of burlesque poetry arose about 1520, named genere bernesco after Berni, whose Orlando innamorato unites grace, elegance, and originality. In satire the first place belongs to Ariosto, after whom may be mentioned Er-cole Bentivoglio and Filippo Nerli. Luigi Alamanni, like Pietro Aretino, whose versatile talent led him to write on many subjects, is chiefly known for his indelicacy. Macaronic poetry owed its invention or its happiest improvement to Teofilo Folengo (died in 1544), known as Merlino Cocajo. Angelo di Costanzo's sonnets are models of perfection, which Michel Angelo nobly emulated, while Bembo aimed like them at popularizing the language of Dante among the learned. Annibale Caro gained great praise for his translation of Virgil and his original compositions.
Bernardo Davanzati's version of Tacitus is thought to surpass the original in conciseness and energy; he also wrote a history of the reformation in England. To Vittoria Colonna (1490-1547), among the women of this century, Ariosto awarded the palm of poetical excellence. An important place in the literature is held by political writers, foremost among whom was Machiavelli (1469-1527). A dramatist and historian of Florence, he is chiefly known as a profound and philosophical statesman by his discourses on Livy, his dialogues on the art of war, and especially by his Principe, a manual of government, which was constantly in the hands of such sovereigns as Charles V. and Sixtus V., and the real intent and character of which has been long in dispute. His style is marked by simplicity, strength, thought, and a rare but felicitous use of ornament. Other political writings were the Ragione di stato of Botero, and the Repub-Nica fiorentina of Giannotti. Nearer to Ma-chiavelli in merit was Paruta (1540-'98), the author of Discorsi politici, and of a treatise Delia perfezione della vita civile. The most renowned of Italian historians is Guicciardini (1482-1540), whose work, embracing the period from 1490 to 1534, is esteemed for impartiality, but is diffuse and tedious.
Paolo Giovio wrote in Latin a partisan history of his own time. Historians of Florence were Nar-di, Varchi, Nerli, Segni, Capponi, and Seipione Ammirato; the Storie fiorentine of the last extends from the foundation of the city to 1574. Historians of Venice were Bembo (1470-1547), Paruta, and Contarini; of Genoa, Giustiniani, Bonfadio, and Foglietta; of Ferrara, Cinzio and Falletti; and of Naples, Costanzo, Porzio (La congiurazione dei baroni, &c), and Sum-monte. General histories were written by Giambullari and Adriani. The splendor of the fine arts in this century gave occasion for historians of art, the principal of whom was Va-sari (1512-74), whose lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors, and architects of Italy are written with naturalness and grace, and contain interesting notices of prominent Italian works of art. The autobiography of the Florentine goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, one of the liveliest books in the literature, not only recounts his own fortunes, but gives curious notices of the courts of Rome, Florence, and France. He wrote also valuable treatises on jewelry and sculpture.
Works on painting were written by Bernardino Campi of Cremona, Lomazzo of Milan, and Armenino of Faen-za. Vignola and Palladio gained distinction as writers on architecture, and Marchi by a treatise on military architecture. Philosophy now began to assume an independence of the scholastics, and Girolamo Cardan and Giordano Bruno ventured upon the boldest speculations. Mathematics were cultivated by Tartaglia, Cardan, and others. The Instituzione di tutta la vita dell uomo of Alessandro Piccolomini treats of education, marriage, the government of a family, and the chief end of man. The Cortigia-no of Castiglione (1478-1529) has rare literary merits, making courtesy the theme of many learned and weighty reflections. Numerous novelists now flourished, among whom Ban-dello holds the first rank, his Novelle being chiefly founded on real and common events. The novels of the monk Firenzuola and the Cene of Lasca are both elegant and indelicate. Vettori and Salviati commented on the older poets, and the latter was engaged in compiling the Vocabolario della Crusca, then the most important philological work in the language.
All words not used by the great Florentine authors were excluded from it; even Tasso was not admitted as an authority. - In the 17th century the natural sciences especially flourished. Under able patrons, the principal of whom was Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany, the Italian universities attained unprecedented celebrity. Scientific academies were founded in Rome, Florence, Bologna, and Naples; the Florentine accademia del Cimento embraced the most illustrious savants of the time, and published important accounts of its researches. Preeminent among philosophers was Galileo (1564-1642), who was denounced as an innovator, and maintained the Copernican system only at his peril. His Dialoghi and other works are written with elegance, his style and taste having been formed by reading Ariosto. His most noted pupils were Viviani, Torricelli, and Castelli; and contemporary physicists were Borelli, Malpighi, Bellini, and Francesco Redi. The learned and philosophical jurisconsult Vin-cenzo Gravina attracted scholars from all parts of Europe to his lectures in Rome on public law, contained in his Origine del diritto civile and other publications.
The greatest historians were Sarpi, Davila, Bentivoglio, and Pal-lavicini. Sarpi (died in 1623), the defender of the republic of Venice in its contest with the holy see, wrote an anti-papal and spirited history of the council of Trent, which was replied to by Pallavicini in a work on the same subject. Davila, after 16 years' residence in France, narrated the civil wars of that country in a work esteemed for its truthfulness, and in respect of style one of the best Italian histories. Bentivoglio, the papal nuncio in Flanders, wrote of the Flemish wars of his time, many of the heroes of which he knew personally. Baldinucci, Dati, and Scamozzi were historians of the fine arts, and Cinelli and Boccalini of literature, while Bianchi treated important historical problems as to migrations, colonies, voyages, and the origin of monarchies and republics. Montecucculi, the military antagonist of Turenne, acquired distinction as an author by his aphorisms on the art of war. The Jesuit Bartoli wrote the history of his society, and the sermons of the Jesuit Segneri were unrivalled in eloquence.
Pietro della Valle (died in 1652) described his travels ( Viaggi) in Turkey, Persia, and India. The first Italian literary journal, the Giornale de' letterati, was established in Rome in 1668. A want of naturalness and truthfulness marked the poetry of the age; external delineations, trifling details, conceits, and plays upon words were the leading objects of the poets. At their head was Marini of Naples (died in 1625), who was admired not only in Italy but in France and Spain, and originated the poetical school of the Marinists, by which only his faults were imitated. Among his contemporaries and successors were Chiabrera, Guidi, Tassoni, and Marchetti. The foundation of the academy of Arcadians in Rome in 1690 by Crescimbeni and Gravina introduced an affectation of pastoral sentiments and habits in place of Mari-nism. Menzini, Zappi, Maggi, Lemene, Salva-tor Rosa, and Bracciolini wrote satirical, erotic, and facetious verses. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the opera was the favorite Italian exhibition.
It had long been produced with theatrical and musical splendor, when Zeno of Venice (died in 1750), and especially Trapassi, called Metastasio (died in 1782), wrote operatic plays having remarkable poetical merits. - When early in the 18th century the war of the Spanish succession raged in Italy, and the kingdom of Naples fell beneath the sceptre of the infante Don Carlos, and afterward of Ferdinand III., literature and the sciences were cultivated with renewed vigor. Naples produced Giannone, distinguished in the department of history, Capasso in literature, Ci-rillo in medicine, Mazocchi in archaeology, Ge-novesi in political economy, one Gagliani in architecture, and another in domestic economy and philology. Filangieri rivalled Montesquieu in the philosophy of legislation; Pagano wrote on the criminal law; Poli distinguished himself in the positive sciences; Maffei both in history and poetry. The university of Bologna was now in its splendor, its academy of sciences taking the name of "The Institute." Marsigli, Stratico, Cesarotti, Foscarini, the brothers Gozzi, Morelli, Pompei, Lorenzi, Maz-zuchelli, and Serassi made the city of Venice illustrious; but political jealousy prevented the culture of the economical and legislative sciences there, which under Beccaria and others were making great progress in other parts of Italy. In Tuscany, the famous French encyclopaedia was republished.
In the cities of Lombardy flourished Scopoli, Fontana, Tissot, Spallanzani, Bertola, Villa, Natali, Volta, Scarpa, Tamburini, Parini, Beccaria, Verri, Landri-ani, Maria Agnesi, 'Carli, and others, devoted to literature, art, science, and the development of political and ethical principles. Bodoni raised the art of typography to an admirable elegance. Prominent among the patrons of literature was Victor Amadeus II. of Savoy. The Italian drama had as yet attained to excellence only in the opera, and lacked superior tragedies and comedies. It received an impulse in the 17th century from the French theatre, Marielli of Bologna (died in 1727) being the first who attempted to naturalize not only the structure of French tragedy but the Alexandrine verse. The Merope of Maffei was the best tragedy produced in the early part of the 18th century. A greater influence was exerted upon his age and upon literature by Alfieri (1749-1803), the head of an important school of tragedy. Hostile alike to the operatic lightness of the Italian drama and to the formal and complicated intrigues of the French, he went to an opposite extreme, demanding in tragedy both the utmost intensity of passion and the utmost simplicity of treatment.
He was the poet of energetic action and profound thought and feeling, as Metastasio was of love. Abandoning the customs of the court of Louis XIV., he revived the simple sublimity of the Greek stage, which had been the object of his favorite studies, and which was removed alike from French effeminacy and Spanish extravagance. A reformation in the Italian comedy was meantime effected by Goldoni (1707-'93), the only genuine comic poet that Italy can boast, who sought in imitation of Moliere to substitute for the commedia dell arte a natural comedy of manners. In his efforts to give to the stage a more human and real character by ridding it of the traditional masks of the harlequin, pantaloon, and other stock characters, he had to contend especially against Chiari and Carlo Gozzi. The example of Kotzebue and Iffland gave rise to a lachrymose school of dramatic composition, maintained by Avelloni, Gualzet-ti, Greppi, and especially by Federici. The most illustrious historians were Muratori (died in 1750), Maffei, Denina, Mazzuchelli, Tiraboschi, and Lanzi (died in 1810). The Annali d" Italia, Verona illustrata, Revoluzioni d"Italia, Scrit-tori d'Italia, Storia delta letteratura d' Italia, and the Storia pittorica d'Italia were respectively their best works.
The writings of Muratori and Tiraboschi still maintain their reputation both for erudition and, criticism. In archaeology, the names of Fabretti, Gori, Maz-zocchi, Martorelli, Passeri, and Carli were distinguished. Campanella continued the philosophical movement of Bruno in opposition to scholasticism, and Vico (1668-1744) founded the new science of the philosophy of history; his Scienza nuova is a view of general history, founded on the idea of Divine Providence and the essential elements of the common nature of man. Gasparo Gozzi, Algarotti, Buonafede, Vanetti, Tartarotti, and Alessandro Verri also added to the glory of the literature by abandoning the pedantic style that had been in vogue and introducing an acquaintance with foreign ideas and productions. Baretti contributed to the revival of good taste by ridiculing the Arcadians. Parini (1729-99)excelled in satirical poetry, his Giorno being as remarkable for, elegance as for severity upon the effeminate life of the wealthy Milanese nobles.
Among the works of Cesarotti was a translation of Ossian, esteemed in many respects among the happiest productions in the language, and which Alfieri confessed to have been of service to him in the composition of his tragedies. - The political and military movements in Europe of the last decade of the 18th century occasioned a regeneration not only of the literature but of the national spirit of the Italians. The early part of the 19th century rivals the age of Leo X., presenting Canova, Longhi, Cicognara, Appiani, and Beltrami in the fine arts; Monti, Foscolo, Pindemonte (partly contemporary with whom was Alfieri) in literature; and Volta, Melchiorre Gioja, Romagnosi, Scarpa, Spallanzani, and Oriani in the sciences. The author who doubtless exerted the greatest influence on the regeneration of poetry was Vincenzo Monti (1754-1828), who in the contest between the classic and the romantic tendencies favored the former, and in the contest between the Gallicists, or imitators of the French literature and idioms, and the purists, who made Petrarch, Dante, and the other old Italian masters their models, sided with the latter.
His poems, as Basvilli-ana and Feroniade, his tragedies, as Galeotto Manfredi, his elegy Mascheroniana, the Pro-posta, in which he disputed the restrictions which the Delia Cruscans had fastened upon the language, and his translation of the Iliad, alike display an admirable and nervous style. Two works of Monti deserve special mention, his Bassvilliana and Prometeo. The former, in which the spirit of Basseville, a French revolutionist, is condemned to travel through France under the guidance of an angel, witnessing the suffering resulting from the adoption of the principles he advocated, is in many respects an imitation of the Bivina Commedia. It is filled with remarkable poetical descriptions, presented with intense dramatic vividness. The Prometeo (1797) is also a close imitation of Dante, and is in effect an apotheosis of Napoleon as the impersonation of might and virtue. Pindemonte also made a light and graceful version of the Odyssey, and in his original poems especially lamented the desolation of his country. Ugo Foscolo (1777-1827) belongs to the school of Alfieri. His Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis, a political and passionate romance in imitation of Goethe's Werther, is supposed to describe his own troubled life.
He wrote the lyric I sepolcri, and other works in prose and verse, remarkable both for power and beauty. Mez-zanotte celebrated in verse the struggle of the modern Greeks for liberty, regarding it not only as a political but as a religious conflict between Christianity and Islamism. The lyrical poems of Leopardi (died in 1837) are highly esteemed. Among the epic and didactic poets were Botta, Ricci, Bagnoli, Arici, Grossi, Sestini, Pananti, and Lorenzi. Antonio Cesari (died in 1823) was the chief of the Trecentists, a school which carried its love of the Italian authors of the 14th century to affectation. Stratico published a dictionary containing only the words used by the Marinist authors. Prati, Aleardi, and the versatile priest, dramatist, and journalist Dall' Ongaro (died in 1873), are among the best Italian lyric poets of our time. The conte Giraud, a Roman by birth but of French parentage, revived Italian comedy at the beginning of the century, and aimed at imitating both Goldoni and Moliere. He did not try however to reproduce anything like the Tartufe or the Misanthrope, but took as his model the Bourgeois gentil-homme and other low comedies of the French master.
To this class belong the numerous dramas of Giraud, chief among which is L'Ajo nell irribarazzo; this and il prognosticante fanatico, La capriciosa confusa, and Don De-siderio, are his best comedies; the others belong to the low amusing type introduced by Eugene Scribe. Less amusing than Giraud, but superior to him in every other respect, is Alberto Nota, who has equalled Goldoni in dramatic excellence, and surpassed him as a writer. In 1808 his I primi passi al mal costume was played in Turin, and in 1813 he brought out his Filosofo celibe, which greatly heightened his reputation. Both are elegant in their diction and full of wit. In 1826 he produced Lafera, his best work. From 1826 to 1847 Italian comedy had no representatives. At the close of Charles Albert's reign appeared Paolo Ferrari, Gherardi del Testa, and Giaco-metti. Ferrari obtained a great reputation by three principal comedies, Goldoni e le sue se-deci commedie, La Satira e Parini, and La Prosa. Other productions of Ferrari, such as La bottega del cappellaio and Il ballo in pro-vincia, still maintain their place on the comic stage; but since 1860 his dramatic compositions are all inferior to these.
Gherardi del Testa before 1859 had written farces like Il beretto bianco and Il sogno di un brillante, and graceful comedies like Il sistema di Giorgio and Un avventura ai bagni, which had shown him the equal of Giraud for invention, and his superior for style. Since 1859 he has much increased his reputation for excellent light comedies. Giacometti remains far beneath these two authors. Among his numerous productions three have been favorably mentioned by critics, La donna, La donna in seconde nozze, and Il fsionomista, this last being a poor imitation of Giraud's Prognosticante fanatico. Other dramatic compositions of the ante-uni-tarian period are Sabbatini's Tassoni, and Teo-baldo Cicconi's Pecorelle smarrite; Cromwell, La notte di San Bartolommeo, and Luigia delta Valliera, by Pietro Corelli; Cuore ed arte, by Caterino de' Medici Fortis; and the tragedies Gaspara Stampa by Casabianca, Piccarda Donati by Marenco, Camma and Tentazione (1856) by Montanelli, the last having great merit not only as a play but as a poem. According to some critics, Giovanni Battista Niccolini is the first tragic writer of Italy in this century; he is less remarkable for regularity of plot than for simplicity of dramatic action. Filippo Strozzi and Arnaldo da Brescia are his masterpieces.
Among the writers of historical and national dramas is also to be mentioned Revere; and among Italy's eminent actors are Modena, Salvini, Rossi, Marchioneri, and Si-gnora Ristori. - Among the historical writers of the earlier part of the present century, two, Vincenzo Coco (died in 1823) and Carlo Botta (died in 1837), deserve a special mention. Coco left two works, La rivoluzione di Napoli and Platone in Italia, which prove him to be a profound thinker of the school of Vico. His narrative of events in the kingdom of Naples concludes with the wholesale exe- • cutions of 1799, which he himself had witnessed. Carlo Botta, whose chief work is a history of the American war of independence, is inferior to Coco for deep philosophical insight, but superior for artistic literary forms. Italian critics, however, reproach him with stiffness and pomposity in his Storia dell indepen-denza degli Stati Uniti; but they admit that his continuation of Guicciardini's history of Italy is written with more simplicity and naturalness, though lacking proportion in some of its principal parts, as well as accuracy in statement of facts and political impartiality.
Col-letta, in his Storia del reame di Napoli, produced a classical work which completes Coco's. His history begins with the inauguration at Naples of the Bourbon dynasty in 1734, and ends with the year 1825. His work is conspicuous for its powerful grouping of facts, and for energy of thought and diction. Vacani was a historian of the Peninsular war. Amari wrote the history of the Arabs in Sicily and of the Sicilian vespers, illustrating obscure periods in an age of national glory. Cesare Cantu, began his career as a historical writer by Ragionamenti sulla storia Lombarda del secolo X VII. In 1837 appeared his great work, Storia universale, which has passed through several editions and been translated into German and French. His reputation was still further heightened by his Storia degli Ita-liani, il tempo de' Francesi, Gli eretici d' Italia, La storia di cento anni, and his latest work, L'Independenza italiana, embracing exclusively Italian independence during the French, German, and national periods of the present century (vols. i. and ii., Turin, 1874). Cantu is also the author of histories of the Latin, Greek, and Italian literatures, of the city of Como, and of Italian contemporary poetry; of several novels, educational works, and religious lyrics.
Cantti is a firm Catholic in his religious belief; but the Neapolitan Ranieri and the journalist and historian Bianchi Bovini are decidedly adverse to Catholicism. The latter is the author of a history of the popes, a biography of Fra Paolo Sarpi, a history of the Hebrews, and a monograph on Pope Joan. Cesare Balbo wrote historical meditations, a life of Dante, and a summary of the history of Italy. Balbo, Gino Capponi, the author of a history of Florence, and Carlo Troja belong like Cantu to the Guelphic school of publicists, who would fain see the popes at the head of Italy. Franscini wrote an accurate and authoritative statistical work on Switzerland (1847-51). La Farina is the author of a history of Italy from the most ancient to recent times; Federico Sclopis, of a history of Italian legislation (completed in 1857); Luigi Zeni, of an excellent compendium of Italian history; Romanin, of a learned history of Venice, written in opposition to that of Daru, and of a work on the Venetian inquisitors; Carlo Ge-melli, of a history of the Belgian revolution of 1830; Giuseppe Rubini, of a history of Russia from 862 to 1725; Canette, of a history of Amadeus II. of Savoy; Canales, of a history of the Crimean war; Gallenga, of a general history of Piedmont; Angelo Brofferio, of a history of Piedmont from 1814 to 1849, and of other works interesting from their patriotic spirit as well as literary merit; Anelli, of a history of Italy from 1814 to 1850; Carlo Cat-taneo, of a history of the insurrection at Milan in 1848 (he was a member of the committee that directed the operations against the Aus-trians, and a participant in the struggle), and of the Archivio triennale, an elaborate and most careful and valuable collection of authentic documents relative to the events that occurred in Italy from 1848 to 1850; Federico Torre, of a history of the French expedition to Rome in 1849. Ferrari, in a work on republican federation, treated the question under what form of government Italy ought to be reorganized.
L. C. Farini wrote a history of the Papal States from 1814 to 1850; Gualterio and Vecchio of the events in Italy in 1848-'9. Among the latest writers on mediaeval Italian history are Atto Vanucci and Pasquale Villari. The latter is known as the biographer of Savonarola, and a life of Machiavelli by him is now (1874) in the press. On social science the most recent publications are Minghetti's Econo-miapubblica and Opuscoli letterarj e economici, containing a series of letters on religious liberty; Cibrario's Economia politica del medio evo and Bella schiavitit e del servaggio; Zamboni's Gli Ezzellini and Dante e gli schiavi; and Ce-lestino Bianchi's history of Italian diplomacy. Among ecclesiastical writers are the Benedictine Tosti, who wrote a history of the church; the Jesuits Luigi Taparelli d'Azeglio (the brother of Massimo), author of remarkable works on natural right and international law, and one of the founders of the Civilta Cattolica; Pian-ciani, distinguished as a chemist and physicist; Secchi, as an astronomer and a writer on solar physics; Passaglia and Perrone, as authors of standard works on theology; and Abbate Lam-bruschini, as a writer on education; and the Theatine Ventura, celebrated alike as a pulpit orator and philosophical writer.
The taste which prevailed in the first half of the 19th century for illustrating the national antiquities has even increased of late years. In the former period were produced Inghirami's Monu-menti etruschi, Delfico's Origini italiche, Fa-nucci's Storia dei Veneziani, Genovesi e Pisani, Manno's Storia di Sardegna, Bras's Malta il-htstrata, and Pompeo Litta's Famiglie celebri d'Italia. Visconti (1751-1818) made himself a name in classical archaeology, and Sestini in numismatics, the latter making his medals serve in illustrating geographical questions. Angelo Mai, De' Rossi, Borghesi, Gestaldi, Canestrini, Foresi, and others are the representative archaeologists of the latter period. De' Rossi's chief works are La Roma sotterranea cristiana (1864) and Inscriptions Christianas Urbis Romae (1857-'61). Toward the close of the 18th and in the early part of the 19th century the natural sciences were advanced by four illustrious savants, who were nearly contemporary, Volta, Galvani, Scarpa, and Spallanzani. The discussions of Galvani and Volta concerning their new discoveries in electricity divided the scientific men of Europe into two factions, and the poets followed their example. Scarpa, a learned disciple of Morgagni, reduced anatomy to a positive science.
Spallanzani wrote on physics and physiology in a style worthy of one who declared philosophy itself imperfect unless its principles were elegantly expressed. Astronomical science was represented by Piazzi, Ori-ani, Cagnoli, and Plana; medical science by Ra-sori; natural science by Gene; geography by Balbi; and jurisprudence by Cannignani and Nicolini of Naples. Later De Vico and Donati obtained a reputation as astronomical discoverers, and Pianciani as a physicist. Later still Schiapparelli, Cappocci, and De Gasparis rendered great service to astronomy; and among living scientists Secchi and.Eespighi occupy an eminent place. "With them must be mentioned the geographers Marmocchi and De Luca, the naturalists Simonda and De Filippi, the chemist Piria, the physicists Melloni, Marianini, and Matteucci, and the historian of science Libri. Ranalli has also published a history of the fine arts; and a rich source of information in ancient and modern political and natural history and geography of Italy is found in a series now publishing under the general title of L'Italia, of which 20 volumes are already issued (1874). - In general literature during the first half of the century Gioja and Romagnosi treated philosophical questions and the economical and political sciences, the Filosqfia della statistica being the principal work of the former, and the Ge-nesi del diritto penale of the latter.
Manzoni (1784-1873) produced new modelsof lyric verse, and examples of historical dramas and novels in his Adelchi, Il conte di Carmagnola, and I promessi sposi. To the modified classical school of Monti belong the dramas of Silvio Pellico (1789-1854), chiefly known by his Francesca da Rimini and Le mie prigioni, and those of Nic-colini, often founded on the history of his country, and strongly marked by patriotic feeling. The example of Sir Walter Scott in the production of historical romances had many followers in Italy. I promessi sposi of Manzoni (1827) was succeeded by the Monaca di Monza, Luisa Strozzi, and Il conte Ugolino della Gherardesca of Eosini; the Margherita Pusterla of Cesare Cantu; the Marco Visconti of Grossi; the Et-tore Fieramosca and Nicolo de" Lapi of Massimo d'Azeglio (1798-1866); and the Battaglia di Benevento, Assedio di Firenze, Isabella Or-sini, and Beatrice Cenci of Guerrazzi (died in 1873). Italy received with enthusiasm these romantic delineations from her ancient history. The romance entitled Famiglia (1850), by Ber-sezio, is one of the best late Italian novels. The Br. Antonio of Ruffini is esteemed for its pictures of Italian scenery. Accomplished women have taken a considerable part in recent Italian literature.
The Morte di Adone of Teresa Bandellini was followed by the learned philosophical and religious poems of Diodata Saluz-zo, with which she intermingled slight lyrical pieces. Cecilia de Luna Folliero wrote on the education of girls and the moral influence of music. Giustina Rinier Michiel celebrated in song the festive days and memorable events of Venice. Isabella Teotochi Albrizzi wrote a graceful and truthful biography of Canova. The work of the Signora Ferucci on the education of girls received the encomiums of Gio-berti and other distinguished thinkers. Other female authors are Lucrezia Marinella, Sabina Rasori, Silvia Curtoni Verza, Costanza Mos-cheni, and Leonora Fonseca Pimentel. - In philosophy, the names of Gioja and Romagnosi were succeeded by that of Pasquale Borelli (Lallebasche), the author of an introduction to philosophy, and of works on the nature and genesis of thought, in which he opposed the empiricism of Romagnosi. Cardinal Gerdil (1718-1802) was the author of numerous remarkable works on philosophy, theology, and mathematical and physical science. Pasquale Galuppi (1770-1846), in elaborate works, combated the philosophical tendencies of the 18th century by doctrines founded on the philosophy of the fathers of the church.
He was a student of the German philosophers, and one of his most interesting works was on the changes of modern philosophy from Descartes to Kant. Contemporary philosophy has had a large number of representatives in Italy. Foremost in celebrity was Gioberti (1801-'52), whose philosophical theory was so constructed as to suit itself to the national aspirations of Italy; he is also known as the author of Bel pri-mato morale e civile degli Italiani, Il Gesuita moderno, and Bel rinnovamento civile d'ltalia. Next to Gioberti were Cardinal Bosmini-Ser-bati (died in 1855), whose ontological theory has met with even less favor than Gioberti's, and Mamiani, the author of Rinnovamento dell antica filosofia italiana. Ausonio Franchi is diametrically opposed to all these philosophers. He places the criterion of truth in the individual reason and feeling, both corresponding to the two most intellectual spheres of the mind, philosophy and religion. According to him, the philosophy of Italy is scholasticism, which is the negation of reason, and its religion Catholicism, the negation of liberty. Thus he is antagonistic to Tommaseo, the representative of the spiritualist and religious schools.
Greek philosophy is represented by Centofanti, and philosophical skepticism by Giuseppe Ferrari, the author of Filosqfia della rivolvzione and Cor so di lezioni sugli scrittori politici italiani (1862-'3); and Hegelianism by the Neapolitan Vera. To the school of Franchi belong Alfonso Testa and Carlo Cattaneo. The Calcolo diprobabilitd dei sen-timenti umani (1855) of Mastriani is an attempt to found philosophy on a physiological basis. Giordani may be considered as the founder of the school of aesthetical criticism in modern Italy. He contributed effectually to put down the literary "Gallomania" which had so long prevailed there. The articles published by him in the Biblioteca Italiana of Milan, his sestheti-cal studies on sculptors, painters, and authors, and his panegyrics on Napoleon, Canova, etc, together with a vast collection of letters, are held in the highest estimation by his countrymen. Cicognara, Pindemonte, Foscolo, Per-ticari, Basilio Puotti, Mamiani, Giudici, Arcan-geli, Ranalli, and Giuliani have also distinguished themselves in this department of literature. - Besides the contemporary authors whose works have gained such permanence as to have required special mention in this article, many others are gradually taking their places in the lasting literature of Italy, or rendering themselves conspicuous by timely and popular works.
Such are most of those named in the following list of living authors. Leading poets are Giovanni Prati (one of the most prominent writers of Italian political lyrics), Frullani, Ti-gri, Carducci, and Zanella; De Spuches, Par-di, and other Sicilians; Barattani, Mercantini, Giotti, and De' March;. Female poets are Fran-cesca Lutti, Alinda Brunamonte, Emilia Fua, Rosina Musio-Salvo, and others. Historians are Ricotti (Savoy), La Lumia (Sicily), Giudici (Storia dei comuni italiani), Celesia (Genoa), and Peluso (Milan). Novelists are Nievo, Arri-ghi, Donati, Bezio, De Amicis, and Signora Teresa de Gubernatis. - The principal historians of Italian literature are Tiraboschi (1772-83), Ginguene (1811-'19), Maffei (2d ed., 1834), Cimorelli (1845), Emiliano Giudici (1851), Mal-paga (1855), Lombardi (of the 18th century, 1827-'30), Ugoni (of the second half of the 18th century, new edition, 1856-'9), and Levati (of the first quarter of the 19th century, 1831). See also Sismondi's Litterature du midi de VEurope (4 vols., Paris, 1813), translated by T. Roscoe (1823); Hallain's " Literature of Europe;" and W. Roscoe's "Life of Lorenzo de' Medici." For more recent literature, see especially Amedee Roux's H'wtoire de la litterature contemporaine en Italie (Paris, 1874); and for modern philosophy, Botta's"Historical Sketch" in Ueberweg's " History of Philosophy," translated by G. S. Morris (New York, 1874).