Lebanon, a S. E. county of Pennsylvania, bounded N. W. by Kittatinny or Blue mountain, S. E. by South mountain, and drained by Swatara river and its branches; area, 288 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 34,096. It consists almost wholly of a valley, and has mines of excellent iron ore in connection with rich veins of copper; slate, limestone, and marble also abound. The soil is very fertile. The Union canal and the Lebanon Valley branch of the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, the Lebanon and Tre-mont, and the Schuylkill and Susquehanna railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 538,304 bushels of wheat, 70,188 of rye, 627,881 of Indian corn, 678,614 of oats, 95,835 of potatoes, 569,199 lbs. of butter, and 41,894 tons of hay. There were 6,895 horses, 9,131 milch cows, 11,763 other cattle, 2,687 sheep, and 13,953 swine; 4 manufactories of boots and shoes, 9 of brick, 19 of carriages, 3 of cars, 39 of clothing, 18 of furniture, 15 of iron, 15 of lime, 1 of machinery, 1 of paper, 11 of saddlery and harness, 15 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 19 of cigars, 4 breweries, 6 tanneries, 4 currying establishments, 1 planing mill, 4 saw mills, and 14 flour mills.
Pennsylvania I. A Borough And The Capital Of Lebanon Co., , on Quitopahilla creek, the Union canal, and the Lebanon Valley and Lebanon and Tremont railroads, 24 m. E. by N. of Harrisburg; pop. in 1850, 2,184; in 1860, 4,449; in 1870, 6,727. It is regularly and substantially built, the houses being mostly of brick or stone. It has an active trade, and stands in the midst of a rich iron-mining district. The Cornwall ore banks, 7 m. S., are three hills, called Grassy, Middle, and Big hill, formed of masses of iron ore. Veins of copper are found among the iron, and 6 m. from the borough a quarry of gray marble has been opened. There are several blast furnaces, machine works, a bell manufactory, a rolling mill, a forge, three planing mills, manufactories of paper, organs, stoves, and hollow ware, three national banks with a capital of $350,000, a state bank, and two savings banks; one daily and six weekly (two German and one English and German) newspapers, a library, 14 churches, and 35 schools.
II. A Town And The Capital Of Wilson Co.,Tennessee, on a branch of Cumberland river, at the terminus of the Tennessee and Pacific railroad, 31 m. E. of Nashville; pop. in 1870, 2,073, of whom 917 were colored. It contains two national banks, manufactories of cotton and woollen goods, and a weekly newspaper. It is the seat of Cumberland university, founded by the Cumberland Presbyterians in 1842, which now embraces preparatory, commercial, engineering, collegiate, theological, and law departments. In 1873-'4 there were 70 preparatory, 104 commercial, 2 engineering, 94 collegiate, 47 theological, and 87 law students; total, deducting repetitions, 352. The whole number of professors and instructors was 12; number of volumes in the library, 6,000. The collegiate department embraces a classical and a scientific course. A post-graduate course has been arranged, upon the completion of which the degree of master of arts is conferred.
Kentucky III. A Town And The Capital Of Marion Co., on Hardin's creek, and on a branch of the Louisville, Nashville, and Great Southern railroad, 5 m. from Rolling fork of Salt river, and 43 m. S. W. of Frankfort; pop. in 1870, 1,925, of whom 823 were colored. It contains two banks and a weekly newspaper. It is the seat of Lebanon female college (Baptist), established in 1869, which has 4 instructors and 50 students. At St. Mary's station, about 5 m. distant, is St. Mary's college (Roman Catholic), which has 14 officers and instructors and 108 students.
Ohio IV. A Village And The Capital Of Warren Co., on Turtle creek, a branch of the Little Miami river, 30 m. N. E. of Cincinnati; pop. in 1870, 2,749. It contains a saw mill, two planing mills, a public library, and two weekly newspapers. It is the seat of the national normal school, established in 1855, which in 1874 had 17 instructors, 1,606 students, and a library of 3,000 volumes.
Illinois V. A Town Of St. Clair Co., on the Ohio and Mississippi railroad, 23 m. E. of St. Louis; pop. in 1870, 2,117. It is pleasantly situated, and has several stores, mills, two weekly newspapers, and seven churches. It is the seat of McKendree college (Methodist), chartered in 1835, receiving students of both sexes. In 1874 it had 7 instructors, 67 preparatory and 149 collegiate students, and a library of 8,000 volumes. A semi-monthly periodical is issued by the students.