Lucknow, a city of India, capital of the province and former kingdom of Oude, situated on the S. bank of the river Goomtee, which is here navigable at all seasons, about 580 m. N. W. of Calcutta, 250 m. S. E. of Delhi, and 42 m. N E. of Cawnpore; pop. in 1871, 284,799. The Goomtee is here crossed by three bridges, one of iron, one of stone, and one of boats. A distant view of the city, with its numerous turrets and pinnacles, conveys an impression of splendor surpassed by few Indian cities; but this is somewhat lessened by a closer inspection of its numerous narrow, filthy streets, and mean mud or bamboo houses thatched with straw. The streets are generally 10 or 12 ft. below the level of the shops on each side, but the English quarter is well built and adorned with gardens. In contrast with the dwellings of the native population, there are many public buildings of remarkable beauty. The Shah Nujeef, or Imambarra of the nabob-vizier Azof ud-Dowlah, is a fantastic brick structure, coated with white cement, and topped with several Moslem minarets and pointed Hindoo domes. It consists of a number of buildings surrounding two courts which are entered by magnificent gateways.
The name Imambarra denotes a kind of edifice erected by Mohammedans of the Shiah sect for the celebration of the festival of the Mohurrum. Of five royal palaces in the city, the principal are the Fureed Buksh, a long range of buildings on the river bank, more remarkable for size than beauty, and the Kai-serbagh. The kings of Oude had also many fine country seats in the neighborhood, one of the most elegant of which is the Dilkoosha (Heart's Delight), about 2 m. toward the south. The Begum Kothee is a collection of palatial edifices formerly occupied by native princesses. "Constantia " is the name given to a curious mansion, loaded with incongruous ornaments, which was erected by the French adventurer Claude Martin, who went to India as a private soldier and rose to great power and opulence under the native government. A better monument to his memory is the Martiniere, a college for half-caste children. An English church, an observatory, and a hospital and dispensary are the other principal buildings.
The church of England, the Methodist Episcopal church of the United States, and the Roman Catholic church have missions at Lucknow. The British residency was destroyed during the siege at the time of the mutiny of 1857. Since that event many changes have also been made in the plan of the city, as whole streets have been pulled down in accordance with the system of defence adopted by the British in 1858. Luck-now is connected with the East Indian railway, between Calcutta and Delhi, by the Oude and Rohilcund railway, a branch line to Cawnpore. - The seat of government of the former kingdom of Oude was removed from Fyzabad to Lucknow in 1775, and it continued to be the royal residence until the annexation of the territory to the British dominions. During the mutiny of 1857 the British garrison in Lucknow, numbering about 1,700 men, was besieged by about 10,000 of the mutineers. After 12
The Martiniere, Lucknow.
weeks' defence, daring which the British lost Sir Henry Lawrence, their commander, and suffered from the ravages of cholera, smallpox, and fevers, scarcely less than from the fire and assaults of the enemy, Gens. Havelock and Outram fought their way in with a relieving force, Sept. 25. The defence was now resumed with fresh vigor, Sir James Outram, as senior officer, taking the command. On Nov. 17 Sir Colin Campbell reached the city with reinforcements. A few days later the residency was evacuated, the British withdrawing by night to the Dilkoosha, where on the 25th Sir Henry Havelock died of dysentery. Gen. Outram was left with a division at the Alum-bagh (the king's summer palace, about 4 m. from the residency) to watch the enemy, and the rest retired in safety to Cawnpore. In January, 1858, Outram was subjected to desperate attacks at the Alumbagh by 30,000 rebels, whom he defeated with about one tenth that number of troops; and on Feb. 21, with six guns and not quite 400 men, he routed another force of 20,000. In the mean time the insurgents had fortified Lucknow, and occupied it with a large force.
Early in March they were besieged by Sir Colin Campbell, who effected a partial entrance on the 4th; but the capture was not complete until the 21st, when the city was abandoned by the enemy, most of whom made their escape.