Luitprand, Or Liutprand, king of Lombar-dy, born about 090, died in January, 744. He aided in the defeat of the usurper Aribert II. in 712 by his father Ansprand, and the latter dying after a reign of three months, Luitprand was unanimously elected king. The wise laws which he enacted from 712 to 724 remained in force in northern Italy till the 13th century, and in the kingdom of Naples till the 16th. His desire of driving the Greeks out of Italy involved him in quarrels with successive popes, who dreaded the increase of the Lombard power as much as they hated the yoke of the Byzantine emperors. In 728, while Pope Gregory II. resisted the authority of the emperor Leo the Isaurian, Luitprand, declaring himself opposed to the iconoclasts, wrested from the Greeks the exarchate of Ravenna and all the provinces north of Rome. Gregory, alarmed at these successes, persuaded the Venetians in 729 to expel the Lombards from the exarchate, and incited Spoleto and Benevento to revolt. These territories, however, were soon reconquered by Luitprand, who then advanced toward Rome. The city was saved by the pope, and peace was restored momentarily.
In 736 a dangerous illness forced Luitprand to give up the administration to his nephew Hil-debrand, who was elected to succeed him; but having recovered, he continued to govern conjointly with him. In 739 he went with an army to the succor of Charles Martel in France, and drove the Saracens out of Provence. On his return to Italy he once more attacked the Greeks, who were leagued against him with Pope Gregory III. Luitprand having laid siege to Rome with his victorious army, the pope offered the protectorate of that city to Charles Martel, at whose instance Luitprand raised the siege. With Pope Zachary, Gregory's successor, Luitprand maintained more friendly relations, restored the provinces taken by the Lombards, and made peace with the Greeks. He left Lombardy powerful and prosperous, and was succeeded by Hildebrand.
Luitprand, Or Liutprand, a Lombard historian, born probably in Pavia about 920, died in Cremona in the beginning of 972. He was a deacon of the cathedral of Pavia, and afterward chancellor of Berenger II., who sent him as ambassador to Constantinople. Having incurred the resentment of Berenger and his queen in 950, he tied to the court of the emperor Otho I. In 958 he began to write the history of contemporary events, which he continued till 961, when he rejoined Otho in Italy, who appointed him bishop of Cremona and sent him to Rome. He was present in the council which judged Pope John XII. and controlled the election of the antipope Leo VIII. He was sent again as ambassador to Constantinople in 968 and 971. His works are of great historical interest, being lively and minute pictures of contemporary events and personages; but they betray personal passions, and are full of chronological errors. They are: Historia Ottonis, or Liber de Rebus Gestis Ottonis Magni Impe-ratorts, a chronicle of events from 960 to 964; Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (of 968); and Antapodosis, his longest work, in six books, embracing the general history of Europe from about 888 to 948. The best editions are in the third volume of Pertz's Monu-menta Germanics Historica (Hanover, 1839), and that of Antwerp (fol, 1640). The Antapodosis was translated into German by Baron von Osten-Sacken (Berlin, 1853). See also Kopke De Vita et Scriptis Luitprandi (1842); and Wattenback, Deutschlands Geschichtsquel-len im Mittelalter (2d ed., 1866).