The Lutheran church has been known by various titles. Her own earliest preference was for the name "Evangelical " (1525), and many of her most devoted sons have insisted on giving her this name without any addition. At the diet of Spire (1529) her confessors received the name of Protestants, which continued to be the diplomatic style of the church till the peace of Westphalia (1648), and which to a large extent in European usage is still confined to the Lutherans. In Poland and Austria her official title is "Church of the Augsburg Confession." The name Lutheran was first used by Eck when he published the bull against Luther, and was applied to all who took part against the pope. Luther strongly disapproved of the name, and the church, while tolerating it to avoid the confusion which would arise if it was laid aside, does so with a protest against the misapprehension the name might create, that she concedes to Luther any other position than that of a witness for the truth. As distinct on the one side from the Roman Catholic church, and on the other from the various other Protestant bodies, she is known as the "Evangelical Lutheran Church." I. Doctrine. In the three general creeds and in the unaltered Augsburg Confession (1530) the Lutheran church has a bond of her distinctive life throughout the entire world.
As a further development of her doctrines, the larger part of the church recognizes the confessional character of the " Apology for the Confession " (1530), the larger and smaller catechisms of Luther (1529), the Smal-cald articles (1537), and the Concordiae Formula (1577), all which were issued together in 1580, with a preface signed by 51 princes and by the official representatives of 35 cities. The whole collection bore the title of the "Book of Concord." The fundamental doctrine of the Lutheran church is that we are justified before God, not through any merit of our own, but by his tender mercy, through faith in his Son. The depravity of man is total in its extent, and his will has no positive ability in the work of salvation, but has the negative ability of ceasing its resistance under the general influence of the Spirit in the Word and sacraments. Jesus Christ offered a proper vicarious and propitiatory sacrifice. Faith in Christ presupposes a true penitence. The renewed man co-works with the Spirit of God. Sanctification is progressive, and never reaches absolute perfection in this life. The Holy Spirit works through the Word and the sacraments, which alone, in the proper sense, are means of grace.
Both the Word and the sacraments bring a positive grace which is offered to all who receive them outwardly, and which is actually imparted to all who have faith to embrace it. Luther, in consequence of his rigid training in the Augustinian theology, had maintained at an earlier period a particular election, a view which he gradually abandoned. The views of Arminius himself in regard to the five points were formed under Lutheran influences, and do not differ essentially from those of the Lutheran church; but on many points in the developed system now known as Arminianism, the Lutheran church has no affinity whatever with it, and on these points would sympathize far more with Calvinism. The "Formula of Concord " touches the five points almost purely on their practical sides, and on them arrays itself against Calvinism rather by the negation of the inferences which result logically from that system than by express condemnation of its fundamental theory in its abstract form. In the United States the doctrinal test has varied in strictness in different synods, from an ex animo subscription to the whole body of symbols, down to the mere declaration, after the somewhat vague formula formerly recommended by the general synod, that " the fundamental doctrines of the Word of God are taught in a manner substantially correct in the doctrinal articles of the Augsburg Confession." But the tendency has been marked toward a clearer doctrinal position.
The general synod in its revised constitution says: "We receive and hold, with the Evangelical Lutheran church of our fathers, the Word of God, as contained in the canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as the only infallible rule of faith and practice, and the Augsburg Confession as a correct exhibition of the fundamental doctrines of the Divine Word, and of the faith of our church founded upon that Word." The general council in its "Fundamental Principles" declares: " We accept and acknowledge the doctrines of the unaltered Augsburg Confession, in its original sense, as throughout in conformity with the pure truth of which God's Word is the only rule. . . . The ' Apology of the Augsburg Confession,' the 'Smalcald Articles,' the catechisms of Luther, and the 'Formula of Concord ' . . . are, with the unaltered Augsburg Confession, in the perfect harmony of one and the same Scriptural faith." The second of these forms gives the position of the great majority of Lutherans in the United States. The Evangelical Lutheran church regards the Word of God, the canonical Scriptures, as the absolute and only law of faith and of life.
Whatever is undefined by its letter or its spirit is the subject of Christian liberty, and pertains, not to the sphere of conscience, but to that of order; no power may enjoin upon the church as necessary what God has forbidden or has passed by in silence, as none may forbid her to hold what God has enjoined upon her, or to practise what by his silence he has left to her freedom. Just as firmly as she holds upon the one hand that the Bible is the rule of faith and not a confession of it, she holds on the other that the creed is a confession of faith and not the rule of it. The creeds are simply the testimony of the church to the truths she holds; but as it is the truth they confess, she of necessity regards those who reject the truth confessed in the creed as rejecting the truth set forth in the Word. "While, therefore, it is as true of the Lutheran church as of any other that when she lays her hand upon the Bible she gives the command, "Believe ! " and when she lays it on the confession, she puts the question, "Do you believe?" it is also true that when a man replies " No " to the question, she considers him as thereby giving evidence that he has not obeyed the command. - Very great misrepresentations have been made in regard to certain doctrines of the Evangelical Lutheran church, which it may be well to notice.
No doctrine can be charged upon her as a church unless it is set forth or logically involved in a confession to which she gives a universal recognition. The only creeds which have this attribute are the oecumenical creeds and the Augsburg Confession. 1. Baptism. The Lutheran church holds that it is necessary to salvation to be born again of water and of the Spirit (John iii. 5, and Augsburg Confession, arts. ii. and ix.); but she holds that this necessity is ordinary, not absolute, or without exception; that the contempt of the sacrament, not the want of it, condemns; and that though God binds us to the means, he does not bind his own mercy by them. From the time of Luther to the present hour the Lutheran theologians have maintained the salvability and actual salvation of infants dying unbaptized. The rest of the doctrine of the Lutheran church, as a whole, is involved in her confessing with the Nicene creed " one baptism for the remission of sins," and that through it the grace of God is offered; that children are to be baptized, and that being thus committed to God they are graciously received by him.
At the same time she rejects the theory of the Anabaptists, that infants unbaptized have salvation because of their personal innocence, and maintains that the nature with which we are born requires a change, which must be wrought by the Spirit of God before we can enter heaven (A. C, arts. ii. and ix.), and that infants are saved by the application of Christ's redemptory work, the ordinary medium of which application is baptism. 2. Consubstantiation. The charge that the Lutheran church holds this doctrine has been repeated times without number, although her theologians without a dissenting voice repudiate both the name and the thing, in whole and in every one of its parts. In the " Wittenberg Concord " (1536), prepared and signed by Luther and the other leaders in the church, it is said: " We deny the doctrine of transubstantiation, as we do also deny that the body and blood of Christ are locally included in the bread." The " Formula of Concord " says: " We utterly reject and condemn the doctrine of a Capernaitish eating of the body of Christ, which after so many protestations on our part is maliciously imputed to us; the manducation is not a thing of the senses or of reason, but supernatural, mysterious, and incomprehensible.
The presence of Christ in the supper is not of a physical nature, nor earthly, nor Capernaitish, and yet it is most true." It would not be difficult to produce ample testimony of the same kind from writers of other communions. Dr. Waterland, in his work on the doctrine of the eucharist, speaks thus: " As to Lutherans and Calvinists, however widely they may appear to differ in words and names, yet their ideas seem all to concentre in what I have mentioned. The Lutherans deny every article almost which they are commonly charged with by their adversaries. They disown assumption of the elements into the humanity of Christ, as likewise augmentation and impanation, yea, and consubstantiation and concomitancy; and if it be asked at length what they admit and abide by, it is a sacramental union, not a corporeal presence." D'Aubigne says: " The doctrines (on the Lord's supper) of Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin were considered in ancient times as different views of the same truth. If Luther had yielded (at Marburg), it might have been feared that the church would fall into the extreme of rationalism. . . . Taking Luther in his best moments, we behold merely an essential unity and a secondary diversity in the two parties." 3. Ubiquity. The Lutheran church holds that the essential attributes of the divine and human natures in Christ are inseparable from them, and that therefore the attributes of the one can never be the attributes of the other.
But a large part of her greatest theologians hold also that as his human nature is taken into personal union with the divine, it is in consequence of that union rendered present through the divine, wherever the divine is; that is, that the human nature of Christ, which as to its finite presence is in heaven, is in another sense everywhere present. " Our church rejects and condemns the error that the human nature of Christ is locally expanded in all places of heaven and earth, or has become an infinite essence." ("Formula of Concord," pp. 548, 695.) " If we speak of geometric locality and space, the humanity of Christ is not everywhere." " In its proper sense it can be said with truth, Christ is on earth or in his supper only according to his divine nature, to wit, in the sense that the humanity of Christ by its own nature cannot be except in one place, but has the majesty (of co-presence) only from the divinity." "When the word corporeal is used of the mode of presence, and is equivalent to local, we affirm that the body of Christ is in heaven and not on earth." " Of a local presence of the body of Christ in, with, or under the bread, there never was any controversy between the Lutherans and Calvinists; that local presence we expressly reject and condemn in all our writings.
But a local absence does not prevent a sacramental presence, which is dependent on the communication of the divine majesty." (" Colloquium of Mompelgart," Tubingen, 1594.) 4. The Lord's Day. The Augsburg Confession touches on this subject only incidentally in connection with the question of church power. It teaches that the Jewish sabbath is abolished; that the necessity of observing the first day of the week rests not upon the supposition that such observance has in itself a justifying power, but on the religious wants of men. It teaches moreover that the Lord's day is of apostolic institution. The common judgment of the great theologians of the church has been that the sabbath was instituted at the creation of man; that the generic idea of devoting one day of the week to rest from labor and to religious duties pertains to the entire race through all time; and that the law of the sabbath, so far as it is not determinative and typical, is binding on Christians. (" The Lutheran Church and the Divine Obligation of the Lord's Day," by the Rev. C. P. Krauth, 1856.) - At times, especially in the early history of the Lutheran church, there arose controversies, the most important of which were: 1, the Philipistic, arising from the excessive desire of Melanchthon and his school to harmonize with the Roman Catholics and the Reformed; 2, the antinomistic (1537-'40, 1556), caused by the effort of Agricola to introduce what has been called a "Pelagianism of the gospel;" 3, the Osiandrian (1550-'67), so called from Osiander, who confounded sanc-tification with justification; 4, the adiaphoris-tic (1548-'55) (see Melanchthon); 5, the Ma-joristic (1551-'52), so called from Georg Major of Wittenberg, on the necessity of good works; 6, the synergistic (1555-'67), on the cooperation of the human will in conversion, in the course of which Flacius spoke of original sin as substantial, not accidental; 7, the Crypto-Cal-vinistic (1552-'74). The view of Bucer and the Strasburg school, which was adopted in part by Calvin in regard to the Lord's supper, was so much profounder than that of Zwingli (which Calvin strongly condemned), and indeed, in the aspect which it assumed in the "Wittenberg Concord, so Lutheranizing, that Melanchthon, without abandoning the Lutheran view, thought that the view of the Strasburg-ers might be tolerated, and the points of difference ignored in the confessions.
This position was assailed by the stricter Lutherans. In the course of controversy the more general questions connected with the person of Christ were discussed. (See Crypto-Calvinists.) All these questions were settled in the "Formula of Concord " (1577-'80). So deeply was the church grounded in fundamental unity of faith, that none of these controversies, violent as some of them were, were able to rend it into denominational fragments. The subsequent controversies have been on syncretism (1655), pietism (1686), and rationalism (1751), and those connected with the union and the revival of Lutheranism (from 1817, Harms's Theses, to the present hour). - Many learned writers of different denominations have found nothing in the doctrines or usages of Lutherans to prevent a union between them and other Protestants. Claude, one of the greatest theologians of the French Reformed church, says: "Those of the Augsburg Confession (who are called Lutherans) are in difference with us only about the point of the real presence, and about some questions of the schools which we cannot yet impute to their whole body; and as for the rest, they reject with us the invocation of saints, religious worship of images, human satisfactions, indulgences, purgatory, worship of relics, the public service in an unknown tongue, the merit of good works, transubstantiation, the sacrifice of the mass, the supremacy of the pope, the opinion of the infallibility of the church, and the principle of blind obedience to the decisions of councils.
They acknowledge the Scriptures to be the only rule of faith; they carefully practise the reading of them; they own their sufficiency; they believe their authority, independent of that of the church; they distinctly explain the doctrine of justification, and that of the use of the law, and its distinction from the gospel; they do not conceive amiss of the nature of faith, and that of good works; and as for popular superstitions, we can scarce see any reign among them." ("Defence of the Reformation," 1673, translated by T. B., London, 1815, vol. i., p. 291.) II. Divine Worship. The Lutheran church regards preaching as an indispensable part of divine service. All worship is to be in the vernacular, or at least in a tongue understood by those who use it; the wants of the heart as well as of the reason are to be met. Whatever of the past is spiritual, beautiful, and appropriate is to be retained. The church year, with its great festivals, is kept. With various national diversities there is a substantial agreement in the liturgical services of the Lutheran church throughout almost all the world. The hymns are sung by all the people with the organ accompaniment.
The clergymen in their official functions wear a distinctive dress, usually a black robe, with the bands, though in portions of the church, as Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, the surplice and cope are retained, and the archbishop of Sweden wears the mitre and carries the crosier on solemn occasions. A preparatory service precedes communion. The doctrine and practice of auricular confession were rejected at the beginning. The " private confession," which was established in some parts of the church, involves no enumeration or confession of particular sins whatever, unless the communicant desires to speak of them; and the "private absolution" is simply the annunciation of the gospel promise with the gospel conditions to the individual penitent. But as a prescribed form private absolution has either never been practised, or has ceased in most parts of the church, though its generic idea is carried out, informally at least, by all faithful pastors. The practice of exorcism in baptism, simply as a rite long established, and which might be tolerated if regarded merely as a symbolical representation of the doctrine that our nature is under the dominion of sin, was practised in parts of the church, but has fallen into oblivion.
Persons are received to the communion of the church by confirmation performed by the pastor even in places where the episcopate is retained. "The Lutheran church," says the Rev. Dr. Schatf, "draws the fine arts into the service of religion, and has produced a body of hymns and chorals which, in richness, power, and unction, surpasses the hymnology of all other churches in the world." In the United States wider extremes in the mode of worship in the Lutheran church sometimes existed in a single locality than could be found within her whole communion in other parts of the world. This diversity has been deeply lamented, and earnest efforts are making with marked success to introduce greater uniformity of usage. The " Church Book" of the general council is the ripest of the results of these efforts, and on the recommendation of the council this edition of it, with music, arranged for the use of congregations by Harriet R. Krauth, has been largely introduced. The general synod in North America (South) and the general synod have also published books of worship, with the same tendency.
III. Constitution Of The Church.Many embarrassing circumstances prevented the Lutheran church from developing her life as perfectly in her church constitution as in her doctrines and worship. The idea of the universal priesthood of all believers at once overthrew the doctrine of an essential class distinction between clergy and laity. The ministry is not an order, but a divinely appointed office, to which men must be rightly called. No imparity exists by divine right; a hierarchical organization on the pretence of divine right is unchristian, but a gradation (bishops, superintendents, provosts) may be observed, as a tiling of human right only. The government by superintendents and consistories has been very general, but the latest tendency has been to modify the consistorial constitution by the introduction of general synods. In Denmark Evangelical bishops took the place of the Roman Catholic prelates who were deposed. In Sweden the bishops embraced the reformation, and thus secured in that country an " apostolic succession" in the high-church sense; though, on the principles of the Lutheran church, alike where she has as where she has not such a succession, it is not regarded as essential even to the order of the church.
The ultimate source of power is in the congregations, that is, in the pastor and other officers and the people of the single communions. The right to choose a pastor belongs to the people, who may exercise it by direct vote, or through their representatives. Synods possess such powers as the congregations delegate to them. " Ministers are related to congregations, not as their servants, but as the servants of the church;" and even in the United States, where the congregational principle has been more radically developed than anywhere else in the Lutheran church, " the synod to which pastors belong has the entire jurisdiction over them." ("Formula of the Lutheran Church," ch. iii., 3.) In the United States there are 51 synods. Of these, 9 are independent organizations, and the rest connected as follows: 20 with the general synod, founded in 1820; 5 with the general synod (South), founded in 1863; 11 with the general council, founded in 1867; and 6 with the synodical conference, founded in 1872. The total number of ministers is 2,500; of churches, 4,400; of communicants, 550,000. These statistics are based on the latest reports of 1873, with a small margin for known increase.
Absolute ministerial parity is maintained, and lay representation is universal; but many vital points of church organization are unsettled. The constitutional powers of the synods are very few; and the feeling is increasing that a stronger and more centralizing government is needed.
IV. Theological Science flourished in the 16th century chiefly in the universities of Wittenberg, Leipsic, Tubingen, Strasburg, and Jena. To this era belong Luther, Melanchthon, Flacius, Chemnitz, Brentius, and Chytraeus. In the 17th century occur the names of Glassius, Pfeiffer, Erasmus Schmidt, Hakspan, Geier, Seb. Schmidt, Calo-vius; in dogmatics, Hutter, Gerhard, Quen-stedt, Calixtus, Hunnius; in church history, Rechenberg, Ittig, Sagittarius, Seckendorf, and Arnold. In the 18th century, Loscher closes the ancient school, and the pietistic school, practical rather than scientific, is illustrated by Spener, Francke, and Lange. The conservative pietistic, avoiding the faults of the others and combining their virtues, embraces Hollazius, Starck, Buddeus, Cyprian, J. C. Wolf, Weismann, Deyling, Carpzov, J. II. and C. B. Michaelis, J. G. Walch, Pfaff, Mos-heim, Bengel, and Crusius. The school which treated theology after the philosophical method of Wolf includes S. J. Baumgarten, Rein-beck, and Carpzov; to the transitional school belong Ernesti, J. D. Michaelis, and Sender, who prepared the way for rationalism; the principal members of the rationalistic school were Griesbach, Koppe, J. G. Rosenmuller, Eichhorn, Gabler, Bertholdt, De Wette, Henke, Spittler, Eberhard, and A. H. Niemeyer. Of the supranaturalistic school, abandoning the ancient orthodoxy in various degrees, but still maintaining more or less of the fundamentals of Christianity, are Morus, Doderlein, Seiler, Storr, Knapp, Reinhard, Lilienthal, and Koppen; and in church history, Schrockh, C. W. F. Walch, Staudlin, and Planck. The founder of the mediating theology of the 19th century was Schleiermacher (died 1834), the greatest of the advocates of the union between the Lutheran and Reformed churches of Germany. (See United Evangelical Church.) Neander may be classed as pietistic supranaturalist, De Wette as historico-critical rationalist, Hase as philosophico-sesthetic rationalist.
The chief defenders of common rationalism are Rohr, Paulus, Wegscheider, Bretschneider, and Amnion in his earlier writings; of historico-critical rationalism, Winer, Fritzsche, Credner, Schulz, Von Colin, Gesenius, Tuch, Knobel, Hupfeld, Hitzig, Ewald, Bertheau, and Len-gerke. The rational supranaturalistic school is represented by Tzschirner, Tittmann, C. F. K. Rosenmtiller, and Baumgarten-Crusius; su-pranaturalism proper, or suprarationalism, by E. G. Bengel, Flatt, Heubner, Augusti, Hahn, Bohmer; pietistic supranaturalism by Tho-luck (who approached more closely at a later date to a thoroughly Lutheran position), Heng-stenberg, Olshausen, Stier, Havernick, Steiger, and Bunsen in his early position, though subsequently rationalist. The representatives of the "new" or "German" theology, of the school of Schleiermacher, of Lutheran origin, are Liicke, Nitzsch, Julius Miiller, Ullmann, Twesten, Dorner, Liebner, and Martensen; also Rothe, I. T. Beck, Auberlen, Umbreit, Bleek, H. A. "W. Meyer, Huther, Wieseler, and Tischendorf. The writers of the 19th century whose names we have given are or were within the " Union," and defenders of it, with a few exceptions.
The representatives of the Lutheran theology, for the most part, in its strictest sense, are Claus Harms, who struck the first decisive blow at rationalism (1817), Scheibel, Sartorius, Rudelbach of Denmark (one of the most learned of the orthodox theologians of our time), Guericke, Harless, Honing, Thomasius, Philippi, Harnack, Kahnis in his earlier writings, Dieckhof, Lohe, Vilmar, Ivrabbe, Kliefoth, J. C. K. von Hoffmann (who departed from the received view of the atonement), Delitzsch, M. Baumgarten, Luthardt, Drechsler, Caspari, Oehler, Keil, and J. H. Kurtz. Two distinguished jurists, K. F. Go-schel and F. J. Stahl, are to be included among the defenders of the Lutheran confession. In the united States the energies of the best men of the church have been directed mainly into the channels of practical activity; yet there has nevertheless been an honorable exhibition of theological ability and learning. Among the most prominent Lutheran theological writers are S. S. Schmucker, one of the principal authors and defenders of the "eclectic or American Lutheran system;" C. Philip Krauth, the first president of Pennsylvania college, and senior editor of the " Evangelical Review" (quarterly) in its earlier volumes; and C. F. Schaeffer. B. Kurtz, C. F. W. Walther, Prof. M. L. Stover, J. W. Mann, Lape, Van Alstine, Harkey, Oswald, and Anspach have written valuable practical works; and Strobel and Weiser have furnished popular history and biography.
J. G. Morris has an extensive reputation as a translator and elaborator of some of the best German religious fictions, and as a successful occasional writer. C. W. Schaeffer is the author of the best history of early Luther-anism. Krotel has translated the " Life of Melanchthon." J. A. Seiss, H. I. Schmidt, T. Stork, W. Passavant, J. Fry, S. S. Sprecher, F. W. Conrad, S. and G. Fritschel, E. GreenwTald, M. Loy, W. F. Lehmann, A. Spaeth, C. D. Bernheim, and J. Bachman also deserve mention. There are six publication establishments, two English, three German, and one Swedish. The Lutheran periodicals in the United States are: English, 13; German, 22; Norwegian, 7; Swedish, 5; Danish, 1.
V. Education.The early efforts of Luther in behalf of education (see Common Scnoous, vol. v., p. 157, and Education, vol. vi., p. 413) were continued by his successors through the means of catechetical instruction, congregational and public schools, and universities. There are no exclusively Reformed universities in Germany proper. The universities which the Lutheran church has in part or in whole may be classified as follows: 1, those in which the three confessions are represented - Tubingen, Gies-sen, Breslau, and Bonn; 2, the two confessions, Lutheran and Reformed - Heidelberg, Greifswald, Marburg, Konigsberg, Halle, Er-langen (the professors Lutheran with one exception), and Berlin; 3, exclusively Lutheran - Leipsic, Rostock, Jena, Kiel, and Gottingen; in Denmark, Copenhagen; in Norway, Chris-tiania; in Sweden, Lund and Upsal; in Russia, Dorpat. In the United States the Lutheran church has 17 colleges, 15 theological seminaries, 17 academies, 7 female seminaries, and a great number of congregational schools.
VI. Early Missions.In 1559 Gustavus Vasa of Sweden founded a mission among the Laplanders, which was continued with renewed earnestness by Gustavus Adolphus, Denmark also aiding. Thomas von "Westen (died 1727) was the apostle of this mission. Heyling of Lu-beck, without any aid, labored as a missionary in Abyssinia (1635), and others, of the circle of his friends, engaged in the same cause in various parts of the East. Frederick IV. of Denmark established the East India mission at Tranquebar (1706), for which Francke furnished him two devoted laborers, Plutzschau and Ziegenbalg, the latter of whom translated the New Testament into Tamil (1715). The labors of this mission were also extended to the English possessions. From the orphan house at Halle went forth a succession of missionaries, among whom Schwartz (died 1798) is preeminent. An institution for the conversion of the Jews was established at Halle in 1728. Egede (died 1758) of Norway commenced his labors in Greenland in 1721. In 1736 he returned, and established in Copenhagen a mission seminary. The mission established by L. Harms in 1849, the Leipsic mission, and various other active and useful societies in every part of the Lutheran church, attest its continued missionary life.
The idea of union in the practical work of religion among Christians of different creeds originated with Urlsperger of Augsburg (1780). - The number of members of the Lutheran church throughout the world is estimated at more than 40,000,000. Of the 25,000,000 of Protestants in the German empire, 20,000,000 at least are Lutherans. Austria had in 1870 a Lutheran population of 1,365,000; in the three Scandinavian kingdoms, the population of upward of 7,500,000, and in Finland the population of 1,800,000, are almost entirely Lutheran. In Holland are 72,000 Lutherans, and in Russian Poland 240,000. The Baltic provinces of Russia are almost entirely Lutheran. Russia, exclusive of Poland and Finland, has a Lutheran population of 1,900,000 souls. France has 700,000 Lutherans. In the United States the number of communicants (about 550,000) would in a moderate estimate imply a total population of not less than 3,000,-000. There are large numbers of Lutherans in Australia. - See Gobel, Die religiose Eigen-thamlichlceiten der lutherischen und der re-formirten Kirchen (Bonn, 1837); A. G. Ru-delbach, Reformation, Lutherthum und Union (Leipsic, 1839); M. Schneckenburger, Ver-gleichende Darstellung des lutherischen und reformirten Lehrbegriffs (Stuttgart, 1855); F. J. Stahl, Die lutherische Kirche und die Union (2d ed., Berlin, 1860); L. F. A. Kahnis, Prin-cipien des Protestantismus (Leipsic, 1865), and Gang des deutschen Protestantismus (3d ed., 1874); J. A. Seiss, Ecclesia Lutherana (Philadelphia, 1868); C. P. Krauth, "Augsburg Confession, with Introduction and Notes" (Philadelphia, 1868), and "The Conservative Reformation and its Theology, as represented in the Augsburg Confession and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church" (1871).