I. A Central Province Of Spain, in New Castile, bordering on Segovia, Guadalajara, Cuenca, Toledo, and Avila; area, 2,997 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 487,482. The general aspect of the province differs little from that of the other portions of the plain of the Cas-tiles, which, with a mean elevation of 3,500 ft. above the sea, is covered with secondary formations, grit stone, gypsum, mineral salt, and the Jurassic calcareous stone, and is almost everywhere devoid of vegetation. The surface is generally mountainous, particularly in the north, where rises the granitic summits of the Sierra de Guadarrama, covered with snow several months in the year. The Tagus, forming a portion of the S. boundary, with its branches the Guadarrama, Jarama, Tajuna, Henares, and Manzanares, drains almost the whole of the province. Although the mean annual temperature is about 60° F., the climate is somewhat severe, and the transitions from heat to cold are extremely rapid. In the few fertile districts, especially in the south and west, wheat, rye, barley, oats, and hemp are grown in abundance; some wine and olive oil are produced; and there are large numbers of sheep and goats.
The chief town, besides the capital, is Alcala de Henares.
II. A Town, capital of the province and of Spain, on the left bank of the Manzanares, 310 m. E. 1ST. E. of Lisbon, 640 m. S. W. of Paris, and 795 m. S. W. of London; lat. 40° 25' N., lon. 3° 42' W. The population in 1870, according to the official Guia de forasteros, was 332,024, an increase of 60,770 since 1857, partly attributable to the influx of refugees from the wars in Cuba and France. The only merit of the situation of Madrid is that of being the geographical centre of Spain. The town stands in a vast basin forming part of a plateau of sand hills about 2,200 ft. above the sea, and arid even in the cultivated portions, with no indication of the vicinity of a great capital until within a short distance of the walls. Here the scene becomes almost grand; new plantations are springing up in every direction to replace the dense forests which in early times covered the whole plateau; a sort of boulevard, encircling the town, and well shaded with trees, expands at many points into a network of delightful public walks; the spires and domes within rise glittering in the sun; and the Somosierra mountains and the snow-capped Guadarrama range, fringing the horizon N. E. and N. W., form a picturesque background. - Madrid is surrounded by a brick wall 20 ft. high, but comparatively useless for defence, with 15 gates; the finest of these is the Puerta de Alcala, 72 ft. high, with five openings, being a triumphal arch erected by order of Charles III. in commemoration of his entry in December, 1759. The town, about 1 3/4 m. long from N. to S., and l 1/2 m. wide from E. to W., is traversed nearly in a straight line N. E. and S. W. by the calles (streets) Alcala, Mayor, Platerias, and Almudena, dividing it into two cuarteles or quarters, each of which is subdivided into five districts, and these in their turn into barrios or wards, 98 in number; and there are 658 streets, lanes, courts, and alleys, and 72 plazas or public squares, large and small.
The streets in the ancient or S. W. districts are tortuous, narrow, and ill kept; but in the modern portions of the centre and east they are spacious, regular, clean, adequately lighted with gas, and lined with rows of lofty houses, palaces, and noble public edifices. The houses are generally large, built of brick, four or five stories high, with balconied windows; and most of them are let in separate floors, as in Paris. In the streets S. of the Plaza Mayor, windowless shops, open to the street like oriental bazaars, and thronged with Manchego mendicants, Andalusian smugglers, or gypsies from Guadalajara, are common. There is an abundant supply of water, the best being from a spring outside the Puerta de Segovia, with excellent hydraulic machinery established by an English company; the water brought from a distance of 32 m. by the canal of Lozoya, an admirable work, the engineer of which has been created marquis of Lozoya, is copiously distributed through the town by numerous jets and fountains. The chief streets are those of Alcala, 3/4 m. long, the handsomest in Spain, and one of the widest and finest in the world, Mayor, Montera, Carretas, Geronimo, Ancha, and Toledo, all except the last two radiating from the Puerta del Sol, and forming the principal commercial thoroughfares, with elegant shops, mostly kept by foreigners, and especially French. Among the plazas, that of Oriente, before the royal palace and behind the Teatro Real, is the largest.
In the centre of the grounds, which are oval, is a magnificent bronze equestrian statue of Philip IV., removed from the Buen Retiro in 1844, 19 ft. high, weighing 20,160 lbs., and cast in Florence in 1640 by Pedro Tacca, from a model in wood by Mon-tanes, with bassi rilievi representing Philip knighting Velazquez, and allegorical accompaniments. The outermost promenade is embellished with 44 colossal statues of kings and queens. The Plaza Mayor, first named Plaza del Arrabal, 398 ft. long by 306 wide, was built in 1619 by Juan de Mora, under Philip III. •, a bronze equestrian statue of the latter was removed from the Casa de Campo at the W. end to the centre of this square in 1848. Here stands the Real Casa de la Panaderia (so named because bread was formerly sold therein by weight), with its frescoed saloons by Cuello and Donoso, in which the king and courtiers formerly assembled to witness the fiestas reales (bull fights, tournaments, etc.) and the autos de fe, which took place in the Plaza Mayor, the heretics being there arraigned before their judges, condemned, and then led to the stake without the gate. Laborers excavating for the formation of a new boulevard in 1869 discovered a succession of layers of charcoal mingled with the incremated remains of hundreds of victims.
Many of the best buildings of the square were repeatedly destroyed by the flames.' The duke of Osuna's palace in the Plazuela de la Villa, near the casa de ayunta-miento (town house), was long occupied by the dukes of Infantado, and for a time by Ferdinand and Isabella. The town house dates from the 16th century. A very good bronze statue of Cervantes, the cost of which was defrayed by a religious fund, has been erected in the Plaza'de las Cortes; and there is a street named after him. The Plazuela de la Cebada, adjoining the calle de Toledo, is the hay market, where criminals were formerly executed; a house in the Plazuela de Santo Domingo, which was the principal scene of the revolution in June, 1866, was demolished by the government artillery; in the Plazuela de la Paja, opening on the calle de Segovia, many victims were executed in the times of persecution and tyranny; and a cross in the centre of the diminutive Plazuela de la Cruz Verde, N. of Paja, marks the spot where the last heretic was burned in Madrid. But the best known of all the Madrid squares is the world-famous Puerta del Sol, once the E. portal of the ancient town, and now the heart of the modern, and the favorite rendezvous for business or pleasure.
On the S. side of this, the Mecca of all true Spanish pilgrims, are the palacio de gobernacion (government palace) and the post office; while a handsome pile of edifices at the E. extremity occupies the site of the old church of the Buen Suceso, memorable as being the scene of the melancholy events of May 2, 1808. Here also are the best hotels and cafes; and in the immediate vicinity are grouped the modern clubs and reading rooms, which have largely diminished the old custom of lounging in the Puerta del Sol. - First among the numerous promenades is the Prado, 2 1/2 m. long, but divided into several branches. The Prado proper extends from the calle de Atocha on the south to that of Alcala north, and is thence continued by the Prado or Paseo de Recoletos. The most fashionable portion, the salon, between San Geronimo and Alcala streets, is about 1,450 ft. long and 240 ft. wide, and is decorated with three superb fountains: Cybele on a car drawn by two colossal lions of white marble, at the north, Apollo in the centre, and Neptune to the south. There are five smaller fountains in the Prado, and on the campo de lealtad (field of loyalty), beside the salon, is a beautiful obelisk to the memory of the victims of the dos de mayo (May 2), surrounded by funereal cypresses.
Among the gay crowds which throng this paseo on fine afternoons, in carriages, on horseback, and on foot, the graceful national veil and mantilla of the women of the middle classes and the capa or cloak of the men are still worn; but French fashions have been generally adopted by the higher ranks. The Fuente Castellana, formerly called the Delicias de Isabel, is a prolongation of the Prado; it was laid out during the regency of Espartero, is embellished with two fountains, and comprises three parallel avenues, that in the centre being for equestrians and carriages. Other paseos are those of Atocha, a favorite resort for invalids, being more sheltered than the rest; Las Delicias, from the Puerta de Atocha to the banks of the river; La Virgen del Puerto, between the Puerta de Segovia and that of San Vicente, along the banks of the Manzanares, the usual holiday resort for the lower classes; and La Florida, a northern continuation of the last. The new suburban boulevard de Narvaez, about 1 m. long, parallel to the Fuente Castellana, and planned by the marquis of Salamanca in 1865, will greatly enhance the picturesqueness of that locality. The gardens and other public grounds of Madrid are more numerous than beautiful.
The most noteworthy is the Buen Retiro, an extensive park arranged for Philip IV. by the duke of Olivares, E. of the Prado, and extending from the calle de Alcala to the Paseo de Atocha; it contains numerous spacious and shady walks, a pond, a lake, a mira-dor or belvedere commanding a magnificent view of the town, a menagerie, botanic gardens, and the observatory. The garden was used by the French as a military post in 1808, and little has since been done to reclaim it from decay. N. of the Buen Retiro are the Campos Eliseos, with well kept gardens and a small theatre (Teatro de Rossini), frequented in summer by multitudes of pleasure seekers. On the W. side of the town are the Montana del Principe Pio, and the ancient Jardin del Moro, now the palace gardens. - Madrid is a suffragan bishopric of Toledo, and has no cathedral, ranking consequently as a town (villa), and not a city (ciudad). The place of a cathedral is supplied by the antique church of Santa Maria de la Al-mudena, once a mosque, but dedicated to the Virgin by Alfonso VI. The architecture and decorations of this, as of all the other churches, numbering between 60 and 70, are with few exceptions barbarous.
The church of Nuestra Senora de Atocha, founded for the Dominicans in 1523, contains the wonder-working image of the Virgin, patroness of Madrid, whose miracles have been sung by countless poets, from Lope de Vega down to our time. The treasure of this church, valued at $500,000, was seized by the revolutionary government in 1868. Isabella II. with her husband and family attended a special mass here every Saturday. Among the other most important churches are the colegiata or convent of San Isidro (the patron of Madrid), founded in 1651, with frescoed cupolas by Clau-dio and Donoso Cuello; the royal chapel, in the palace, with a ceiling from the brush of Giaquin-to, and gorgeous tapestry; and those of Carmen Calzado, Descalzas Reales, and Encarnacion. The convents, of which Madrid once possessed the largest number of any one city in the world, have been almost entirely suppressed, and the buildings either demolished or appropriated to other purposes. Protestant churches have been established of late years, and large congregations formed, while Protestant Sunday schools are multiplying in several quarters of the town. - The most distinguished public edifice is the royal palace, erected in 1737-'50, one of the most magnificent in Europe; it is of granite and white marble, occupies an area of 220,-900 sq. ft. on the site of the ancient Moorish alcazar, and rises dazzlingly white against the sky to a height of 100 ft., between the Plaza de Oriente and the palace gardens.
The ceilings are masterpieces of Corrado, Mengs, Tie-polo, and Velazquez; the decorations include gorgeous mirrors from San Ildefonso and the richest marbles of Spain, and until recently the walls were hung with a profusion of paintings by the best masters, many of which have been removed to the Museo Real. The palace library contains about 100,000 volumes; the royal stables, N. E. of the palace proper, have an astonishing variety of carriages, and in regal days sheltered the hundreds of horses, ponies, and mules comprising the monarch's stud. But the most curious of all the appurtenances of the royal residence is the armory (real ar-meria), with 2,533 specimens of arms and accoutrements, embracing the armors of Guzman el Bueno, Gonsalvo de Cordova, Hernan Cortes, Columbus, and that worn by Don John of Austria at the battle of Lepanto, with the crowns of the Gothic kings found in the mountains of Toledo. In the throne room is a valuable numismatic collection, of upward of 150,-000 specimens. The royal museum, in the Prado, is unequalled in the world for its collection of masterpieces of painting, the number of which, catalogued in 1874, is about 2,500; "a collection," says Mr. Hay, "not only the greatest in the world, but the greatest that can ever be made until this is broken up." It comprises 46 works of Murillo, conspicuous among which is the "Martyrdom of St. Andrew;" 65 of Velazquez, 58 of Ribera (the least sympathetic of the Spanish masters), 10 of Raphael, 64 of Rubens, 60 of Teniers (of whose works the Louvre possesses only about a dozen), 43 of Titian, 34 of Tintoretto, and 25 of Paul Veronese; while some of the great masters of Spanish art, such as Zurbaran (whose chief works are in Seville), Herrera, Morales, and Juan de Juanes, are meagrely represented.
Other museums are that of natural sciences, the national, the naval, and the museum of artillery. The only other public edifices worthy of mention are the palacio de los consejos (palace of the councils); that of Buena Vista, with fine pleasure grounds, and occupied by the offices of the ministry of war; the custom house, built in 1769, and in which are the offices of the ministry of finance; the post office; the casas consistoriales (town house), completed in 1580; the old casa de los ministerios, built by order of Charles IV., and now occupied by the ministry of the navy, which, with the other ministerial departments, the public picture galleries, and numismatical and archaeological museums, are to be reunited in the new government house in process of construction in the Recoletos promenade, where likewise stands the mint; the senate, in the Plazue-la de las Cortes; the casa de los Lujanes, in which Francis I. of France was confined in 1525-'6, and the tower of which now serves for a telegraph; the national printing office; the stock exchange; and the three magnificent bridges over the pigmy stream of the Manza-nares, dry for three months in the year.
The finest private residences are those of the duke of Alva and the marquis of Salamanca, Spain's great financier. - There are 13 hospitals and a number of charitable institutions. Among the former are one general and one military hospital, two for incurables, one for transient residents, one each for Aragonese and Navarrese, French, and priests, with foundling, orphan, and lying-in hospitals. There are 13 barracks for regular troops, the guardia civil, and the police, a most efficient corps. Among the learned societies are the Spanish academy, for the culture and perfecting of the language; the academies of sciences, moral and political sciences, history, jurisprudence and legislation, medicine and surgery, veterinary medicine, and the three noble arts, and the medico-chirurgi-cal of Madrid. The schools and colleges are very numerous and well organized. There are special schools of pharmacy, law, medicine, and military science; also deaf and dumb, engineering, normal, industrial, and art schools. The public schools are governed by a board of commissioners under the jurisdiction of the minister of public instruction.
Besides the library of the royal palace, already noticed, there are 17 others in Madrid, the most extensive of which are the national library, with nearly 250,000 volumes, and the duke of Osu-na's and duke of Medinaceli's private libraries, containing 00,000 and 15,000 respectively. Madrid has an Italian and a Spanish (Zarzuela) opera, five leading and a multitude of minor theatres, two good circuses, a cockpit of large dimensions (circo gallistico), and innumerable concerts, dancing rooms, etc. But the scene of the great national pastime is the bull ring (plaza de toros), just outside the Puerta de Alcala; it was built by Philip V., and has seats for 12,400 persons. The old edifice having been demolished in 1874, a new one is to be built N. of the former site. The several cemeteries of the capital offer little interest; many of the tombs have been destroyed by invading armies, and nothing has been done toward restoration. There is a Protestant burying ground outside the Puerta de Toledo, consecrated in 1866 by the bishop of Illinois. - The climate is exceedingly severe, the heat being oppressive in summer and the cold intense in winter, while in the intermediate seasons the transitions of temperature are very rapid; owing to the sharp winds from the snowy mountains N. of the town, there is at times a difference of temperature as great as 20° between the sunny and shaded sides of the streets.
The average annual temperature is about 60° F., the extremes being 30° and 90°. The maladies most common are pneumonia and other affections of the respiratory organs, apoplexy, and paralysis. - The number of native Madrilenians is comparatively small, and forms one of the least numerous elements of the community; foreigners abound, especially French, English, and German, nearly all shopkeepers; and the menial ranks, both public and private, are usually filled by sturdy Asturians, Gallegos, Aragonese, and Navarrese. The natives are extremely polite, and the men in the middle and upper classes generally well educated; but the mental culture of the women is mostly limited to the elementary branches, and the acquirement of music and similar accomplishments. Black silk dresses and colored shawls or mantillas are commonly worn by the women, with a veil gracefully draped from the hair; but in the higher circles little difference is observed between the costume of a belle of Madrid and one of Paris. Among the men the French fashions prevail, with the only modification of the traditional capa or cloak. - Madrid being rather a centre of consumption than of production, its manufacturing industries are of little importance, and limited to articles of indispensable necessity, such as chocolate, beer, shoes, hats, and gloves, all of superior quality.
There are two prosperous founderies, established about 1850; plated ware of excellent quality is manufactured on a large scale; and coach making has been brought to greater perfection than any other branch. Madrid being the entrepot for all the inland provinces of Spain, the transactions in cereals, wines (especially that of Valdepenas), oils, and colonial produce are very considerable; and from Sept. 25 to Oct. 6 are held the annual fairs for the sale of hardware, furniture, ready-made clothes, books, pictures, etc, by immense numbers of peripatetic vendors from the provinces. There are 10 banks, including the banks of Spain and of Madrid, a savings bank, and 49 incorporated mercantile associations, insurance companies, etc. The means of conveyance through the town are at once abundant and cheap; and Madrid communicates by railway with Lisbon and Paris, the latter being reached, via Ba-yonne, in 19 hours. - The earliest authentic historical record of Madrid occurs in Sampiro's Cronica de Espana, referring to the 10th century, under the Moorish name of Magerit, which was Latinized into Majoritum. Under the rule of the Moors it was a mere military outpost, which was finally taken from them toward the end of the 11th century by Alfonso VI. of Castile, who annexed it to the bishopric of Toledo, to which it still belongs.
It was rarely occupied by the court until the reign of Henry III. of Castile, who resided there almost continually, attracted by the pleasures of the chase, the neighboring mountains abounding then with wild boars and bears. It first rose to importance under Charles V., who made it his occasional residence; and Philip II. at last made it his capital and "only court" in 1560. Madrid was entered by the French under Mu-rat, March 23, 1808; but the heroic rising of the inhabitants on May 2 obliged them to evacuate the town. It was entered by Joseph Bonaparte July 20, and again evacuated Aug. 2. Napoleon finally took possession of it in December following, and King Joseph held it till 1813, when it was restored to Spain by Wellington. Madrid has been the centre of frequent insurrections and revolutions, as in September, 1868; and it is the birthplace of a host of peninsular celebrities, including Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca, Quevedo, the Moratins, and Larra.
The Palace, Madrid.