I. Francois

Francois, a French architect, born in Paris in 1598, died there in 1666. At the age of 22 he distinguished himself by the rot oration of the hotel Toulon. In 1624 he attracted the attention of Cardinal Richelieu, who commissioned him to ereel the church of the Feuillants in the rue St. ilo-nore, and he was subsequently employed in many other great works in Paris and in the provinces. Among the numerous chateaux erected from his plans are those of Berny, Blerancourt, Choisy, Gevres, Fresnes, and Mai-sons. He built the facade of the church of the Minims in the place Royale, which he considered his finest work, and the church of Val-de-Grace. He was tickle and unstable, often pulling down half-completed work, and rebuilding on new plans at enormous cost. He is said to be the inventor of the curb roof which bears his name, and which within a few years has become very common in the United States. H. Joles Hardonin, a French architect, nephew and pupil of the preceding, whose name he adopted, and son of Jules Hardouin, the painter, born in Paris in 1045, died at Mar-lv in 1708. One of his first works was the chateau of Clagny, built for Mine, de Montes-pan, and since destroyed.

Louis XIV. appointed him his architect, and the palace of Versailles, where Levau had begun alterations and additions, was built from Mansart's designs, which were largely directed by the vicious Taste of his sovereign. Among his works, besides Versailles, are the places Vendome, Louis XIV., and des Victoires, the gallery of the Palais Royal, and the dome and completion of the hotel des Invalides, begun by Liberal Bruant. He was general superintendent of the royal buildings, arts, and manufactures, and acquired an immense fortune.